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The Kingdom of Italy is one of two successor states to the Italian Kingdom formed by Garibaldi in the 1860's. It was formed as a constitutional monarchy by King Umberto in his attempts to retain control of Northern Italy in the face of the Failure of Benito Mussolini to retain control of the strikes and the unions. Its early existence was nearly ended in the 60's when the Socialist's in Sicily attempted to overrun its defences and reunite Italy.
The North Seas Alliance saved the Kingdom in the 60's but Italy was never a full member and it renounced associate membership in 1982 when Princess Maria who had been Regent during the Italian war staged a coup alongside the military and with Papal backing that saw her depose her father. Not satisfied with total control of Northern Italy the army urged Maria to go one further and end the influence that the Vatican had on Italy and in the summer of 1990 with the world distracted by the Anglo-Dutch succession crisis Italian troops stormed Rome in a joint Operation with there Sicilian Counterparts and crowned Maria as Pope with the unwilling backing of the College of Cardinals.
In 1956 Benito Mussolini was elected prime minister of Italy for the second and last time, for the four years since 1952 the Italian state had been vastly cut down, its navy and air force cut to the bone in the pursuit of saving money while the functions of the state had been vastly reduced. Despite this however the Italian state had been significantly economically booming since Mussolini had taken power and most Italians were enjoying a relatively better standard on life than they had enjoyed in years, this success however was built on fragile foundations. Italy had been suffering from a major disparity between North and South for years, the economically poorer south had depended on subsidiary from the far richer north in order to maintain a decent standard of living, primarily through government owned armaments firms that employed large sections of south Italian society. These firms were dominated by unions that often had strong links with either the Sicilian Mafia in the far south or the Italian Socialist party further to the north. In fact it was often said to be impossible to be employed south of Rome without either being a member of the Socialist Party or having some association with the Mafia, This was not entirely true, but nonetheless, revealed how much those two titans dominated southern Italian culture.
The far richer Northern provinces strongly resented being made to subsidise there southern cousins and many viewed there presence in the Italian state at best an inconvenience and at worst saw it as distasteful blight on the Italian state. In 1956 these tensions exploded, Mussolini in an attempt to break the power of the socialists and the mafia announced a major pay cut for the armaments industry. Later historians decried Mussolini as an idiot for failing to consider the possibility that the Italian south might take this badly. In reality, however, this was just the straw that broke the horses back, the Italian state was an abomination that existed only by an accident of history and was almost certainly doomed to failure. After Mussolini's departure in 1957 the king appointed Amintore Fanfani in an attempt to restore control. It was too late, however, circumstances had formed a bastard alliance in the south between the socialist leader Palmiro Togliatti into alliance with the Sicilian mafia that had already secured control of much of the Italian south.