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King George II (Washington Dynasty)

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While George Washington had no biological children, he had two adopted children, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis, who were also his wife, Queen Martha's grandchildren. As he was the oldest (and only) male, George Washington Parke Custis succeeded the throne as King George II and reigned from 1799 to 1857. However, this was not without controversy. Many felt it was improper for the throne to pass to someone who was not a blood relative of the King, although the Constitution did not specify this.

Prelude to War

Coronation

Upon the death of King George I, Prince George Washington Parke Custis was crowned as King George II with much protest. Many ministers, governors, and dukes were absent from the coronation in protest.

Coronation Annulment Act

The House of Commons attempted to pass the Coronation Annulment Act, to annul the coronation of King George II and instead coronate George Steptoe Washington as King. However, the measure failed by a small margin.

Coronation of the "Other" King George II

The consanguinalists walked out of the House of Commons and were joined by some members of the House of Lords as well as some Dukes and Governors to coronate George Steptoe Washington as King George II. James Madison, the Duke of Maryland, a former affinalist who had changed to support the consanguinal view when Charles died because of his sister-in-law, Lucy Payne was married to George Steptoe Washington. Duke James promised the support of Maryland to the consanguinal cause. A few other Dukes backed the consanguinal cause, including Lawrence Washington, the Duke of Virginia and brother of King George I, Alexander Hamilton Duke of New York, John Hancock, Duke of Massachusetts, Thomas Pinckney, Duke of South Carolina. The official King George II condemned the coronation.

Foreign Reaction

Great Britain, as well as most European monarchies, keeping with tradition recognized George Steptoe as the legitimate King of the United States. France recognized George Washington Parke Custis as King. No country was willing to send military aid to help either side; this would affect the foreign relations of the United States in the future.

War of the Georges

In October 1800 the Virginian and Maryland militias launched a surprise attack on the capital. They successfully occupied the city, but King George II had prepared for this eventuality and moved himself and the royal family to Philadelphia. King George II issued a decree that disloyalists would be removed from Parliament, including Prime Minister John Adams. The new Parliament elected Thomas Jefferson as Prime Minister.

Siege of Philadelphia

New York's naval militia took control of the Delaware River between New Jersey and Pennsylvania by 1801 and then surrounded Philadelphia. New York also sent a smaller force into Vermont, claiming it as part of New York after having secured a promise from George Steptoe Washington that New York would be rewarded with it. A break in the siege later that year would allow the King and his family to escape to the Pennsylvanian countryside. New York would seize control of Philadelphia in early 1802.

Maine Uprising

Popular opinion in Maine was in support of George Washington Parke Custis taking the throne. Paul Revere, a Revolutionary War hero and member of the House of Lords, went to Maine and organized an uprising. Massachusetts would spend the better part of the War of the Georges trying, unsuccessfully to maintain control of Maine as well as fending off the Connecticut and Rhode Island militias.

Invasion of South Carolina

Georgia and North Carolina swiftly invaded and occupied South Carolina in 1801.

Virginia Uprising

In Virginia, while the Duke commanded the militia, popular opinion was on the side of the affinalists, particularly due to influential men such as Prime Minister Thomas Jefferson and Henry Lee III. In fact, Thomas Jefferson had been offered the position of Duke of Virginia, but had refused and instead ran for elected office. These affinalists also got support from Kentucky, and later, North Carolina, once North Carolina had succeeded in subduing South Carolina. In 1802 Richmond was captured and Duke Lawrence was hanged for treason. Henry Lee was appointed by King George II (Custis) as Duke of Virginia.

Capture of Washington

In 1803, with the southern states firmly under the control of the affinalists forces, King George II (Custis), gathered in Pennsylvania, attacked Philadelphia and Maryland while the Southern states did the same. New Jersey had been half-occupied by New York, but began regaining its territory. New York was also losing Vermont and Massachusetts had lost control of all but Boston to affinalists and by the end of the year Boston would be taken and John Hancock hung for treason. The offensive was a success, Washington and Philadelphia were both recaptured. George Steptoe Washington fled for Albany, New York.

The End of the War

In 1804, George Steptoe Washington decided to change strategy. He would try to maintain control of the state of New York long enough to get a treaty recognizing it as his own country. However, Duke Alexander of New York at the invitation of the affinalist Aaron Burr got into a duel, where he was killed. Without the Duke the consanguinalist cause seemed lost. New York quickly surrendered. George Steptoe Washington would escape with his family to Canada and move to England.

Maine Statehood

Maine would be admitted as a state in 1805, with Paul Revere as Duke to reward their loyalty.

Political Parties

1st Party System

Political Parties emerged for the first time in 1805 after the War of the Georges: The Democratic Party and the Federalist Party. Both parties are generally supportive of the monarchy, though the Democratic Party wants to weaken its powers, along with the powers of the central government over the states. However, there are a few republican members of the party that want to overthrow the monarchy. The Federalist Party supports a stronger central government. At first, most of Parliament is controlled by the Democratic Party, except in the House of Lords, which is mostly controlled by the Federalists.

2nd Party System

Overtime slavery would become the defining issue. The Democrats who had great appeal in the South almost universally supported slavery as a matter of state's rights and those that didn't, such as Martin Van Buren would form third parties. Federalists on the other hand were bitterly divided. Much of their appeal was in the North, yet many Southern Federalists including Prince Robert E Lee, Duke of Virginia, a long-time Federalist himself owned slaves. This divided the party and after the Mexican War it began to collapse. Aspirations for radical change were especially furthered after 1850 when the European Empire, a long-time ally of the United States collapsed in a sea of radical change. The Radical Party would replace the Federalist Party as one of the major party in 1856, with abolitionists joining it and Robert E Lee joining the Democrats. While the Radical Party was primarily concerned with abolishing slavery many also supported other causes such as prohibition, the labor movement, and women's suffrage.

Foreign Relations

Napoleonic & Barbary Wars

King George II warmed up to France, as it was the only nation to recognize him as King. Anti-French attitudes began winding down. The Alien & Sedition Acts, which had passed due to anti-French sentiment, were repealed in 1805, and the repeal quickly received the royal assent. King George II also pardoned everybody who had been charged under the act. In 1804, Napoleon had declared himself Emperor and the French monarchy lead to improved relations with the United States.

In 1805 rising complaints of piracy against American sailors by the Barbary pirates lead King George II to order the invasion of the Barbary States. In a short war (1805-1807) the United States had conquered Morocco, Tunis, Algiers, and Tripolitania and established the North African Territories. This led King George II to abandon the isolationist views of his father, who agreed with Jefferson not to "fight monsters overseas". Prime Minister Jefferson supports the invasion, but refuses to support annexing the Barbary States. The King dissolves Parliament and holds new elections, which puts a Federalist majority in the House of Commons. Rufus King is elected Prime Minister. To prevent war from the Ottoman Empire, which officially holds sovereignty over the Barbary States, but in practice has no control the United States purchases them. This same year France sells the United States the Louisiana Territory.

In 1806, when Napoleon established the Berlin Decree and the Continental System, King George II embraced it, and, with the support of Prime Minister Rufus King, was able to get Parliament to ban trade with Great Britain. Instead of the Embargo Act in OTL that stopped all trade, the embargo was only against Britain. As a result, nations in Europe, with the exception of Portugal, accepted the continental system.

In 1807, Napoleon invaded Portugal and Spain. The following year, the American navy in Northern Africa entered Spain in order to help Napoleon Bonaparte. As a result Great Britain declares war on America in 1808. Unlike in OTL this ends with a French victory. Spain and Portugal are partitioned between France, which gets most of the peninsula and America which gets the Balearic Islands, and the south of Portugal and Spain.

In 1808, Napoleon re-invaded Haiti, which had been lost to the Haitian Revolution, and paid the United States to lend it military support. King George II accepted, and would buy Haiti from France the following year for double the amount. The following year King George II gave verbal support to Napoleon's decision to annex the Papal States. This appealed to popular anti-Catholic sentiment at the time, even though France was still mostly Catholic. In the meantime Napoleon's armies were marching across Europe conquering vast swaths of land. This year America would start its invasion of Canada.

Since Russia does not exit the Continental System, Napoleon is free to focus on conquering England, while the United States fights a war closer to home. In 1814, after years of fighting, France wins a decisive victory over England, and the United States has firm control over Canada. A treaty is signed handing Canada over to the United States, while Britain comes under French rule.

At this point, Napoleon controls all of Europe west of a shrunken Prussia and the newly formed Austrian Empire, except for Scandinavia, Denmark, and Southern Iberia. On the eastern borders is Prussia, Russia, and the Austrian Empire. The Duchy of Warsaw (Poland) is independent. A number of autonomous kingdoms under the rule of the French Empire are recognized. In 1816 he renames the Empire the European Empire and even appoints a King of France underneath him in order to diffuse nationalist tensions. Most colonies of these European powers pass to Napoleon. However, Mexico continues in its revolution, and Venezuela remains independent as well. Brazil is not annexed and is officially still under the Portuguese House of Braganza, which does not recognize Emperor Napoleon or King George II's sovereignty over their respective parts of Portugal. Sweden has been absorbed by the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway and Finland has been conquered by Russia. Moldavia had also been completely annexed by Russia.

The War of the 8th Coalition begins in 1817, but the United States does not intervene at first.

Emperor Napoleon I dies in 1821, and is succeeded by his son, Emperor Napoleon II.

Just after Napoleon I dies, the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway declares war. The United States enters the war with the promise of receiving Greenland and Iceland. The United States conquers Greenland almost immediately, and conquers Iceland in 1824.

European War

In 1835, King Pedro VI of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves invades Southern Iberia in the Algarves and southern Portuguese region. He has control of it in months. Miserable and defeated, King George II and Regent Rupert sign the Treaty of Lisbon, giving Portugal more land than it had had before it was conquered. The following year there is an uprising in Spain, which King George II is forced to concede to in 1837.

Mexican War

In 1822 Mexican rebels, who had been fighting for independence since 1810, finally force the Treaty of Córdoba to be signed, creating the Mexican Empire under Emperor Iturbide. However, this Emperor soon loses his power. The Republic of Texas secedes in 1835. While there is some support for annexation by the United States, many want a Republic rather than a monarchy. In 1845 the US proposes to annex Texas. Mexico proposes a counteroffer to recognize an independent Texas. The American proposal is defeated narrowly. While many Anglo-American settlers want union with their brethren, the Republican tones of the Texan Revolution make union unpopular. The Mexican proposal is quickly accepted, and Texas continues its independence. In 1846 Yucatán declared independence. The next year a Maya uprising left the government in panic and it sent out offers to America to quash the rebellion in exchange for sovereignty over Yucatán. The American Parliament debates this and with the assent of King George II invades and quashes the rebellion. Yucatán became a state of America in 1848. This outrages the Mexican government, which declares that the Yucatán was not sovereign in the first place, and therefore could not give its sovereignty to America. Negotiations broke down sparking the Mexican War in 1849.

The Republic of Texas considers joining the war on the side of the United States, but the proposal fails as many fear a potential loss and re-absorption into Mexico. Texas does, however, sell part of its northern territory to the United States at a large price, which helps Americans to cross into Mexico more easily. The United States won by 1850, and took full control of Yucatán. The Treaty of Merida also grants the United States Tabasco, Chiapas, Nuevo Mexico, Alta California, and parts of Oaxaca and Veracruz.

Slavery

Royal Position

Like his father George II, he has slaves. However, the king, while approving of the institution of slavery, did not approve of it enthusiastically. He said that laws regarding slavery were the prerogative of the states.

Arkansas Compromise

Even before King George II took the throne, many northern states had abolished slaver,y and many more continued to do so after. By 1836, the northernmost states that had not abolished slavery were Maryland, Delaware, and Kentucky. That year Arkansas would be suggested for admission to the Union with a slave constitution. However, Northern states did not approve. There was much debate to figure out some kind of a compromise. Finally, King George II intervened and a compromise was reached. Arkansas would become a state, and its northern border would determine whether any new states would be allowed to permit slavery or not. At the same tim,e Michigan would become a state.

Marriage

King George II married in 1804 to Mary Lee Fitzhugh. While they had 4 children, only Princess Mary Anna Randolph Custis would survive and would become the reigning Queen upon his death in 1857. His daughter would marry Duke Robert E. Lee of Virginia in 1831. In 1857, when Mary ascended the throne, he remained remain Duke as the Constitution provided that there was no conflict in being a royal consort and holding an office of authority at the same time, as opposed to having royal authority and holding another office at the same time.

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