The Khanate of Khiva (Uzbek: Xiva Xonligi, also known as the Khanate of Khwarezm) is a nation in Central Asia. Located in the former Xorazm province in Uzbekistan. Khiva is located in between the Khanate of Aralia and the Emirate of Bukhara, and shares a border between both. Therefore, although small, it is a vitally important region in Central Asian politics.
The Khanate of Khiva is a nation with long history. Founded by a group of Persian survivors from the earlier Khwarezmi Empire, plus many Uzbeks that had settled in the years since its conquest by Genghis Khan, the Khanate of Khiva always had a small sphere of influence, roughly stretching until the Aral Sea and Old Urgench in old times. When the Russians arrived, the Khanate was weaker than ever, and soon it became a Russian protectorate. In 1917, the Khanate changed its flag, but it wouldn't enjoy it for long, as the Soviet revolutions in Central Asia destroyed the Khanate. The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic followed the demise of the Khanate for five years, until it was divided into the Uzbek and Turkmeni SSR.
The Uzbek SSR was hit more lightly than other SSR's such as the Kazakh or the Turkmeni. Uzbekistan received nuclear strikes over the cities of Termez, Tashkent (four separate nuclear strikes), Andijon, Qarshi, Navoiy and Uchquduq. The radiation was a problem too, but most of it quickly escaped onto the lowlands into west Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
The Xorazm viloyat fell into chaos immediately after contact was lost with Moscow and Tashkent. For the first three post-Doomsday years, in difference of the nearby Emirate of Bukhara or the Khanate of Aralia. Even the Khanate of Kokand, which was in the most desolate area of all Uzbekistan, fared better than Khiva for the first few years. This however, changed in 1986. Throughout the years, a local warlord from humble origins of a small family that lived near Urgench when the bombs fell in Doomsday rose to power. His rise of power was very quick, and soon the man took over all of the viloyat, re-establishing the Khanate of Khiva which had fell to Russian armies in 1917, and adopting the title of Sayid Abdullah II. The Khanate stayed in complete isolation until 1991, when the Khanate discovered the nearby Emirate of Bukhara. The Emirate had recently fallen to the Muslim Liberation Army and had been made a puppet. The Khivans, not wanting for this to happen for them, closed off all communications with the outside world.
The Dark Years
The years that followed the Emirate of Bukhara's discovery were terrible for the Khanate as a general. The Khanate was affected by fallout much more than the eastern lands of Turkestan had been, and many people died. The population of what once was the Xorazm viloyat reduced to almost a third to what it was once. Due to this, the years are called the Dark Years . Fortunately, due to increase in temperature and humidity in Central Asia, new lakes of small size appeared throughout the new Khanate, keeping much of the population from either starving or dehydrating. This improved Khivan world conditions in Khiva's worst age.
Recovery and Reopening
Khiva's government then started a reconstruction program, focusing on a good living for the population and an increase of population within the emirate. Soon, many Bukharans and Aralians started moving towards Khiva, in search of a better life. This caused Khiva's population to rise a bit, but not so much as to recover the 2/3 of population it had lost in the Dark Years.
Since 2001 trade relationships have increased when communication was made with Aralia. Later, in 2005, the Khivans opened relationships with the Emirate of Bukhara. Since 2010, the Khanate has supplied supplies to the Emirate's royalist faction.
The Khanate of Khiva is very flat and pretty much fertile due to the Amu Darya River. It has no mountains of major importance, and the only river is the Amu Darya. It is the smallest of the post-Soviet Union states in Central Asia. However, Khiva is in a strategic position and therefore within the interests of many. This strategic position is that it shares a border with the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Aralia.
Khiva has a very agricultural and conservative market economy, mostly dependent on cotton agriculture and its exports to the Emirate of Bukhara.
The Khanate's main trading partners are the nearby Emirate of Bukhara and Khanates of Aralia and Kokand. Its main export is cotton, which is of a very fine quality. Its main import is grain and other food, which are very needed within the Khivan population. Khiva's main trade city is Urgench.
70% if the population depends on its living by agriculture, mostly within the Amu Darya river surroundings. Khiva's main agricultural product is cotton, which is of a very high quality.
The small 30% of the urban Khivan population is dependent upon industry. Khiva's main industry is for commercial exportation, although less than 15% of the Khivan GDP depends upon industry other than strictly agricultural ones.
Surprisingly, Khiva has no permanent standing forces, depending on drafts and militia instead. However, there are approximately 500 paramilitary troops currently active across the nation. Therefore, Khiva depends on the nearby Emirate of Bukhara for its protection and defense.
Khiva's infrastructure mainly comes from the Soviet era. After Doomsday, few efforts had been made to the construction of new infrastructural objects.
There is an airport in the Khivan territory: The Urgench Airport. It is in a bad state as the Khivans barely use airspace for anything. No large efforts have made to repair the airport and currently there's only one possible travel route from this airport: the Urgench-Bukhara line, opened in November 15, 2010.
There are few but vital ports along the Amu Darya coast, mainly used to trade with nearby nations. The most important is the Urgench Fluvial Port, opened in 1991, as one of the only infrastructure projects build by the Khanate in the last years.
Although the Soviet roads are still in a good condition along the Khanate, they have fallen into disuse outside of the cities' immediate area and connector roads, and have fallen in a bad state.