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Alternate History

Kalmar Languages (The Kalmar Union)

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Danish is the usual working language of the Kalmar Union. This is due to the central role of Denmark in the Union historically, as well as the fact it is intelligible to several other national languages. It is taught as a second language in most of the member states.

The official languages of the Kalmar Union differ slightly to the official languages of the constituent nations:

Finnish, Sami, Karelian, and Estonian are Ugrian languages distantly related to Hungarian.
Manx and Welsh are Celtic languages.
Pomersk, Ranish, and North Russian are Slavic languages.
Abernaki and Passamaquoddy are Algonquin languages with heavy Norse influences. Meanwhile Ais is an Leifian isolate.

The remainder (and by far the most widely spoken) are Germanic languages.

Below is a family tree of the Germanic languages showing their relationship and development.

Pre-Roman Iron Age
500–100 BCE
Early
Roman Iron Age
100 BCE–100 CE
Late
Roman Iron Age
100–300
Migration Period
300–600
Early Middle Ages
600–1100
Middle Ages
1100–1350
Late Middle Ages
1350–1500
Early Modern Age
1500–1700
Modern Age
1700 to present
Proto-Germanic West Germanic Irminonic
(Elbe Germanic)
Primitive Upper German Old Upper German,
Lombardic
Middle High German Early
New Upper German
Upper German varieties
Standard German
Istvaeonic
(Weser-Rhine Germanic)
Primitive Frankish Old Frankish Old Central German Middle Central German Early
New Central German
Central German varieties
(Franconian,
Luxembourgoise)
Old Low Franconian
(Old Dutch)
Early Limburgish
Middle Dutch</a>
Late Limburgish
Middle Dutch
Early Limburgish Limburgish
Early
Middle Dutch
Late
Middle Dutch
Early
Modern Dutch
Dutch varieties
Singapore Dutch
Ingvaeonic
(North Sea Germanic)
Primitive Saxon
(Southeast Ingvaeonic)
Old Saxon Middle Low German Low German varieties
Britannic-Frisian
(Northwest
Ingvaeonic)
Primitive Frisian Old Frisian Middle Frisian Frisian varieties
Primitive Britannic Old
Britannic
Middle
Anglian
Early
Modern Anglian
Anglian varieties
Middle
Wessexian
Early
Modern Wessexian
Wessexian
Early Scots Middle Scots Scots varieties
North Germanic Proto-Norse Runic
Old West Norse
Old Icelandic Late
Old Icelandic
Icelandic
Middle
Vinlandic
Early Modern
Vinlandic
Vinlandic
Hafsvaedish†
Early Modern
Álengsk‡
Álengsk
Nanticokish¶
Old Norwegian Old Faroese Faroese
Old Norn Norn
Runic
Old East Norse
Middle Norwegian Norwegian
Early
Old Danish
Late
Old Danish
Danish
Early
Old Swedish
Late
Old Swedish
Sveamål
Götamål
Runic
Old Gutnish
Early
Old Gutnish
Late
Old Gutnish
Gutnish extinct
East Germanic Gothic (unattested Gothic dialects) Crimean Gothic extinct
Vandalic extinct
Burgundian extinct

†Essentially Vinlandic with a significant Central Algonquin vocabulary.
‡Essentially Vinlandic but with Southern Algonquin grammar and phrasing.
¶Álengsk with considerable Finnish vocabulary following large settlement in 1790s.

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