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Khmer Empire (Celestial Ascendance)

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Khmer Empire
ចក្រភពខ្មែរ
Timeline: Celestial Ascendance
Flag of the Khmer Empire Royal Arms of Cambodia
Flag Coat of Arms
KhmerEmpire(Celestial Ascendance)
The Khmer Empire in 2014

Motto
Nation, Religion, Emperor

Anthem: "Nokor Reach"
Capitals Angkor (political, parliamentary,

official)
Krong Chaktomuk (administrative)

Other cities Krung Thep, Prey Nokor, Vientiane, Singapura
Language:
  official:
 
Khmer, Sanskrit, Nusantaran, Malay
  others: Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, Tagalog, Malay
Religion:
  main:
 
Hinduism, Buddhism
  others: Islam
Ethnic groups:
  main:
 
Khmer, Nusantarans
  others: Thai, Vietnamese, Lao, Filipino
Demonym: Khmer, Kampuchean
Type of government: Absolute, divine and autocratic monarchy
Emperor: Chakravarman I
  Imperial House: Vishnulokasurya Dynasty
Area:
  main:
 
4,200,000 km²
  water (%): 2%
GDP:
  Total:
 
€32,040,000,000,000
  per capita: €45,000
Population: 712,000,000 
Established: 802
Independence: from Srivijaya Empire
  declared: 802
Currency: Khmer surya
Calling code: +855
Organizations: United Nations
The Khmer Empire, also simply called Cambodia, Kampuchea and Kambujadesa is a large sovereign nation that controls all of Southeast Asia, and one of the world's superpowers. It is the second most populous nation in the world, after China. The Khmer Empire borders Bengal to the west and China to the north, it also has a sea border with Oceania and the United Republic.

The Khmer Empire is an absolute unitary monarchy, with the Emperor, currently Chakravarman I, as the de jure head of state and government. The capital and most populous city is Angkor.

According to legend, Cambodia was founded by Queen Soma, the first Monarch of Kambujadesa. The Khmer Empire itself was founded in 802, when Jayavarman II declared himself Devaraja. Through the decades, the Khmer Empire continued to slowly expand itself. Reaching its golden age under the rule of Suryavarman II, the Khmer Empire came to controll all of Southeast Asia, and with the merger of the empire with Majapahit; it became the sole nation in Southeast Asia. Over the centuries the nation continued to grow in power, and quickly industrialized after China's rapid revolution. Eventually, the Khmer Empire was considered both a military and economic superpower. The Earth Empire 's invasion of the nation dealt a large blow to its economy, however.

Today, the Khmer Empire remains strong, despite calls from many to introduce more democracy. With an economic growth of 5%, the Khmer Empire stands poised to remain a a nation with global influence for the foreseeable future.

Name

The official name of the Khmer Empire is Great Empire of Kampuchea. However, the full official name is "The Great Empire of Kampuchea, where His Imperial Majesty the Emperor reigns, the Empire of eternal peace and prosperity". This name is rarely used and almost only used in state ceremonies. In English it is commonly referred to as "Cambodia". Formerly it was also known as Kamboja (from which the English term Cambodia is derived) and Kambujadesa (land of Kamboja). The Cambodian Empire or Angkorian Empire are less common variants. It was once also called "The Joint Empire of Kambujadesa and Majapahit", mainly during the 15th and 16th centuries AD.

Politics

The Khmer Empire is an absolute hereditary and unitary monarchy, the last remaining one in Asia, besides Sumeria. As the titular universal monarch, the chakravartin, the Emperor is seen by many Khmer people as a living god. Despite the emperor's divine status, he is not above the law, and has to obey the Constitution and all laws.

As the the supreme legislative, executive and judicial power in the nation, the Emperor's power has little limits. However, the Emperor usually does not meddle in provincial or lower subdivisions' affairs, as this would be extremely time-consuming and impractical. The Emperor is assisted by a cabinet of Ministers, who rule the nation in the name of the Emperor, despite this, the Emperor maintains the full power to dismiss any government official.

Opposition to the monarchy is significant, especially in the provinces of South and North Maharlika. No attempt has ever been made to transform the nation into a more democratic state, though the provinces of Nusantara tried to declare their independence in 1623.

The Khmer Empire has an unicameral parliament, which is the National Congress, who are the de facto legeslative and executive branch of the Khmer Empire, as the Emperor rarely exercises his powers. Theoretically, the Congress could approve a bill which would depose the Emperor, or abolish the monarchy; though it is unknown if the Emperor's say on this matter would overrule this.

The Emperor

The Emperor of the Khmer Empire is an absolute monarch, and is one of the wealthiest people in the nation, owning several large palaces and
ChakravarmanICoronated

Chakravarman I, the current Emperor

estates accross the nation. Support of the monarchy is currently at 60% nationally, though in North and South Maharlika less than 20% of the people support the monarchy. Aside from being the head of state and government, the Emperor of the Khmer Empire is also the Chakravartin, a Hindu title for the supposed leader of the world; and the Devaraja, the head of the Hindu religion in the nation.

Foreign relations

The Khmer Empire has an established structure of foreign relations. The Khmer Empire is a member of the United Nations, and holds a permanent seat on its Security-Council. All sovereign states have established relations with the Khmer Empire and maintain their respective embassies in Angkor.

The Khmer Empire is considered a superpower, and has the ability to project its influence and power on a global scale. The Khmer Empire has acces to nuclear weapons, and has signed the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty.

Human rights

The Khmer Empire is a relatively progressive nation, though some traditionalist laws remain in practice. Polygamy has never been illegal, both men and woman are allowed to take multiple spouses, though less than 0.1% of the population reports to do this. Some of the Khmer Empire's most controversial laws are the approval of the use of torture in life-threatening situations, and the legality of organ trade. The legality of organ trade, however, has ensured that waiting lists for organ donations are very short, and sometimes non-existent.

Human right Legal Notes
Equality of all citizens Yes check
Universal suffrage Yes check
Racism outlawed Yes check
Discrimination outlawed Yes check
Freedom of speech Yes check Does not include hate speech or freedom to discriminate
It is illegal to insult or threaten the Emperor
Freedom of expression Yes check Does not include hate speech or freedom to discriminate
Freedom of religion Yes check Certain extremist religions are outlawed
Religious laws are prohibited
Torture outlawed X mark
Right to die Yes check Has never been illegal
Abortion Yes check Up to 4 months
Freedom of education Yes check/X mark Extremist or hate promoting schools are illegal
Corporal punishment of minors outlawed Yes check
Conscription outlawed X mark There is no draft currently, though in wartime, both men and women may be drafted
Capital punishment outlawed X mark
Same-sex activity Yes check Has never been illegal
Equal age of consent Yes check
Same-sex marriage Yes check Since 1989
Adoption by same-sex people Yes check Since 1992
Right to keep and bear arms Yes check
Slavery abolished Yes check Since 1725
Polygamy Yes check With consent
Genetic engineering X mark Banned
Cloning of humans X mark Banned
Organ trade Yes check
Right to reproduce Yes check

Demographics

The latest census in the Khmer Empire, dating from December 2015, counted approximately 712,000,000 people, which makes it the second most populous nation in the world. The Khmer Empire is highly urbanized, more than 74% of the nation's population live in cities or towns. The fertility rate is 2.05, slightly above the replacement rate. The nation has a population growth rate of 0.1%.

Cities

The Khmer Empire has more than 20 cities with a population of more than 5 million. Angkor is the largest city in the empire, as well as one of the largest in the world.

Religion

Religious affiliation in the Khmer Empire
Affiliation  % of the population
Hindu 60.0 60
 
Buddhist 23.33 23.33
 
Mahayana 17.23 17.23
 
Theravada 3.6 3.6
 
Chinese 2.5 2.5
 
Ireligious 15.0 15
 
Atheist 10.2 10.2
 
Apatheist 2.8 2.8
 
Agnostic 2.0 2
 
Refused to answer 0.5 0.5
 
Other 0.4 0.4
 
Total 100 100
 

The Khmer Empire is predominantly Hindu, with a Buddhist minority. Some provinces, such as Upper and Lower Myanmar, have a Buddhist population nearly equal to the Hindu population. A significant and rising minority are irreligious, numbering about 15% of the national population, and each year, more people report to be irreligious, atheist, apatheist, agnostic, or a combination of all of the former.

Hinduism became the religion of Cambodia and surroundings around 0 AD, while the various kingdoms in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam embraced Buddhism. Buddhism has been declining through the centuries, with each century reporting a decline of 4% each century. Irreligion was introduced to the nation after the Enlightenment, and is one of the strongest growing minority groups.

A survey conducted on 5,000 people, showed that 60% thought religion was an important part of their, 35% though religion was not important at all, and 5% refused to answer.

Administrative divisions

The Khmer Empire is is divided into 16 first level administrative divisions, which are called provinces/states. Each province is subdivided into
Provinces of the Khmer Empire

The 16 provinces of the Khmer Empire

several districts, which are divided into municipalities. Each province is governed by a democratically elected official, called a President. Brunei is the sole exception to this rule, which is governed by a hereditary monarch, the Maharaja of Brunei.

Culture

Due to its various ethnic groups, the Khmer Empire has many different sorts of cuisines, architecture and music.

Architecture

Khmer Architecture

The period of the Khmer Empire is the period that began in the ninth century AD. If precise dates are required, the beginning may be set in 802 AD, when the founder of the Khmer Empire, Jayavarman II pronounced himself universal monarch (chakravartin) and declared independence from Java. Khmer Architecture developed out of Hindu architecture. Khmer architecture is mainly religious. There are many surviving Angkorian Temples with as crown jewel Varah Vishnulok. But there are non-religious buildings also such as the Imperial Palace of Angkor or the Great Library of Angkor. The Imperial Palace is an enormous palace that was constructed on the orders of Emperor Jayavarman VII in 1270 and completed by his son Vizalavarman I in 1325. The palace complex is one of the largest in the world and covers an area of 4 sq km.

Varah Vishnulok

Varah Vishnulok, officially Sacred Grand Temple of Vishnu is the largest Khmer temple and the largest religious building on Earth. It is the crown jewel of the Khmer Architecture. It was built by Emperor Suryavarman II in honor of the god Vishnu and as his burial place. Today it's a National Shrine visited by many tourists. Only priests and the Imperial Family may enter the temple, except on August 23, Suryavarman II's birthday, then everyone may enter it. The Inner Sanctum, the Holy of Holies, the centre of the Khmer Empire is only accessible to the Emperor and Empress where they pray once a year to the Gods for continuing prosperity in the empire. Entering the Inner Sanctum is sacrilege and the penalty is life imprisonment.

Vietnamese Architecture

Vietnamese architecture developed out of Chinese architecture and shares many aspects with it. The Empire of Dai Viet built many palaces, pagodas and temples before being conquered by the Khmer Empire. Governors of Vietnam constructed many buildings after the conquest. Examples: Imperial Palace of Hanoi, Imperial City of Hue

Thai Architecture

Thai Architecture developed out of Khmer architecture in the 13th century under the Thai governors. It shares many aspects with Khmer architecture. Examples: Ayutthaya, Grand Palace

Lao Architecture

Lao Architecture developed out of Khmer architecture in the 14th century under the Lao governors. It shares many aspects with Khmer architecture. Examples: Pha That Luang, Vat Phou

Burmese architecture

Burmese architecture is mainly Buddhist architecture (temples, wats, pagoda, stupas). It developed during the Pagan Kingdom and was continued under the Burmese governors. Examples: Shwedagon Pagoda, Ananda Temple. 

Nusantaran architecture

Nusantaran architecture is both Hindu and Buddhist. It developed during the Srivijaya, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit Empires and was continued under the Nusantaran governors. Examplesl: Borobudur, Prambanan, Wilwaktika Palace

Cuisine

Khmer Cuisine

Khmer cuisine (Khmer: សិល្បៈខាងធ្វើម្ហូបខ្មែរ), or more generally, Kampuchean cuisine is one of the world's oldest living cuisines, and is regarded by many as one of the healthiest and most balanced cuisines on the planet. With an emphasis on simplicity, freshness, seasonality and regionalism – Cambodian food has won praise for its elegant and understated use of spice, its harmonious arrangement of contrasting flavours, textures and temperatures within the overall meal rather than a single dish, and its thoughtful and, at times extravagant presentation of dishes with plenty of herbs, leaves, pickles, dipping sauces, edible flowers and other garnishes and condiments.

Arts

Sculpture

Khmer sculpture refers to the stone sculpture of the Khmer Empire, which rules mainland South East Asia, from the 9th century. The most celebrated examples are found in Angkor, which serves as the seat of the empire. By the 7th century, Khmer sculpture begins to drift away from its Hindu influences – pre-Gupta for the Buddhist figures, Pallava for the Hindu figures – and through constant stylistic evolution, it comes to develop its own originality, which by the tenth century can be considered complete and absolute. Khmer sculpture soon goes beyond religious representation, which becomes almost a pretext in order to portray court figures in the guise of gods and goddesses. But furthermore, it also comes to constitute a means and end in itself for the execution of stylistic refinement, like a kind of testing ground. We have already seen how the social context of the Khmer kingdom provides a second key to understanding this art. But we can also imagine that on a more exclusive level, small groups of intellectuals and artists were at work, competing among themselves in mastery and refinement as they pursued a hypothetical perfection of style. The gods we find in Khmer sculpture are those of the two great religions of India, Buddhism and Hinduism. Priests supervised the execution of the works, attested to in the high iconographic precision of the sculptures. Nonetheless, unlike those Hindu images which repeat an idealized stereotype, these images are treated with great realism and originality because they depict living models: the king and his court. The true social function of Khmer art was, in fact, the glorification of the aristocracy through these images of the gods embodied in the princes. In fact, the cult of the “deva-raja” required the development of an eminently aristocratic art in which the people were supposed to see the tangible proof of the sovereign’s divinity, while the aristocracy took pleasure in seeing itself – if, it’s true, in idealized form – immortalized in the splendour of intricate adornments, elegant dresses and extravagant jewelry. The sculptures are images of a gods, royal and imposing presences with feminine sensuality, giving impressions of figures at the courts with considerable power. The artists who sculpted the stones doubtless satisfied the primary objectives and requisites demanded by the persons who commissioned them. The sculptures represent the chosen divinity in the orthodox manner and succeeds in portraying, with great skill and expertise, high figures of the courts in all of their splendour, in the attire, adornments and jewelry of a sophisticated beauty. But if we go beyond this initial impression, we can pause to observe some of the details of the sculptures, such as the double arc drawn by the eyebrows on the foreheads, evoked below by the wisely sketched curve of the noses and farther down, by the double arc which masterfully outlines the lips and the double chin. Following a hypothetical vertical line down still farther, we find another double arc outlining the breasts, and then, continuing down from the waist all along the skirts and ending in the ankles, we find almost at the bottom, a twisted double arc intended to represent the other side of the skirts. This detail serves, above all, to eliminate a certain hieratic fixedness, which was relatively common in the Khmer statues of lesser quality.

Dance

Cambodian Dance can be divided into three main categories: classical dance, folk dances, and vernacular dances.Khmer classical dance is a form of Cambodian dance originally performed only for royalty. The dances have many elements in common with Thai classical dance. During the mid-20th century, it was introduced to the public where it now remains a celebrated icon of Khmer culture, often being performed during public events, holidays, and for tourists visiting Cambodia.this classical Dance is famous for its using of hands and feet to express emotion which known as there are 4000 different gestures in this type of dance. Provided as repeating a golden age in 1960s, Khmer Classical Dance which know as The Royal Ballet of Cambodia after select as UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, has led one of its dance to be a outstanding dance of all for culture and society. Reamker, a Khmer version of Indian, Ramayana had influenced strongly to Khmer classical dance. It involved in Khmer gesture, movement and story line. The dance that divided from Reamker Dance known as Robam Sovann Macha and Robam Moni Mekala. In fact, all of Dance reminded the audience of celestial dance which is an angel or Apsara in Sanskrit mythology in goal of bring the good luck and success to the viewer. The Classical dance is create by the heart of high art as the performer is decorated with themselves with a branches of jewellery. Apsara Dance, a Khmer dance that has survived since the Angkor Era, has been singled out to attract foreign tourists and to make the richness of Khmer culture known to the world. Apsara Dance was promoted by Princess Norodom Buppha Devi before the Khmer Rouge times and recently has received an award as one of the main symbols of Cambodia. Khmer folk dances, which are performed for audiences, are fast-paced. The movements and gestures are not as stylized as Khmer classical dance. Folk dancers wear clothes of the people they are portraying such as Chams, hill tribes, farmers, and peasants. The folk dance music is played by a mahori orchestra. Cambodian vernacular dances (or social dances) are those danced at social gatherings. Such dances include Romvong, Rom Kbach, Rom Saravan, and Lam Leav. Some of these dances have much influence from the traditional dances of Laos. But Rom Kbach, for example, take heavily from the classical dance of the royal court.

  • Angkor Wat
  • Pavilion of the Imperial Palace
  • Pha That Luang
  • Ayutthaya
  • Grand Palace
  • Imperial City of Hue
  • Bokator martial arts
  • Khmer dance
  • Khmer dish
  • Khmer alphabet

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