In 1925, Italian government, led by coalition of Socialist Party and Communist Party called for increased co-operation with Germany and Soviet Union. Ruling parties' rally turned into mass demonstration against monarch power. Soon, the protesters took over major cities. Fearing civil war, king Vittorio Emanuel III handed power to Socialists, hoping to maintain his position as a monarch, albeit without real power. After short political struggle, between Socialist Party and Communist Party, won by Communists, Vittorio Emanuel III was expelled from the country.