Japan (Japanese: 日本), officially the Democratic Republic of Japan (日本の民主共和国; Nippon no Minshu Kyōwa-koku) is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, Korea and Federation of Socialist Republic, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south.
Its territory are the Home Islands (also called Inner Japan or Inner Lands). It lost all previous territories of the Japanese Empire (Taiwan, Korea, Micronesia and possessions in China) under the terms of peace treaties and independence of these countries. However the Allied Council has allowed Japan to keep strong cultural and economical links with Micronesia.
According to the Constitution, Japan is a democratic and social republic subject to the rule of law. All state and political authority emanates from the people. It is exercised by the people by means of elections and voting and by separate legislative, executive and judicial organs. All men and women are equal before the law, at 18 years of age and older have full political rights and freedoms.
The state powers of the republic are organized as follows:
- President (Sosai) is the head of State. The President is elected by direct popular vote, and limited to a single five-year term. The President may also dissolve the National Diet, on petition of the Cabinet and call for a general election to be held.
- The Prime Minister (Head of Government) is appointed by the President with the consent of the National Assembly. Prime Minister also appoints members of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister and a majority of the Cabinet members must be members of the Diet, and have the right and obligation to attend sessions of the Diet.
- The National Diet consists of at least 200 (presently 300) members elected to four-year terms. The National Diet is elected directly through a mixture of proportional representation and direct mandates.
- The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is nominated by the Cabinet and appointed by the President, while other 14 associated justices are nominated and appointed by the Cabinet and approved by the President. Lower court judges are nominated by the Supreme Court, appointed by the Cabinet and approved by the President.
During the revolution the single party, Taisei Yokusankai (大政翼贊會/大政翼賛会? Imperial Rule Assistance Association) was dissolved and other groups allow to organize. For the election of the Constituent Assembly the main parties that gained representation become the basis of modern Japanese political system. These are:
- National Reorganization Party
- Liberal Party (自由党 Jiyutō)
- Constitutional People's Party (Rikken Minseito)
- Labour-Farmer Party (労働農民党 Rōdōnōmintō)
- Japanese Communist Party
Reformed Military of Japan
The military is organized in the unified Japan Self-Defense Forces (自衛隊 Jieitai). The operational branches are:
- Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF, Army)
- Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF, Navy)
- Japan Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF, Air Force)
The Prime Minister is the Commander-in-Chief of the Self Defense Forces. The Minister of National Defense, and the Council of National Defense are in charge of the operational aspects of the JSDF.