Italy refers to the Italian Peninsula and surrounding islands, including the three large islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily.
Six nations exist in Italy. They are, from north to south:
- Kingdom of Sardinia - the island of Sardinia plus the northern peninsula, and the eastern half of the mid-peninsula
- Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Toyotomi Japan)
- Papal States
- Republic of San Marino
- Kingdom of Naples
- Republic of Sicily
In addition, the island of Corsica is part of the French Empire.
The Italian nations form a loose Italian League, which mostly regulates trade between the Italian states. It also manages the pan-Italian lira.
Italian History: Italian History is the same of our since 1629, when Ferdinando II Granduca di Toscana, influenced by the meeting with the Japanese diplomatic family Hara started an enlightened policy of great reforms for Tuscany, culminating with the 1634 lex de libertate spiriti, that sanctioned non discrimination between Christians an non-Christians, that brought a war with Papal Territories in 1636-1638, the Eretical War. Republic of Venice and Duchy of Parma and Modena were on Florence side (with economic help of Dutch) and Mantova Duchy and Spain on the side of Pope. At the end Tuscany obtained with the Pax Universi Treaty autodetermination in religious policy if the recognize Catholic Religion as the main one; but Parma and Modena were annexed in Papal Territories; The Granducato annexed Mantova Duchy and the Papal Territories of Reggio Emilia. Venice had been annexed by Spain and ceased to exist as a free Republic. The annexion of Venice to Spanish realms enforced a lot the strength of Spain in oriental Mediterranean and his already strong political influence in Italian peninsula. Fearing Spain could conquer all Italy Portugal, Dutch and England financed resistance in Venice and gave a lot of resources to the little Italian states to quit from Spanish orbit. In 1649 the rebellion inflamed all the ex-republic of Venice. Finally, in 1659 Spanish troops were headed back to the sea. In the hands of the Spanish remained the city of Venice and Venice’s lagoon islands in the form of the Viceroyalty of Venice. The situation in the mainland was disperate. Famine and pest were around. In 1701 capital has been moved from Treviso to Republican Venice, a new city founded in front of the decadent elephantiac one in the islands, still in the hands of Spain. In XVIII century little changed in Italy, Sardinia-Piedmont Kingdom, Republic of Free Venice, Republic of Genoa, Granducato di Toscana, and the Austrian doomed Milan experienced the cultural air of enlightenment and modernization and economic growth. The Two Sicilies Kingdom and Papal Territories experienced an economic involution and social conservationism. In the first decade of the XIX century Italy was conquered by Napoleon. North west and Tuscany had been annexed directly to French Empire and the rest of Italian region made up the French controlled Cisalpina Republic, with the exception of Papal Territories, that in 1799 were restored by Napoleon with the adding of Abruzzo. In 1812, with the falling of Napoleon all the previous nation had been restored with the same borders, with three exceptions: Savoia Piedmont Kingdom included Niece, Abruzzi remained Papal, all the North-East was annexed to Austro-Hungarian Empire in the si called Lombardo-Veneto Province. In 1859 Vittorio Emanuele II, with the help of Garibaldi militia tried to unify Italy. He managed to conquer Milan and Lombardy from the Austrian hands in 1858; in the same year Savoia orchestred rivoluzionary movements all over Italy. In 1859 the Revolutionary Republic of Tuscany declared his self in the corner of Garibaldi going to Florence with a festant crowd. Granduca decided to leave to avoid Civil War due to his great ascendant on people. So he leave to Nova Florentia with the Florence Treasure. Genoa became part of Savoia kingdom. In south Italy Garibaldi was defeated, but the Borbonic Kingdom was split in Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Principality, with the Calabrian peninsula falling in an anarchy that is still today, because of the Agreement, in witch Sicily and Naples stated Calabria would be land-of-no-man, with the Exception of Reggio Calabria and the tip of the Calabrian peninsula, still Sicilian. Calabria involved in a medioeval society, with no main infrastructure and no State, were used to be ruled by local municipality or village councils, Calabrian mafia, bandits in the mountains or (somewhere, “every home a king” as they used to say). Puglia Peninsula was annexed to Savoia. In 1879 Alberto Hara de’Medici comed back from exile and he was so happily welcomed by the crowd that Savoian system of control of the territory went down and Alberto, with his Cherokee Guard managed to take a sit in Florence. Pope promised the salvation of the soul to the King of Spain if he ceased insular Venice to Savoia and Venice to Savoia if the leave Tuscany. King of Spain at that times was called “the monk”, for his fervent faith; and Savoia did’t want a civil war. So everyone agreed and Granducato di Toscana was restored, with the exception of Mantova and Reggio Emilia enclaves, still in Savoia’s hands. As a prize, Alberto gives sovereignty of Pianosa and Montecristo islets to the Cherokee, that created traditional Indian villages there. In 1890, after the Third Global War and the dissolution of Austrian Empire, Eastern part of north-Italy was annexed to Savoia kingdom, putting his eastern border east of Fiume (Rijeka in Croatian). In 1891 the Six remaining Italian Nations: Savoian Kingdom, Granducato di Toscana (with his Nova Florentia tiny colony), San Marino, Papal Territories, Kingdom of Naples and Principality of Sicily made up the Italian league, with the institution of one currency (lira) and an economic an military alliance. This league take strength and more unification in the following century.