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The Kingdom of Italy was established on March 17, 1861 when the states of Italy united under the Kingdom of Sardinia, and its King Victor Emmanuel II. It is currently ruled under King Vittorio Emanuele I and its government is ead and represented by Prime Minister Mario Monti, who has been serving since late 2011.
Italy's main ally, Germany has been Italy's ally officially since the War of Nations in 1870, when it abandoned its apparent alliance with the Second French Empire and the Austrian Empire, who Italy had defeated with Prussia, Germany's main predecesor, in 1866 in the Austro-Prussian War. Since then they have intermarried once and cemented their alliance in World War I and World War II, when they defeated a coalition of Britain, France, and Russia. After the War of Nations, both Germany and Italy became friendly, and then allies with Austria-Hungary, the Austrian Empires direct successor. Currently, the three are bound as allies under the Triple Alliance, signified by the Treaty of Vienna in 1882, signed by the then heads of state, Wilhelm I of Germany, Umberto I of Italy, and Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary.
Italy is a constitutional monarchy, with the King as the head of state and of the House of Savoy, the Prime Minister as the head of government, and with a Parliament, lower house being the Chamber of Deputies, and upper house being the Senate. The King is the chief executive, has power of command over the military, and enforces law through his ministers. The Prime Minister, like Germany's, is appointed by the King after a vote for nomination by Parliament, and changes with new elections as a result. The Chamber of Deputies is elected constitutionally every five years, although this can be subject to change, while the Senators are appointed by provincial legislatures.