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Louis XX (23 March 1886- 24 May 1964) became King of France in 1934 until his death in 1964.
|King of France and Navarre|
|Reign||19 March 1934-10 July 1940 25 August 1944- 24 May 1964|
1 May 1934 & 4 July 1945
King Louis XXI
Louis Heri Josef
Maria Amalia Johanna Antoinette
Louis George Michael
Louis Philip Francois
|Louis Charles Francis Frederick Jay de France|
|House||House of Bourbon|
23 March 1886 Tulleries Palace, Paris, France
|Died||24 May 1964 (aged 78) Tulleries Palace, Paris, France|
|Burial||31 May 1964 Royal Crypt, Paris, France|
Dauphin of France 1888-1934
Louis XX was the Dauphin of France from 1888 until 1934 when he was two years old he became the Dauphin and sat in that position until he was forty-eight and elevated to the title of King of France. He married Countess Elisabeth who was the first French-born Queen Consort of the monarchy since 1615.
Together they had a total of 11 children (seven sons, four daughters). He outlived three of his children including Dauphine Louis Philippe Charles who was Dauphin for one month and 17 days before dying when he drowned in the sinking of a French warship. This was just six days after the coronation of Louis XX and the happy coronation parties were soon put to a halt from the news of the death of Dauphin Louis.
To make matters worse, Louis XX's second child, Dauphin Louis Henry Alexander Francis died in the same French warship sinking. The warship was by a bomb by Germany. As much as Louis XX wanted to declare war, he wanted to keep peace so Germany would still pay for World War I.
World War II & Fall of the Monarchy 1940-44
Like many countries, France was hit by the Great Depression due to the financial collapse in America in the year 1929. France did not get hit with the Great Depression until much later on than most countries. In 1929 France's unemployment rate was 7.3% and six years later it was at 17.5%. In 1940 after World War II started, Germany unexpectiedly invaded France. Louis XX was advised to leave France since the Nazi's were quickly approaching. On June 22, 1940 Louis XX and the National Assembly surrendored themselves to the Nazi's. On 10 July 1940 Hitler forced King Louis XX to abdicate the throne making Hitler the Fuher of Germany, Poland, Austria, Czech, and France. Versailles' furniture and wealth was all stripped away when Hitler invaded.
Louis XX was taken to prison in Berlin, Germany. His wife and children were all sent to Vichy France (area not controlled by Nazi Germany).
Countess Elisabeth was scared for her husband and kept asking if she could write to him but the Nazi's kept intercepting her letters and sending them to Hitler instead of her husband.
Restoration of the Monarchy & Women's Rights
In 1942 enough evidence was pulled together to make the members of the National Assembly stand trial. The trial lasted between 17 December 1942-12 October 1943. On the aniversery of the end of the French Civil War and the day all 900 National Third Estate Assembly members were executed (on 12 October 1798) was the day of the execution for all 538 members of the National Assembly.
Countess Elisabeth begged the Nazi's for mercy. Louis XX stood trial between 3 March 1944- 22 July 1944. He was found guilty on 22 May of going against Nazi rule and was sentenced to death. He execution date was scheduled for 22 August 1944. The Allied Powers liberated France and on 21 August 1944 Louis escaped prison and headed down to Vichy, France. Louis was able to arrive at Lyon, France without Nazi's capturing him and arrived on 24 August 1944 and was proclaimed the King of France the following day which knocked out Nazi rule. Germany had to give back the precious wealthy materials of Versailles and had to pay for all the gardens and several things they broke within the palace and that of Vichy France however they did not have to pay for anything they dismantled in northern France including in the city of Paris.
King Louis XX made a new law that a King would have a coronation once but would renew their oathes every 25 years.
In November 1944 Elections for the National Assembly began, this time women's votes counted as equally as men and women could also be part of the National Assembly if they won an election. 18 women out of 900 seats took seats in the National Assembly, 17 in the First Estate, 0 in the Second Estate, and 1 in the Third Estate.
Later Life 1944-64
The Cold War affected France a lot and France actively took part in the Cold War in 1949 when they started making nuclear missiles. It was not until November 1950 that they tested their first nuclear missile in Africa. On 5 August, 1963 the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed by the King of France along with other figure heads from around the world. Louis XX developed chronic bronchitis in 1955 and his wife died in 1961 of a stroke. King Louis XX died in 1964 and his third son, Dauphin Louis XXI was proclaimed king at age 53.
Louis married Countess Elisabeth in June 1905 and were married until her death in 1961 at the aged of 79. They had the following issues:
1. Louis Philippe Charles (28 July 1906- 6 May 1934)
2. Louis Henry Alexander Francis (27 July 1907- 6 May 1934)
3. Marie-Joanna (20 November 1909- 27 April 1928)
4. King Louis XXI (12 June 1911- 23 December 1986)
5. Maria Anne Margaret (8 October 1912- 21 November 1995)
6. Anna Josephine (19 May 1914- 17 June 2002)
7. Louis Henri Josef (8 August 1919- 2 October 2010)
8. Maria Amalia Johanna Antoinette (3 January 1921- present)
9. Louis George Michael (30 June 1922- 24 September 2002)
10. Louis Philip Francois (26 September 1926- present)
11. Louis Joseph (19 November 1929- present)