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Italy (Italiano: Italia), officially known as the Italian Republic, is a sovereign state located in the Southern Europe .
Italy was formed the 17 March of 1861, after the unification under the Kingdom of Italy, during the First World War Italy he has emerged victorious from the conflict, during the period between the two world wars has known the Venetennio, characterized by the Government of Benito Mussolini and the Fascism, Italy has been defeated by Second War World, but thanks to the aid allied has recovered. The Italian Republic is officialy established the 2 June of the 1946 with a referendum, were the people have coosed between the Kingdom or the Republic, the people finally vote for the Republic. After a constitutional assembly and after the creation of the Constitution. The Italian Parliament voted Enrico De Nicola as the first president of the republic, during the Cold War Italy has had an economic boom, now Italy is a global superpower in the world and a member of the NATO, UN, EU and G8.
To the north it bordered with France, Montecarlo, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily and Sardinia. The two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, whilst Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland.
- President of the Republic (Presidente della Repubblica), elected by the Parliament every seven years. The post was held by Sergio Mattarella.
- The Parliament has a perfect bicameral system, and this are compose of the Chamber of the Deputies and of the Senate of the Republic.
- The Chamber of the Deputies is elected by the people every five years. There are 630 deputies, twelve of which are elected in the overseas constituencies.
- The Senate of the Republic is nominated by the President of the Republic. There are 321 senators, six of whom are elected in the overseas constituencies. There are also a number of senators for life, such as former Presidents or citizens appointed by the President, during his term in office, for having brought honor to the nation with their achievements.
- President of the Council (Presidente del Consiglio), nominated by the President of the Republic. They were responsible for the administration of the Republic. Matteo Renzi is the President of the Council.
- The Constitution establishes the Government of Italy as composed of the Prime Minister (President of the Council) and Ministers. The President of Italy appoints the Prime Minister and, on his proposal, the Ministers that form its cabinet. The appointee can be the leader of the majority coalition that won the election, or it can be a person instructed by the President to form a national unity government in times of crisis for the nation. Either way, the government must receive the confidence of both Houses, so the Executive derives its legitimacy from the Parliament and the great number of political parties forces the Prime Minister to bend to their will. If the majority coalition no longer supports the government.
- According to the Constitution, any citizen that is fifty on the day of the election, and enjoys civil and political rights, can be elected President. The President cannot hold office in any other branch of power, and the office's salary and privileges are established by law.
- In addition to powers inherent in being a member of the cabinet, the prime minister holds specific powers, most notably being able to nominate a list of cabinet ministers to be appointed by the President of the Republic and the countersigning of all legislative instruments having the force of law that are signed by the President of the Republic.
- Often the Prime Minister's activity consists more in mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister's supervisory power is further limited by the lack of any formal authority to fire ministers, although a cabinet reshuffle, or sometimes even an 'individual vote of no confidence' on the part of Parliament, may in practice provide a surrogate measure.
- The Ministers are 13 :
|Ministers of the Government Renzi|
|Minister of the Foreign Affairs and international cooperation||Paolo Gentiloni|
|Minister of the Interior||Angelino Alfano|
|Minister of the Defense||Roberta Pinotti|
|Minister of the Justice||Andrea Orlando|
|Minister of the Economy and Finance||Pier Carlo Padoan|
|Minister of the Economic Development||Federica Guidi|
|Minister of the Agriculture, Food and Forestry||Maurizio Martina|
|Minister for the Environment, Land and Sea||Gian Luca Galletti|
|Minister of the Infrastructures and Transports||Graziano Delrio|
|Minister of the Labour and Social Policy||Giuliano Poletti|
|Minister of the Arts, Culture and Tourism||Dario Franceschini|
|Minister of the Education, University and Research||Stefania Giannini|
|Minister of the Health||Beatrice Lorenzin|
Italy is divided into regions, provinces and communes. The regions are in charge of a president, elected by the citizens of the region. The provinces are in charge of a prefect, named by the president, who are in charge of all aspects of the state administration and public order. The chief magistrate of a commune is a mayor, elected by the citizens of a city or in special case by a prefect. He is assisted by a Municipal Consul, composed of 5 councilors named by the mayor.
The regions are twenty, five of this have a special statute of autonomy and one of them (the Trentino-Alto Adige), it consists of only two autonomous provinces, with that legislative powers similar to those of the regions, of the Italian (Trento and Bolzano). In respect of linguistic minorities, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle d'Aosta are listed under the names bilingual Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol and Valle d'Aosta / Vallée d'Aoste.
The Italian Army
The Italian Army is a Armed Force. The Army's main responsibility is protecting their borders, cooperate with the Carabinieri in the security of the main cities, makes up the bulk of the Italian Armed Forces, closely followed by the Carabinieri. The flag is used in both the general flag of the army, but also the "camp flag" of the Headquarters Corps. It have 101.794 military, they are are equipped with the Beretta 92FS as sidegun and with the AR 70/90 as main weapon, but also with the ARX-160 in special cases or with the UMP-45.
The Italian Military Navy is a Armed Force. The Navy's main responsibility is protecting their borders, aid the refugees, and protect the Italian commercial ships. The Italian fleet are composed of : 2 aircraft carriers, 3 amphibious assault ships, 4 destroyers, 15 frigates and 6 attack submarines. Patrol and littoral warfare units include : 10 offshore patrol vessels and five corvettes. 10 mine countermeasure vessels, 4 coastal patrol boats and a varied fleet of auxiliary ships are also in service. It have 31.989 military, they are are equipped with the Beretta 92FS as sidegun and with the AR 70/90 as main weapon, but also with the ARX-160 in special cases.
The Arm of the Carabinieri
The Arm of the Carabinieri is a Armed Force. The Carabinieri's main responsibility is maintaining the public security in the cities and in the campaings, control the borders, aid the refugees and cooperate with the Financial Guard in the fight of the criminals, it also cooperate with the Vaticanian Gendarmerie and with the San Marino Gendarmerie for maintaining the public security in San Marino and in the Vatican City. It also have Roles of the Military Police, in war the Carabinieri have the duty of set up the military tribunals and enforce the sentence. It have 103.893 military, they are are equipped with the Beretta 92FS as sidegun and with the AR 70/90 as main weapon, but also with the ARX-160 in special cases.
The Financial Guard
The Financial Guard is a Armed Force. The Financial's main responsibility are control the goods in enter and in exit from Italy, control the activity of the restaurants and see if they are at norm, control the main permission to trade and maintaining the public security in the cities with the cooperation of the Carabinieri, of the Police and of the Army in some cases. The Financial Guard is a Gendarmerie force, like the Carabinieri. It have 59.335 military, they are are equipped with the Beretta 92FS as sidegun and with the AR 70/90 as main weapon, but also with the ARX-160.
The Italian Military Air Force
The Italian Military Air Force is a Armed Force. The Air's main responsibility is protecting their borders, the 2015, the Italian Military Air Force operates a total active fleet of 557 aerial vehicles, of which 216 are manned combat aircraft and 12 Unmanned combat aerial vehicle. In addition there are 20 more Eurofighter Typhoon on order and 75 F-35 planned for the Italian Air force. It have 42.117 military, they are are equipped with the Beretta 92FS as sidegun and with the AR 70/90 as main weapon, but also with the ARX-160 in special cases.