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Kiatagmiut TungelquqellriitTimeline: Principia Moderni III (Map Game)
Location of the Kiatagmiut Band (1710)
|Largest Villages||Mamterilleq, Kuiggayagaq, Napaskiaq, and Kuiggluk|
|Official languages||Central Yup'ik|
|Government||Consensus-Based Amellrutaq of Elders|
|-||Upper house||Elder Council|
|-||Lower house||General Council|
The Kiatagmiut Band (Yugtun: Kiatagmiut Tungelquqellriit) is an organized semi-nomadic state in the far-northwestern parts of Borealia. Based originally out of the Kiatagmiut peoples along the Kusquqvak River (notably surrounding the village of Mamterilleq), the Band has since grown to include Unegkumiut, Akulmiut, and Caninermiut peoples.
The current territory extends from the mouth of the Kusquqvak River to the village of Kuiggluk and north to the tundra surrounding the southern parts of the Nunavakpak Lake.
The history of the Kiatagmiut Band dates back many millennia. The Eskimos crossed later than other Indian peoples.
Then, Thule stuffs
Era of Reforms
Some time around 1640, the daily life of the Kiatagmiut peoples began to change significantly. This was largely the result of the arrival, around 1637, or luussitars, or what the rest of the world would go on to call horses. This change, while only recorded in the oral historical record, was undoubtedly the cause of a massive shift in the way the Kiatagmiut lived.
The first major shift came when, in 1638, the luussitars were used effectively by young Kiatagmiut warriors to defend, and eventually conquer, the Akulmiut peoples of the villages centered around Kassigluq. By 1639, another war, this time against the Unegkumiut of Naparyarraq, expanded the Kiatagmiut Band, then under Great Chief Kayuqtuq, to enough of an extent so that an intensive societal reform could be instituted.
The Amellrutaq met in the winter of 1639 at Mamterilleq, and decided upon Kayuqtuq's reforms, called the Lavkar Reforms, which involved the rotation of those workers who would collect food and those who would build infrastructural and crafts improvements.
After the Lavkar Reforms were first tested in the 1630s, the Kiatagmiut continued to advance. Trade with other Kusquqvagmiut peoples along the Kusqusvak River, the Band came to be one of the primary groups in southern Kelutmun. Economic growth was extremely surprising to the Kiatagmiut leaders, who then began to fall into an organized shamanistic religion, with some emphasis placed upon the Cult of the Supreme Spirit which enshrined the Great Elder as being possessed by the most holy of shamanistic spirits.
By 1650, the year of Kayuqtuq's death, the villages of Iik and Tuntutuliaq had been conquered along with most of the Caninermiut. A small period of civil strife broke out between 1650 and 1651 as a leader was not appointed to be Kayuqtuq's successor, but Taktuq of Kuiggluk would end up being the next Great Elder. Additionally, the Lavkar Reforms had been reformed further so that even more progress was made and trade began to develop through use of qayaqs.
DomesticationThe domestication of wild crops them became a focus of the Band under the new Great Elder, Taktuq. This process began with berries, such as the bunchberry, snowberry and salmonberry, but trade eventually brought in other types of berries and roots that sustained life well. This farming venture was extremely successful and ended up eliminating the semi-nomadic culture in Kelutmun when coupled with the domestication of elk and reindeer, which began in the latter half of the 1600s.
The domestication of wild game was quite successful, and eventually a similar policy was applied to the domestication of wild walrus, which were extremely valuable for trade. This brought about great economic success for those who domesticated the walrus, and eventually it became a private enterprise. The Amellrutaq decided, in 1678, that domestication of walrus (and all sea creatures) could be done in a private fashion, which has been marked by many historians as the start of the free market system that dominated Kiatagmiut's development by the INSERT DECADE HERE.
Trade and Exploration
As the domestication of flora and fauna was progressing, the qayaq industry only increased further. New technologies enabled the qayaqs to travel further distances and made them even larger. This qayaq improvement made it a mere week-long journey to travel from Mamterilleq to Saguyaq, the major port of the Curyung people at the base of the Nushagak River. Continued improvements would even significantly shorten this time by the 1680s.
By 1670, a small series of trading posts had been established along the Kusqusvak River, extending as far as Gidighuyghatno’ Xidochagg Qay’ to the northwest and Agdaaĝux̂ to the southeast. This projection of economic power led to an attack on traders in 1671 which in turn led into a war of conquest against inland Kusquqvagmiut people centered around the village of Qalqaq but spanning as far upriver as Gidighuyghatno’ Xidochagg Qay’. As a result of this war, trade with the Deg Xinag increased drastically.
After this war, expansion continued into Yup'ik lands, notably of the Nushagamiut and Ogulmiut peoples. Notably, after the death of Taktuq, the Great Elder, in 1678, his son became the new Great Elder, becoming the first hereditary appointment to the position.
Meanwhile, trade brought with it rumors of the "gods with the great qayaqs," who had begun to arrive in the Ale'ut lands. These were widely disregarded, but some traders sought them out. In the end, one of these "gods" would arrive within qayaq distance of the Kiatagmiut, and a period of contact with the East began.
Contact with the East
While the official start of contact with the East for the Band was in 1675, the late 1660s began to see mass emergence of rumors and tales, often mythicized as was the artistic style of that epoch, of people who were called "the gods with great qayaqs."
The Eastern expansion into the Ale'uts was largely facilitated by the Mangut Nivkhgu, whose primary navigator and admiral was I'mlos'taga'in. I'mlos'taga'in was eventually lost during one of his expeditions and washed ashore upon a frigid northern isle. After having been supplied for a couple of years, he was brought to the capital of Mamterilleq in 1677. I'mlos'taga'in would play a large role in the court of new Great Elder Aklaq and provided knowledge of written language and boating to his hosts until his departure in 1682.
By 1685, the Nivkh admiral N'ot'am'or'on arrived at Naparyarraq, whereupon negotiations began between the Nivkh state and the Band. As a result of these negotiations, Kiatagmiut Band ports were opened to the Mangut Nivkhgu in exchange for greater knowledge of mining and ironworking. In 1690, the first Kiatagmiut individual, a walrus herder by the name of Saluntinuk, left the Band and travelled to the Nivkh state in Kamchatka.
- 1638 - Akulmiut (Kassigluq, Atmalluaq, and Nunapicuar)
- 1639 - Unegkumiut (Naparyarraq)
- 1641/2 - Kusquqvagmiut (Akiacur, Akiaq, and Tuulkessaaq)
- 1650/1 - Caninermiut (Iik and Tuntutuliaq)
- 1660 - Western Togiagmiut (Kuinerraq, Arviiq, and Mamterat)
- 1671 - Inland Kusquqvagmiut (Qalqaq, Anyaraq, Curapalek, Tevyaraq, and Cellitemiut)
- 1672 - Southern Togiagmiut (Tuyuryaq and Ingricuar)
The Kiatagmiut Band employs the same general legal system that was used during the nomadic days of the tribe. The main ideas behind Kiatagmiut law can be found in Yup'ik understandings of what it means to be human. They view mankind to be very social, and therefore have always accepted the following maxims as tantamount to religious law:
- Never go against the consensus of the people.
- Always work together to achieve common goals.
- Honor the knowledge of mankind.
- Listen to all people and their ideas.
These four maxims are rooted back to the start of the Little Ice Age, in about 1350, when temperatures fell drastically, causing the emphasis on the need of groups in order to survive to permeate all Yup'ik culture. The Kiatagmiut doesn't have courts or a legal system like most of Europe, or the world in general. Instead, all decisions, both on planning and on disputes, are brought up before the Amellrutaq. There is both a national Amellrutaq and various local village Amellrutaqs.
The Amellrutaq, while not having a direct translation, is best defined as "rule of cooperation," and the following features define its use:
- Method of communication to neutralize group conflicts.
- Development of bonds between individuals who might otherwise not be in contact with each other.
- Intellectual discussions that allow all parties to learn about ongoing events or policy issues.
- Social and emotional healing and trauma resolution.
- Opportunity to learn about specific historic events from the Oral History of the Elders.
- Assessment of values between different generations and social strata.
- Development of solutions to problems of policy, conflict, and social mores.
Some rules of the Amellrutaq are:
- Self-esteem is important for all contributors in the Amellrutaq.
- New ideas are to always be given some examination as no idea will be turned away without analysis of possible benefits.
- A moderator, most often the Great Chief, will be selected to keep the Amellrutaq on task.
- LEARN TO TRUST ONE ANOTHER- EVERYONE MUST MAKE A COMMITMENT NOT TO REPEAT WHAT HAS BEEN SAID BY EACH INDIVIDUAL IF PERSONAL FEELINGS OR EMOTIONS ARE EXPRESSED UNEXPECTEDLY, OTHERWISE, THERE IS NO NEED IF IT IS ALL EDUCATIONAL.
- AN OBJECT, SUCH AS A FEATHER OR STICK, CAN BE THE IDENTIFIER OF THE SPEAKER. THE SPEAKER MUST BE RECOGNIZED, RESPECTED, AND LISTENED TO, BY EVERYONE.
- EVERYONE MUST UNDERSTAND THAT THE TALKING CIRCLE IS NOT FOR DEBATE OR ANGER; IT MUST NEVER BE DISPLAYED TO ANY OF THE MEMBERS.
- EVERYONE MUST RECOGNIZE THAT THE TALKING CIRCLE IS THE SOLUTION FOR ALL PROBLEMS. WE TALK ABOUT THEM AND PROVIDE SOLUTIONS TO THEM.
- THERE ARE NO BYSTANDERS IN THIS ACTIVITY. EVERYONE IS INCLUDED IN THE CIRCLE.
- AT THE END OF EACH TALKING CIRCLE, PURIFICATION CAN BE PROVIDED, IF THE NEED IS THERE.
There are currently twenty-one permanent residential regions (be they cities, towns, or villages). The first five largest are listen in order of relative size, while the remaining are simply listed in alphabetical order.
Furthermore, the Kiatagmiut Band manages three trading posts. They are:
- Gidighuyghatno’ Xidochagg Qay’ (Deg Xinag peoples)
- Agdaaĝux̂ and Taxtamax̂ (Unangax̂ peoples)
The language of the Kiatagmiut Band (Yugtun) is an Inuit language of the Central Alaskan Yuk'ip family. As with the vast majority of Inuit languages, all verbs have a root morpheme, and are then conjugated by adding a pronoun to the end of the root morpheme.
These pronouns are:
|1st Person||2nd Person||3rd Person|
While Yugtun has two primary dialects (Kuigpak and Kusquqvak), Kusquqvak is the most spoken variety in the region where the Kiatagmiut Band resides. As such, the Kuigpak dialect is starting to become obsolete as most of the youth don't learn this dialect.
Words so Far:
- Qasgiq - Main meeting area
- Luussitar - Horse
- Arnaq - Woman
- Qayaq - Kayak
- Wi'itate - Banishment
The traditional shamanistic religion of the Kiatagmiut band...
Led by the High Shaman, who oversees all of the angakkuqs.
Meeting weekly at the agayuwig, or spiritual house.
The Yup'ik peoples, from whom the Kiatagmiut culture emerged to be the dominant force, were divided into twelve territorially distinct regional groups tied together by kinship. These tungelquqellriit, or bands, are:
Note: Bolded names mean that the band has been absorbed by the Kiatagmiut Band.
- Kusquqvagmiut (Kuskowagamiut), inhabiting the Lower and middle Kuskokwim River. The name derives from Kusquqvak, the Yup'ik name for the Kuskokwim River, possibly meaning "a big thing (river) with a small flow". The Kusquqvagmiut can be further divided into two groups:
- Unegkumiut, inhabiting the Lower Kuskokwim below Bethel to its mouth in Kuskowkim Bay. The word derives from unegkut, meaning "those downriver"; hence, "downriver people".
- Kiatagmiut, inhabiting inland regions in the upper drainages of the Kuskowkim, Nushagak, Wood, and Kvichak river drainages. The word derives probably from kiani, meaning "inside" or "upriver"; hence, "upriver people". The Kiatagmiut lived inland along the Kuskokwim River drainage from the present location of Bethel to present-day Crow Village.
- Akulmiut, inhabiting the tundra or "Big Lake" area north of the Kuskokwim River. The name denotes people living on the tundra — as opposed to those living along the coastline or major rivers — such as in the present-day villages of Nunapitchuk, Kasigluk, or Atmautluak. The name derives from akula meaning "midsection", "area between", or "tundra".
- Caninermiut, inhabiting the lower Bering Sea coast on either side of Kuskokwim Bay, including the area north of the bay where the modern-day villages of Chefornak, Kipnuk, Kongiganek, Kwigillingok are located and south of the bay where the villages of and Eek and Quinhagak are located. The name derives from canineq, meaning "lower coast", which derives in turn from the root cani, "area beside".
- Togiagamiut, inhabiting the Togiak River area. The word derives from Tuyuryaq, the Yup'ik name for the village of Togiak.
- Aglegmiut, inhabiting the Bristol Bay area along the Lower Nushagak River and northern Alaska Peninsula. The word derives from agluq, meaning "ridgepole" or "center beam of a structure".
- Unalirmiut (Unaligmiut), inhabiting the Norton Sound area. The name derives from the Yup'ik word Unaliq, denoting a Yup'ik from the Norton Sound area, especially the north shore villages of Elim and Golovin and the south shore villages of Unalakleet and St. Michael. Unalirmiut were speakers of the Norton Sound Unaliq subdialect of Yup'ik.
- Pastulirmiut, inhabiting the mouth of Yukon River. The name derives from Pastuliq, the name of an abandoned village of southern Norton Sound near the present-day village of Kotlik at one of the mouths of the Yukon River. The village name comes from the root paste- meaning to become set in a position (for instance, a tree bent by the wind). Pastulirmiut were speakers of the Norton Sound Kotlik subdialect of Yup'ik, and are also called pisalriit (sing. pisalria) denoting their use of this subdialect in which s is used in many words where other speakers of Yup'ik use y.
- Kuigpagmiut, inhabiting the Lower Yukon River. The name derives from Kuigpak, meaning "big river", the Yup'ik name for the Yukon River.
- Mararmiut, inhabiting the Scammon Bay area. The name derives from Marayaaq, the Yup'ik name for Scammon Bay, which in turn derives from maraq, meaning "marshy, muddy lowland". Mararmiut, deriving from the same word, denotes flatland dwellers in general living between the mouth of the Yukon and Nelson Island.
- Askinarmiut, inhabiting the area of the present-day villages of Hooper Bay and Chevak. Askinarmiut is an old name for the village of Hooper Bay.
- Qaluyaarmiut, inhabiting Nelson Island. The name derives from Qaluyaaq, the Yup'ik name for Nelson Island, which derives in turn from qalu, meaning "dipnet".
- Nuniwarmiut, inhabiting Nunivak Island. The name derives from Nunivaaq, the name for the island in the General Central dialect of Yup'ik. In the Nunivak dialect of Yup'ik (that is, in Cup'ig), the island's name is Nuniwar and the people are called Nuniwarmiut.
The simpler list:
- 1695 - A shaman named Makpigat records the true story of a rare polar bear attack upon the village of Napapellur on Nuniwar on dried-out walrus hide in the Yugtun script, making this the oldest surviving example of the Yugtun script.
Annual celebration in fall called Qawanerteliita, where for three weeks (right before traditional return to wintering villages) there is feasting and celebration as well as religious ceremonies.
Then, whatever could be hunted or gathered.
Now, a lot of berries (bunchberry, snowberry, huckleberry, salmonberry) and elk, reindeer, walrus, and seal have all been domesticated and made readily available for consumption by the Kiatagmiut people.
A couple unique food items:
- Akutaq -
- Igunaq -
- Anlleq -
- Muktuk -
Pretty much a command economy based upon sharing.
Some industries are starting to privatize.
Weapons and Armor
While relatively unadvanced when compared to European and Asian military technologies, the Kiatagmiut military technology and culture is very advanced for the northern reaches of Borealia. Among the primary weapons are the pitgar with qerrurs (bow and arrows), the kiipooyak (a throwing weapon comparable to bolas), the kakvikak (a three-pronged spear/harpoon), the tegun (or toggling harpoon, made with two blades) and the ulu knife (which was designed for butchering meat).In addition to an effective array of weapons, the Kiatagmiut are extremely well protected. Due to a combination of devastatingly frigid weather and dangerous animals, a unique lamellar type of armor was developed.
The armor has plates made out of different animal skins and walrus ivory, which are then bound together by tough leather made from sealskin. While traditionally this armor mostly only protected the chest and abdominal regions of the wearer, it has since been largely modified in order to allow full-body protection. Shields made of animal hides are also becoming more common for use in protection.
This advanced armor makes it very difficult for the Kiatagmiut people to be injured in combat; the armor cannot be pierced by most arrows. Additionally, this armor is quite unique to the Inuit peoples and therefore make the Athabaskan people less advantaged than their Inuit rivals.
Fighting in family units
Being the only organized state in Kelutmun (Alaska), the foreign relations of Kiatagmiut are mostly directed at various Yup'ik bands and villages.
This can best be seen with the extensive Kiatagmiut influence upon the Togiagmiut band, which was eventually integrated into the Band in 1660.
More recently, however, the Kiatagmiut Band has begun to interact with Unangax̂ peoples in the Aleuts (especially in the villages of Agdaaĝux̂ and Taxtamax̂) and the Deg Xinag (especially in the village of Gidighuyghatno’ Xidochagg Qay’) who border the Kiatagmiut towards the inland parts of the Kusquqvak River.
EXPLAIN NIVKH RELATIONSHIP HERE
- 1685 - The Kiatagmiut Band plays a dominant role in a large Dena'ina and Yup'ik conference of elders and chiefs at Dgheyaytnu (OTL Anchorage). At this meeting, it is decided that the Kiatagmiut capital and largest city (arguably the largest city in all of Kelutmun) is to become the seat of a regional council that will meet every decade to help resolve tribal conflicts and prevent unneeded warfare which is currently tearing apart Dena'ina lands. The conference also puts a halt to Kiatagmiut incursions in Dena'ina lands provided that their cities are open for qayaq trade. Meanwhile, Aklaq works to integrate Yup'iks of Kusquqvagmiut and Togiagmiut as well as Nushagagmiut to learn the standard dialect of the Yugtun language spoken by Kiatagmiut leaders - Kusquqvak Yugtun. Meanwhile, work is made to the north to integrate Yugtun-speaking Kaialigamiut peoples. The trade outposts at Gidighuyghatno’ Xidochagg Qay’, Agdaaĝux̂, and Taxtamax̂ all prosper while fish and walrus domestication continue. Meanwhile, N'ot'am'or'on (too funny, Lemming) arrives at the mouth of the Kusquqvak River with a medium-sized fleet. Great Elder Aklaq rushes to the city of Naparyarraq to great N'ot'am'or'on, who comes claiming to represent the same nation as the moderately-well respected (albeit oft mocked) I'mlos'taga'in. Aklaq and the High Shaman begin to negotiate with the admiral.
- 1686 - The Kiatagmiut Band continues, under Aklaq and the High Shaman, to negotiate with N'ot'am'or'on of the Nivkh nation. Meanwhile, the arrival of another sailor who professes the benefits of a written language has convinced the High Shaman to adopt a sort of written language based heavily upon the language of the Nivkhs' alphabet but uses Yugtun as the basis. Meanwhile, the qayaq trade continues to blossom, especially in the three main outposts. Integration of other Yup'iks continue, while expansion into Kaialigamiut and Nushagagmiut lands continue. Domesticaiton of some fish and, more notably, walrus continues and the qayaq trade continually brings new berries to the Band to be domesticated. We propose a trade deal that would open the ports of the Band to the Nivkh state.
- 1691: The Kiatagmiut Band begins to have greater exposure to Eastern customs as Nivkh sailors begin to arrive at our ports with trade goods. In exchange, we trade away our berries, fish, and elk, all of which are highly valued for their high-quality. More domestication projects are undertaken and knowledge of iron-working and metallurgy increase extensively with the help of Nivkh knowledge. The rollout of the written language by the High Shaman is met with some resistance in the upper Kusquqvak River regions, but the idea is well-adopted by most middle-level shamans throughout the nation. Some expansion takes place into Kaialigamiut lands.
- 1692/3: The Kiatagmiut Band continues to have greater exposure to Eastern customs and iron-working and metallurgy, all due to the Nivkh Band. Domestication efforts continue, as does trade by qayaq. Nivkh sailors continue to help the Band in the improvement of our qayaqs. The rollout of the written language continues to be emphasized by the High Shaman and other shamans throughout the nation. Some expansion takes place into Kaialigamiut lands.
- 1694: The Kiatagmiut Band continues to have greater exposure to Eastern customs and iron-working and metallurgy, all due to the Nivkh Band. Domestication efforts continue, as does trade by qayaq. Nivkh sailors continue to help the Band in the improvement of our qayaqs. The rollout of the written language continues to be emphasized by the High Shaman and other shamans throughout the nation. This year, expansion begins to take place on the island of Nuniwar. As Kiatagmiut settlers arrive to an uninhabited region of the island, they notice that all of the large trees are largely stripped of their bark. For this reason, the village is deemed Napapellur, meaning "tree bark."
- 1695: The Kiatagmiut Band is shocked to hear devastating news from the island of Nuniwar of brutal attacks carried out by a sole polar bear (arlunar) upon Kiatagmiut settlers from the village of Napapellur. While the Band has had some experience before with polar bears, this comes as a surprise because never before has a polar bear ventured so far south in recent recollected history. The tragedy, which resulted in the deaths of at least 30 men, women, and children, is recorded in writing by Makpigat, a shaman learned in the Yugtun script devised by the High Shaman and I'mlos'taga'in, upon a sheet of thinly-sliced and dried walrus hide. Meanwhile, the trade outposts at Gidighuyghatno’ Xidochagg Qay’, Agdaaĝux̂, and Taxtamax̂ all prosper while fish, berry, and walrus domestication continue. Trade with Mangut Nivkhgu continues, as does the improvement of the Band's ironworking and mining abilities. The decadal council of Yup'ik and Dena'ina chiefs is held this year, as well, in Mamterilleq.