Alternate History

Kelantan (The Kalmar Union)

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Sultanate of Kelantan
Timeline: The Kalmar Union
Kelantan No coa
Flag Coat of Arms
(and largest city)
Kota Bharu
Language Kelantanese Malay
Sultan Ahmad II
Prime Minister Mohd Iznan Bin Mohaideen
Population 1,021,450 
Independence 1784
Currency KTD

The Sultanate of Kelantan, Kelantan, is a medium-sized constitutional monarchy in South-West Asia. It is bordered by Perak and Pahang. The capital is Kota Bharu and the population is around 1 million.

The head of State is Sultan Ahmad II.

The official language is Kelantanese Malay

The currency is the Kelantanese Dinar (KTD). Moves to align and peg this with the Danish Krone have been attempted in the past but has proved largely unworkable.


Separated by mountains the Kelantan region of the Malay peninsula stood apart from the rest of the Malay sultanates and instead was influenced by the successive kingdoms and empires to the north. Malacca secured its dominance in around 1499 though when it fell to the Portuguese in 1526 the remaining Malay states received their nominal independence. The various Kelantanese chiefs quickly fell under Patani control. Playing on Siamese alliances Kelantan was fully united in 1784.

After the Johor War the major Malay states clamoured for support from various parties and both Kelantan and Perak would seek out Kalmar protection. The Treaty of Pasir Puteh in 1878 secured Kalmar investment for developing the economy and also a powerful ally to dissuade its neighbours from trying to dominate it again, avoiding Siam and Perak's wars over the Kra Isthmus and, most probably, avoiding being swallowed by Pahang.

Under Kalmar advice its princes would be educated in Copenhagen or Stockholm whilst Scandinavian engineers directed railway building and moves to gentle modernise the bureaucracy. Rubber was developed as a new commodity greatly desired by European markets, alongside more exotic hardwoods. Chinese immigration was encouraged to help develop the agricultural potential. Meanwhile Kelatanese labour teams were contracted by the growing Australian colonies to help build infrastructure.

Kelantan applied for full membership of the Kalmar Union in 1987 however its application was withdrawn by Sultan Mohammed V. It is unknown officially if the Union would have accepted it, however unofficially most observers suggest it would have been rejected unless perhaps Perak entered the Union at the same time. Even so, Kelantan retains an associate status much like Atikamekwia or Portugal.

In recent years the previous quite authoritarian government has relaxed and the government has focused its efforts of spreading the relative wealth (though it is still poorer than Perak say) that the coastal towns enjoy to the rural hinterland.


As part of the relaxation of authoritarian rule a small single-chambered Executive Council was established on a limited franchise. Elections are held every three years and have generally returned conservative but cautiously modernising governments.

The current Head of State is Sultan Ahmad II and the Prime Minister is Mohd Iznan Bin Mohaideen.

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