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Novgrod RepublicTimeline: Principia Moderni III (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Novgorod Republic
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Old Novgorod Dialect|
|Regional Languages||Polish, Prussian, Russian, Romanian, Greek, and Tartar|
|Religion||Eastern Orthodox and Jehovah Witness Orthodox|
The Kingdom Of Novgorod (Russian: Новгоро́дская респу́блика, tr. Novgorodskaja respublika, Old Church Slavonic: Новгородскаѧ земьлѧ / Novgorodskaja zemľa) is a large medieval Russian state which stretches from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains between, which includes the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions. Citizens refer to their city-state as "His Majesty (or Sovereign) Lord Novgorod the Great" (Gosudař Gospodin Velikij Novgorod), or more often as "Lord Novgorod the Great" (Gospodin Velikij Novgorod). The Republic prospers as the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League.
Novgorod functioned as the original capital of the Rus' people until 882 when Oleg transferred his administration to Kiev. From that time until 1019-1020 Novgorod was a part of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod Princes were appointed by the Grand Prince of Kiev (usually one of the elder sons). Novgorod was sort of a spiritual center as by the legend it was the first city of Rus'. Novgorod still possesses the relics of the old traditional beliefs that preceded Christianity and are now part of the long forgotten history.
Novgorod assisted Vladimir the Great of Kiev, playing an important, continuous role in the ,politics of Rus' placing Yaroslav the Wise on the Kievan throne. As Grand Prince one of Yaroslav's first actions was to grant numerous freedoms and privileges to loyal Novgorodians, creating the foundation for the Novgorod Republic. While still being a part of the Kievan Rus', Novgorod eventually evolved into a powerful regional center and largely acted independent . Although very much a part of the political and cultural landscape of Kievan Rus', the city had a more participatory government than much of the rest of Rus', and it chose its officials locally.
The offices of posadnik and tysyatsky, which until about the mid-12th century had been appointed by the grand prince in Kiev, began to be dominated by the Novgorod boyars. In 1136 the Novgorodians dismissed Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich and over the next century and a half were able to invite in and dismiss a number of princes, although these invitations or dismissals were often based on who the dominant prince in Rus' or Appanage Russia was at the time, and not on any independent thinking on the part of Novgorod.
In 1406 St Patriksburg was founded. The settlement on the Neva River continues to grow as an important and strategic trading post. The locals christen the wooden fort as St Patriksburg and elect a mayor to serve as their leader. So far the fort consists of several homes, a barracks, a tavern, and a few stores, selling supplies to people venturing north. A few trails are cut from the fort proper to the coast, where ships arrive periodically now. Several more government koch ships are completed. The nation choose to station a few in St Patriksburg to respond to problems in the north, requiring the construction of a dock outside the fort. Hunters and trappers from the fort have now fully mapped out about 350 sq mi of land north, and some have begun settling the area or preparing the area for future settlement. (We expand seven pixels directly north of OTL St Petersburg.) In 1552 Kostroma is made the new capital. Nikola Martin was named the new king of the nation at 21 years of age. In the year 1557 Nikola's first son Viktor is born. лесные участки (Timberland) is our first colony founded. The Republic soon engaged in a war for freedom against the Muscovy. Although the Muscovites were defeated, the war only led to the Treaty of Moscow becoming void, but territory-wise it was a status quo antebellum. In 1572 we win our independence against the Russia Federation.
The king is the highest person of power in the nation.
List of Rulers
- Nikola Martin (1552-16??)
- Viktor Martin (16??-16??)
Military commanders deployed the streltsy in static formations, often against set formations or fortifications. They often fired from a platform and employed a mobile wooden "fortification" known in Russian as a "Gulyay-gorod" (literally a "walking fort"). They reportedly fired in volley or caracole fashion; the first line firing and then stepping back to reload while the second line stepped forward to fire. Streltsy were the units of Russian guardsmen from the 15th to the early 18th centuries, armed with firearms. They are also collectively known as Marksman Troops. These standing forces reinforced the mounted nobility militia mobilized during wartime. Streltsy had identical uniforms (usually red, blue or green coats with orange boots), training and weapons (arquebuses, muskets, poleaxes, bardiches (used to steady their gun while firing), sabers, and sometimes pikes).
The economy of Novgorod consisted of farming, animal husbandry, hunting, beekeeping, and fishing. Countryside products, such as furs, beeswax, honey, fish, lard, flax, and hops were sold and exported to other Russian cities and aboard. The real wealth of Novgorod came from Fur trade. The city was the main entrepreneur for the trade between Rus' and northwestern Europe. Standing on the northwestern end of the Silk road from China and at the end of the Baltic Trade network established by the Hanseatic League.
The era of the Kievan Rus', was when Novgorod was a trading place where Scandinavian merchants would trade with other merchants. The farmers from Gotland retained the Saint Olof trading house into the 1100s. Years to come German merchants established trading houses in Novgorod. Scandinavian royalty would intermarry Russian princes and princesses. After the great schism, Novgorod struggled against Swedish, Danish, and German Crusaders in the beginning of the 1200s. Novgorod gone to war with Sweden 26 times, and 11 times with Livonia Brothers of the sword. Novgorod managed to escape the Mongol invasion, because the mongol commanders did not want to go through the marshlands surrounding the city. In spite of never being formally conquered the Republic began to pay tribute to the Khans and the Golden Horde.
An alliance has been settled with; Mecklenburg, Hamburg, Muscovy, and Köln.
Art and Iconography
The Republic of Novgorod was famous for its high level of culture in relation to other Russian duchies like Suzdal. A great majority of the most important Eastern artwork of the period came from this city. Citizens of Novgorod were producing large quantities of art, more specifically, religious icons. This high level of artistic production was due to the flourishing economy. Not only would prominent boyar families commission the creation of icons, but artists also had the backing of wealthy merchants and members of the strong artisan class.Icons became so prominent in Novgorod that by the end of the 13th century a citizen did not have to be particularly rich to buy one; in fact, icons were often produced as exports as well as for churches and homes. However, scholars today have managed to find and preserve only a small, random assortment of icons made from the 12th century to 14th century in Novgorod.
The icons that do remain show a mixture of traditional Russian style, Palaeologus-Byzantine style (prominent previously in Kiev), and European Romanesque and Gothic style. The artists of Novgorod, and their audience, favored saints who provided protection mostly related to the economy. The Prophet Elijah was the lord of thunder who provided rain for the peasants’ fields. Saint George, Saint Blaise, and Saints Florus and Laurus all provided some manner of protection over the fields or the animals and herds of the peasants. Saint Paraskeva Pyatnitsa and Saint Anastasia both protected trade and merchants. Saint Nicholas was the patron of carpenters and protected travelers and the suffering. Both Saint Nicholas and the Prophet Elijah also offer protection from fires. Fires were commonplace in the fields and on the streets of the city. Depictions of these saints retained popularity throughout the entire reign of the Republic. But in the beginning of the 14th century another icon became prominent in the city: the Virgin of Mercy. This icon commemorates the appearance of the Virgin Mary to Andrew Yurodivyi and Epifanii. During this appearance, Mary prays for humankind.
Architecture and City Layout
The Volkhov River divided the Republic of Novgorod into two halves. The commercial side of the city, which contained the main market, rested on one side of the Volkhov. The St Sophia Cathedral and an ancient Kremlin rested on the other side of the river. The cathedral and Kremlin were surrounded by a solid ring of city walls, which included a bell tower. Novgorod was filled with and surrounded by churches and monasteries. The city was overcrowded because of its large population of 30,000 people. The wealthy (boyar families, artisans, and merchants) lived in large stone houses inside the city walls, and the poor used whatever space they could find. The streets were paved with wood and were accompanied by a wooden water-pipe system, a Byzantine invention to protect against fire.
The Byzantine style (famous for large domes) and the European Romanesque style influenced the architecture of Novgorod. A number of rich families commissioned churches and monasteries in the city. About 83 churches, almost all of which were built in stone, operated during this period. Two prominent styles of churches existed in the Republic of Novgorod. The first style consisted of a single apse with a slanted (lopastnyi) roof. This style was standard throughout Russia during this period. The second style, the Novgorodian style, consisted of three apses and had roofs with arched gables. This second style was prominent in the early years of the Republic of Novgorod and also in the last years of the Republic, when this style was revitalized to make a statement against the rising power of Moscow. The inside of the churches contained icons, woodcarvings, and church plates.
Scholars generally believe that the Republic of Novgorod had an unusually high level of literacy for the time period. Archeologists found over one thousand birch-bark texts, all dating from the 11th to the 15th centuries, in towns dating back to early Rus'. Roughly 950 of these texts were from Novgorod. Archeologists and scholars assume that fires destroyed a majority of Novgorod's written works and that about 20,000 similar texts still remain hidden in the city.
Novgorod citizens from all class levels, from boyars to peasants and artisans to merchants, participated in writing these texts. Even women wrote a significant amount of the manuscripts. This collection of birch-bark texts consists of religious documents, writings from the city’s archbishops, business messages from all classes, and travelogues, especially of religious pilgrimages. The citizens of Novgorod wrote in a realistic and businesslike fashion. The collection of birch-bark texts also includes chronicles of byliny (Russian folklore and epic stories). The heroes of these stories were most commonly men who represented the free and adventurous spirit of the Novgorod Republic. One popular figure of the time was Sadko, a businessman and traveler. Another popular figure was Vasilii Buslaev, a young giant who gets into fights with his neighbors.
- лесные участки (Timberland)