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The Italian Rebellions were a number[1] of wars fought between Italian and other European nations in the 19th century. The rebellions were the result of nationalism growing in several Italian states and the want for a union. However, due to conflicting interests from Austria and France, the rebellions were contained.


Charles Albert of Sardinia

King Charles Albert of Sardinia

During the French Revolution, revolutionaries had invaded other European nations and had annexed several lands, and claimed up to four client republics. France had mainly used them to spread influence of republicanism. Sardinia had become fearful of the rise of France and there was worry that republicanism would spread there, too. At the time, every state on the Italian peninsula was either a French client state or a kingdom. In 1819, a surprise attack on the Kingdom of Sicily officially united the two Bourbon kingdoms, and proved that Italian unification was certainly possible.

By the 1850s, the idea of a unified Italy spread throughout the peninsula. However, two nations became in the way of this--France, who had influence on three states in the area, and Austria, who also had presence in the region. Charles Albert of Sardinia, king of Sardinia at the time, had considered a unification of every Italian northern state in the region between France and Austria, excluding Switzerland. This included the Duchy of Parma, the Cisalpine Republic, the Ligurian Republic and parts of the Venetian Province.

In 1853, the Crimean War had begun, and France had concerned herself with aiding the Ottomans. The Sardinian government decided that this would be the best opportunity to unite Northeastern Italy. Troops quickly assembled near the border of Liguria to annex it by force.

First Italian Rebellion

Main article: First Italian Rebellion
First Italian War of Independence Picture

Sardinians in battle

On 21 November 1853, Sardinia declared war on France and swiftly invaded Liguria by the next afternoon. French troops, stunned by the seemingly unjustified declaration of war, also declared on Sardinia. French soldiers based in the Cisalpine Republic had invaded Sardinia from the east. Only a limited amount of men would be used to secure the rebellion, as most were busy in the Black Sea.

By the end of the rebellion, France acknowledged the Sardinian annexation of Liguria.

Second Italian Rebellion

World War I efforts

World War II

When World War II began in Europe, chaos ensued as nations like France tried desperately to bring peace over the continent. As France and Austria-Hungary began attacking the Soviets, Sardinia had yet again found the perfect opportunity to unit the Italian lands.

Act of Unification


  1. Amount TBD

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