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Italy (Italian: Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana) is a federal semi-presidential constitutional republic in Southern Europe.
From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italy rapidly industrialised and acquired a colonial empire becoming a Great Power. However, Southern and rural Italy remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite victory in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, which favoured the establishment of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922.