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Louis XVII (Versailles 27 March 1785 – Versailles 18 October 1873), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of France, was the younger son of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. As the son of the king, he was a Fils de France (Son of France). His older brother, Louis Joseph, died in June 1789, just a few weeks before the start of the French Civil War. He later became King Louis XVII, King of France after the death of his father in 1812.
|King of France and of Navarre|
|Seven year old Louis in 1792, portrait by Alexander Kucharsky|
23 December 1812- 18 October 1873
12 August 1813
|Father||Louis XVI of France|
|Born||27 March 1785|
|Died||18 October 1873 (age 88)
Palace of Versailles, France
King Louis XVII was born and named Louis-Charles de France. He had a difficult childhood because when he was just four years old him, his sister, and his parent fleed the comforting home of Versailles for Metz (then later Lyon). Versailles was then abandoned for many years before it was safe for the family to come back in 1793. The Governor of the State of the French-Republic was executed in 1795 but it was not until all National Third Estate Assembly members were put on trial that the rebel forces had fallen. His mother died in 1799 and many years of ill health and possible from uterine cancer. This was a huge blow to the family, and his father wept for many months after.
War of 1812 Controversy
War broke out against America and Britain in June of 1812 when King Louis XVI was old and dying. He managed to keep France neutral for a long amount of time before he eventually died on 23 December 1812 causing his son, the newly crowned King of France, absolute monarch of France, having to pick a side.
France could align with America since they helped each other and formed an alliance in in 1770s and 80s when the American Revolution was taking place.
France could also align with Great Britain since America did not help the monarchy during the time of the French Civil War (1789-98)
King Louis declared support for neither America or Britain until their own problems were resolved. After a lot of time paying off large amount of debt in France and constantly visiting Paris to give people bread, Louis decided it was time to pick a side.
On 29 August 1814 Britain burned down the Presidental Mansion (later known as White House) which made many French loyal to the crown angry. It made Louis feel "sick" knowing another country would burn down a leaders offical home residence and declared war on Britain on 12 October 1814.
France played a large role in going to battle with Britain in the sea to weaken the army before they ever arrived in America. The war offically ended in 1815 and France was given more debt.
King Louis XVII had a son they named Louis-Henri. Later on in 1816 his wife had twins and although she recovered the twins died a couple days after birth, and Louis' wife Marie Ludovica could no longer produce children from the long and intense labor from having twins. Tension with Britain and France arose soon after the War of 1812 was over. The treaty was signed and both America and France had to pay off the war but split the cost in half. Britain had to pay for all the damage done to America's navy and the capital of Washington D.C.
By 1824, France declared war on Britain due to the long standing tension between the two of them. The war lasted a dreadful seventeen years, which gave it the name the Seventeen Years' War, and never ended until 1841. France asked President Monroe of America for help in aiding them in battle like France did two times already. Monroe sent money but only secretly gave it to them and never made it public until after the war.
When John Q. Adams was elected as President, America stood neutral in the Seventeen Years' War. When Andrew Jackson was President between 1829-37, he did not support neither Britain or France for a few years until eventually he made it publically announced that America would join the Seventeen Years' War to help their French allies.
American Congress declared war on 12 March 1834 in the hopes that Britain would lose the war as payback for destroying the White House building. Peace was made in 1841 and France and America redeemed themselves be being the 'winners' of the war. Britain plunged into Civil War in 1843 but it was soon resolved months after the start.
Louis' wife died 17 December 1847 after suddenly falling ill, vomiting, then passing out. After she passed out she never work up. It was not until 1850-51 that the French debt after almost a century of poor living was finally getting better.
Slavery in France was outlawed in July of 1857.
Several mini-wars broke out through France. In 1859 Spain declared war on France and began invading. Louis refused to ask America or other allies for help since America was on the verge of Civil War. France had to give up a small portion of land in Prynees region (South of France). Louis wanted to get his land back and five years later declared war on Spain to push back to the mountains that were once the border. Although he tried, they had to surrendor in just a little more than a year's time. France was once again in debt and the people grew angry. Louis chose not to celebrate the 60th aniversary of his succession to the throne, in 1872 in order to not push France in more debt. This pleased the people who stopped getting angry over the debt soon after that.
King Louis experienced chest pains and doctor was called to Versailles on 31 July 1873. It was not until September that his condition worsened and he started coughing up blood.
His son was at King Louis' bed side when he died on 18 October 1873 from an unknown condition.
Louis and Marie Ludovica married in 1807. They had the following issues:
Miscarriage July 1808
King Louis XVIII (2 July 1810- 1 April 1888)
Miscarriage 11 August 1811
Miscarriage 23 March 1812
Miscarriage October 1814
Elisabeth-Mary (14 January 1816-22 January 1816)
Louis-Henri (16 January 1816- 18 January 1816)