War for Independence
The Unification of Italy had mainly begun with a war for independence in Italian areas that were controlled by foreign powers such as France, Spain, or Austria. Once the independence was achieved the Dukes of the Italian duchies came together at the council of Flourence to discuss unification matters. Several Duchies agreed to unify, but others didn't. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, wanting a unified Italy, did not agree with a still separated Italy.
On September 17 of the same year the Duchy of Tuscany, Venice, Sardinia, Lombardy, Parma, and Lucca came together to form the Grand Duchy of Flourence. The only Duchies still not part of Flourence were Modena, The Papal States, and the Kingdom of two Sicilies.
The Grand Duchy of Flourence worked very similar to the U.S.A under the articles of Confederation. Each of the States pretty much had too much power. The leading states of the Duchy were Tuscany and Venice.
On December 30th later that year Tuscany and Venice lead the first attacks against Modena along with aid from the cruelly mistreated Italian Unification group within Modena. The Italian Unification group used guerrilla tactics within Modena and the day by day assassination of Modenan royalty began. At around the same time Venice lead several battles against Modena in Carpi. On the fifth day of Assassinations Venice captured Carpi. Tuscany in the meantime had captured small towns in the south of Modena. On January 9th Tuscany captured the city of Modena and annexed the Duchy as part of Tuscany. Carpi was annexed as part of Venice. When Modena was captured the war took place on two planes and the small Modenan colonies were either freed or annexed as part of the remaining Tuscan colonies. The only two Italian duchies remaining were the Papal States and the Kingdom of two Sicilies. The Kingdom of Two Sicilies allied itself with Austria in order for protection.
Sicily and Tuscany met in battle at the northern edge of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. A battle was fought and the Tuscans marched onward. At that time the Sicilians had gathered a battle force of Austrian and Sicilian men to meet the Tuscans at Naples. In the meantime Venice launched an assault on the Papal States, to conquer Rome. The Papal States fought back against the force of Venetians and won. Soon the war was turning in favor of the Separatists. Venice and Tuscany gathered with another council at the Grand Duchy of Flourence the following year and they stated that they needed aid from the other members of the Duchy of Flourence. All of the States with an exception of Lombardy declared that they didn't want to join in a new war. Under the articles that held together the Grand Duchy they were able to do that.
In June that same year a large Naval battle was fought off the coast of Malta. The forces of Tuscany, Venice, and Lombardy met to fight the Papal States, Sicilians, and Austrians. The battle lasted all day and when night closed in both navies retreated. In July that year Tuscany captured Malta.