Justinian II, sometimes known as Justinian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from AD 685-695. The eldest son of Constantine IV, he succeeded his father as sole emperor after the latter's death from dysentery.
As emperor, Justinian successfully campaigned against the Bulgars, repelling two incursions into Bithynia and defeating a Bulgarian naval invasion of the Pelopponese. However, this did not make up for his unpopular domestic policies, which included ruthlessly suppressing all opposition and levying exorbitant taxes in order to pay for his own lavish lifestyle. This contributed to the unrest that would eventually lead to his deposition.
Although Justinian was brought up a Muslim, he renounced Islam soon after becoming sole emperor and set about trying to reverse his father's religious legacy. He ordered the destruction of many mosques and gave their assets to his own supporters; he exiled or executed many prominent Muslim scholars and citizens of standing; and he forbade Muslims from taking their day of rest on a Friday. Although broadly popular among the Greeks of western Anatolia, his policies caused outrage among the by now predominantly Islamic population of Syria and Egypt.
Justinian was overthrown in 695 by a popular uprising. His nose was cut off and he was exiled to Crete, where he conspired with the Bulgars to recover the throne. In 705 he invaded Anatolia at the head of the Bulgar army, but was defeated in battle and executed soon after.
Justinian's overthrow began a period of anarchy, with many competing claimants to the purple, but he was eventually succeeded by his uncle Tiberius III.