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Istria (Croatian and Slovene: Istra; and Italian: Istria; and German: Istrien) is a federal state of Austria-Hungary. It is bordered by Italy and the states of Slovenia and Illyria. Officially the State of Istria is bilingual (Italian and Croatian).
Istria is parliamentary representative democratic state, according to its state constitution is organized as follows.
- The State Governor (Governatore), who is the head of the state and imperial representative, is appointed for a five year term by the Emperor-King, on advice and consultation of the State-President. The Governor can dissolve and call for immediate elections of the State Assembly on a proposal of the State-President
- The State Government consists of the State-President and the State Council. The State-President is appointed by the State Governor, from the leader of the party or coalition with majority in the State Assembly. The rest of the state council is appointed by the Governor on recommendation of the Minister-President.
- The unicameral State Assembly is the supreme legislative body of the State. Its 70 members are elected by universal suffrage using a proportional representation system for a five-year term, unless previously dissolved by the Governor;
- The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme State Court and Constitutional Court are nominated by the State Governor, on a list proposed by the State Assembly.
The main parties are:
- Autonomist Association (Italian: Associazione Autonoma, Partito Autonomo; Croatian: Autonomna stranka, Autonomaška stranka), conservative regionalist party
- People's Party of Istria
- Istrian Democrats
- Social Democratic Party of Istria
- Communist Party of Istria
Istria is divided into districts (kreis) and the cities-communes of Trieste, Fiume, and Pola The districts are subdivided in communes and settlements
The continental plains and valleys, are primarily utilized for agriculture, such as growing cereals and vegetables. Closer to the sea, red lands are used for cultivation of grapes, vine, olives and figs. Agriculture and the production of olive quality wines, are the focus of Istria's agriculture sector. The coastline and nearby islands are rich in the maquis shrubland (mostly holm oak and strawberry tree). Woods, mostly oak and pine trees, cover a third of the territory.
Istria's main cities are the major industrial centers. Their major industries are shipbuilding, tourism, fishing, food industries, construction industries and other non-metal industries. Pola's large natural harbor is Austria-Hungary's main naval base and a major shipbuilding center.
During the 1920s, the Istria flourished as the Austro-Italian Riviera. Trieste, Fiume and Pola developed into buzzing cosmopolitan cities visited by artists, musicians, poets and writers from all over Austria-Hungary and the rest of Europe. The surrounding coastal towns and villages developed into favorite hot spots for the rich and famous.