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Italy (Scotland says "Yes")

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Italian Republic
Repubblica Italiana
Timeline: Scotland says "Yes"
OTL equivalent: Italy
Flag of Italy.svg Emblem of Italy.svg
Motto: 
none
Anthem: 
Inno di Mameli (Anthem of Mameli)
Map of Italy-it.svg
Location of Italy (Scotland says "Yes")
Capital
(and largest city)
Rome
Other cities Milan, Naples, Turin, Palermo, Genoa, Bologna and Venice
Official languages Italian
Ethnic groups (2016) Italians, Greeks, Albanians, Arabs, Africans, Chinese and Others
Demonym Italians
Member of UN, EU, NATO and others
Government Unitary Parliamentary Republic
 -  President of the Republic Sergio Mattarella
 -  President of the Council Matteo Renzi
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate of the Republic
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
EstablishmentFormation
 -  Unity of Italy 17 March 1861 
 -  Liberation of Italy 25 April 1945 
 -  Birth of the Republic 2 June 1946 
EU accession 1951 (country founder)
Area
 -  Total 301.340 km2 
116 sq mi 
Population
 -  2016 census 60,592,547 
 -  Density 201,32/km2 
197/sq mi
Currency Euro ()
Time zone + 1
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .it
Calling code + 39
Patron saint Francis of Assisi

Italy (Italian: Italia), officially known as the Italian Republic, is a sovereign state located in the Southern Europe. It covers an area of 301 340 km squared. It enjoys a warm Mediterranean climate, and has land borders with France, Switherzland, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, San Marino and Vatican City.

History

Ancient History

Excavations show that the Italian Peninsula has been inhabited by modern man for some 40,000 years. The Ancient people of Italy were mainly made up of the Umbrians, the Latins (later Romans), Volsci, Samnites, the Celts and the Ligures, as well as many other Indo-European cultures.

Between the 17th and 11th centuries BC, Greeks made contact with Italy and in the 8th and 7th Centuries BC many Greek colonies were established in the South and Sicily, which were later joined by Phoenician colonies in Sardinia and Sicily.

Rome, originally a small settlement founded in 753 BC, dramatically conquered first the Italian peninsula, and eventually much of Europe and the Middle East. Stretching from the cold frontiers of Britain to the warmth of Persia, it engulfed the entirety of the Mediterranean basin.

However, after reaching this peak, the Roman Empire started to wain, first splitting into two, before Italy was split into many small states. Despite this, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced Western Civilization.

Middle Ages

With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy was seized by the Ostrogoths, before a brief reconquest by Byzantine Emperor Justinian. However, the invasion of the Germanic Lombards later that century reduced the Byzantine presence to a rump state and started the end of political unity for the next 1,300 years. The Lombard Kingdom itself was later absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th Century, with the Franks later helping form the Papal States in central Italy; Italian politics were dominated by Holy Rome and the Papacy until the 13th Century, with City States siding with one or the other.

During this fragmented and chaotic era, Italy saw the rise of the medieval commune: with the power vacuum created, and the struggle between the Empire and Holt See, local communities sought autonomous ways to restore both law and order. Dependence upon Germany was further severed in 1176, when the Lombard League, a collection of city-states, defeated German Emperor Barbarossa at Legnano, ensuring effective independence for most northern and central Italian cities. In the Southern and Coastal areas, the maritime republics, such as Venice and Genoa, became heavily involved in the Crusades, and grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolize trade routes to the Orient.

Meanwhile in the South, Sicily had become a thriving Islamic emirate, until the 11th century when the Italo-Normans conquered it. Many complex and intertwining events united Southern Italy as a unified kingdom under the Houses of Hohenstaufen, Captian Anjou and finally Aragon.

By the 14th century, northern Italy was divided into a number of warring city-states, the centre by the Papal States, and the south by the Kingdom of Sicily (or Naples). Though many of these states were formally subordinate to foreign rulers, many had managed to maintain de facto independence.

The Renaissance

The Renaissance originated in Italy with the revival of arts and culture, as wealth grew and foreign scholars migrated. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as foreign invasions plunged the peninsula into the Italian Wars. The Renaissance soon spread into much of Europe, at the same time as the discovery of the Americas, new routes to Asia, and the rise of the Ottoman Empire, all of these eroding Italian economic dominance.

Following the Italian Wars, the city-states gradually lost their independence to foreign dominators, first Spain and then Austria. In the early 17th century, an outburst of plague claimed about 14% of Italy's population; at the same time, the Spanish Empire started to decline, and as such so did its Italian possessions, impoverishing Southern Italy and cutting it off from Europe. During the Napoleonic Wars, northern Italy was invaded and reorganised into the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of France, while the south was administered by Napoleon's brother-in-law. The 1814 Congress of Vienna restored the Status Quo, but this was not to be for long.

Unification

Italy was formed on the 17th March 1861, after the unification under the Kingdom of Italy. During the First World War, Italy had emerged victorious from the conflict on the side of the Allies. The period between the two world wars was known the Venetennio, characterized by the Government of Mussolini and the rise of Fascism. Italy was defeated by World War II, but thanks to the aid of the Allies, has not only recovered but had an economic boom. The Italian Republic was officially established on the 2nd June 1946 with a referendum, where the people chose between the Kingdom or the Republic. They eventually voted for the Republic, with 12,717,923 votes in favor, after a constitutional assembly and the creation of the Constitution. The Italian Parliament voted Enrico De Nicola as the first President of the Republic. During the Cold War Italy had an economic boom, and was now a global superpower and a member of the G8. 

Geography

Italy is bordered by France, Switzerland, Austria, Croatia, Slovenia, and is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Sicily and Sardinia are the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and, with many other smaller islands and the South of the Italian Penisula, make up the Republic of Italy. The independent state of Vatican City and San Marino is an enclave within Italy.

Government and Politics

According to the Italian Constitution (Costituzione Italiana), the State is organized in the following way:

Italian Chamber of Deputie

The Italian Chamber of the Deputies after the 11th November 2014.

Italian Senate

The Italian Senate after the 11th November 2014

  • The Head of State is the President of the Republic (Presidente della Repubblica), elected by the Parliament every seven years. The post is currently held by Sergio Mattarella.
  • The Parliament has a bicameral system, composing of the Senate of the Republic (the Upper Chamber), and the Chamber of the Deputies (the Lower Chamber). For more info about the Parliament : Italian Parliament
  • The Chamber of the Deputies is elected by universal suffrage. There are 630 deputies, twelve of which are elected in the overseas constituencies.
  • The Senate of the Republic is elected on a regional basis. There are 315 senators, six of whom are elected in the overseas constituencies. There are also a number of senators for life, such as former Presidents or citizens appointed by the President, during his term in office, for having brought honor to the nation with their achievements.
  • The President of the Council (Presidente del Consiglio), is nominated by the President of the Republic. They are responsible for the administration of the Republic. Matteo Renzi is the current President of the Council.
  • The Constitution establishes the Government of Italy, which is composed of the Prime Minister (President of the Council) and Ministers. The President of Italy appoints the Prime Minister and, on his proposal, the Ministers that form its cabinet. The appointee can be the leader of the majority coalition that won the election, or it can be a person instructed by the President to form a national unity government in times of crisis for the nation. Either way, the government must receive the confidence of both Houses, so the Executive derives its legitimacy from the Parliament and the great number of political parties forces the Prime Minister to bend to their will if the majority coalition no longer supports the government.
  • The Constitution states that justice is administered in the name of the people and that judges are subject only to the law. So the judiciary is a branch that is completely autonomous and independent of all other branches of power, even though the Minister of Justice is responsible for the organization and functioning of those services involved with justice and has the power to originate disciplinary actions against judges. These are then administered by the High Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the President.
  • There is only partial judicial review of legislation. Judicial review exists under certain conditions, established by the Constitutional Law, in the Constitutional Court, or Corte Costituzionale, which can reject anti-constitutional laws after scrutiny. When the Court declares a law unconstitutional, the law ceases to have effect the day after the publication of the ruling.
  • The Constitutional Court is composed of 15 judges, one of which is the President of the Italian Constitutional Court, elected from the court itself. One-third of the judges are appointed by the President of the Italian Republic, one-third are elected by Parliament and one-third are elected by the ordinary and administrative supreme courts.
  • According to the Constitution, any citizen that is fifty on the day of the election, and enjoys civil and political rights, can be elected President. The President cannot hold office in any other branch of power, and the office's salary and privileges are established by law.
  • In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the cabinet, the Prime Minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of Cabinet Ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic, and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic.
  • Often the Prime Minister's activity consists more in mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire Ministers, although a cabinet reshuffle, or sometimes even an 'individual vote of no confidence' on the part of Parliament, may in practice provide a surrogate measure.

Ministers of the Government Gentiloni

Minister of the Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation

Angelino Alfano

Minister of the Interior

Marco Minniti

Minister of the Defence

Roberta Pinotti

Minister of the Justice

Andrea Orlando

Minister of the Economy and Finance

Pier Carlo Padoan 

Minister of the Economic Development

Carlo Calenda

Minister of the Agriculture, Food and Forestry

Maurizio Martina

Minister for the Environment, Land and Sea

Gian Luca Galletti

Minister of the Infrastructures and Transports

Graziano Delrio

Minister of the Labour and Social Policy

Giuliano Poletti

Minister of the Arts, Culture and Tourism

Dario Franceschini 

Minister of the Education, University and Research

Valeria Fedeli

Minister of the Health

Beatrice Lorenzin

Foreign Affairs

The Italian foreign affairs were changed after the indipendence of Scotland and Kurdistan; Italy is attempting to improve relations with Russia, as well as some Asian countries such as Iran.

Italy has recognized both Scotland, Catalonia and Kurdistan, having embassies in Edinburgh, Barcelona and in Erbil.

Administration

Italy is divided into Regions, Provinces and communes. The Regions are led by a President, elected by the citizens of the Region. The Provinces lead by a Prefect, named by the President, who are in turn in charge of all aspects of the state administration and public order. The chief magistrate of a commune is a Mayor, elected by the citizens of a city, or in special case nominated by a Prefect. They are assisted by a Municipal Consul, composed of 5 councilors named by the Mayor. Rome has a Mayor, elected by their citizens, assisted by a consult of 10 councilors named by the Mayor.

The regions are :

  • Valle d'Aosta : Aosta
  • Piemonte : Torino 
  • Liguria : Genova
  • Lombardia : Milano
  • Trentino Alto-Adige : Trento
  • Veneto : Venezia 
  • Friuli Venezia-Giulia : Trieste
  • Emilia-Romagna : Bologna
  • Toscana : Firenze
  • Marche : Ancona
  • Umbria : Perugia
  • Lazio : Roma
  • Abruzzo : L'Aquila
  • Molise : Campobasso
  • Puglia : Bari
  • Campania : Napoli
  • Basilicata : Potenza
  • Calabria : Catanzaro
  • Sicilia : Palermo
  • Sardegna : Cagliari

Economy

Italy has a mixed economy system. Though traditionally the Italian economy has been dominated by industries, agriculture and tourism, since the 1950's and 1960's there has been much industrialization.

Mass Media

The most read newspapers are the Corriere della Sera, the Repubblica, the Sole 24 ORE, the Messaggero, the Gazzetta dello Sport, Tuttosport and the Secolo XIX. Mass media of all religions are free to publish. The official news agency is the Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA).

Radio and television are privatized, but the RAI (Radio Televisione Italiana) is a the property of the state.

Armed Forces and Internal Security

Main Article: Italian Armed Forces

The Italian Armed Forces (Forze Armate Italiane) are organized in :

  • Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) : 100,000 Military
  • Italian Military Navy (Marina Militare Italiana) : 31,989 Military
  • Italian Military Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana) : 32,117 Military
  • Army of the Carabinieri (Arma dei Carabinieri) : 100,000 Carabinieri
  • Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) : 52,335 Guard

The internal security and police are in charge of :

  • Army of the Carabinieri (Arma dei Carabinieri) : 100,000 Carabinieri
  • Police of State (Polizia di Stato) : 90,400 Policemen
  • Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) : 52,335 Guard


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