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Israel was formed on May 14, 1948, a few years after the ending of World War II. The UN Security Council took a chunk from the British Mandate for Palestine and formed the nation-state of Israel. Its Arab neighbors did not approve of that, and a few years later, the surrounding Arab nations invaded their supposebly "weak" neighbor. The war turned out to Israeli favour, and Israel was recognised by the majority of countries.
In 1956, Israel invaded Egypt with the help of Britain and France. The war went well, the Sinai peninsula soon fell to the Israeli forces, and troops moved into mainland Egypt. With the war going well in Egypt, Israel decided that the best way forward would be to be able to have a larger population from which to have a larger army. Jordan was then invaded, and this move was supported by the British and French, due to their alliance with the Israelis. Jordan did badly, and, with British and French support, Israel managed to capture most strategic points in West Jordan within the end of October.
The attack on Egypt was following the seizing of the Suez Canal by Egypt from the British, while the attack on Jordan was to help expand the Israeli power base. With the capturing of the Sinai and the Suez by tripartite forces, international pressure from the Soviet Union and the United States increased significantly. The tripartite rode their luck and continued the war against Egypt, with the French and British forces finally allowing an Israeli commander. The result was the destruction of the Egyptian armed forces in the "battles of November" and the capture of the whole of Jordan by Israeli forces by November end.
Although the US and the USSR continued to pressure the tripartite forces, their pressure faded into nothing. Eisenhower was secretly pleased about this, while the USSR could only fume. The war ended with a tripartite victory, and ended with the Sinai and Suez canal coming into Israeli control, the union of Jordan and Israel and the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza strip.
Time of Unrest
Yet after the so-called successful Suez-Sinai War, unrest erupted within Israel itself. As hundreds of thousands of Jewish immigrants entered the country, many Muslims in Jordan began to rebel. The Palestinians saw their chance and began an armed resistance as well. The government found it very hard to keep control of the situation, and the army was called in to crush the resistance in the Palestine. The campaign in the Palestine went on for over 3 years and received much criticism from the outside world due to the Israeli massacres committed in the region. Many Palestinians were forced to convert to save their lives while others fled the region completely.
In Jordan, diplomacy was first used to keep the situation under control. However, this did not make progress, and the Jordanians began their own resistance movement. The government knew that deploying the army here as well would overstretch them and the country could break apart. So they shrewdly decided to reinstate the Jordanian Royal Family, this time for the whole of Israel, after converting them to Judaism. Much of the Royal Family did not support the move, yet the threat of death was enough for most of them to convert. Seeing their King and Queen convert was enough for the Jordanians to lose hope of becoming independent again.
Over the next 5 years, the army was drafted in (after they had finished in the Palestine) and much of the resistance movement was destroyed. Due to the highly Semitic nature of education in Israel, many Jordanian children began to be indoctrinated in the ways of the Torah and Islam lost its prominence.
The 7-day War
By 1965, the newer generations of Jordanians began identifying themselves as Israeli, and to a lesser extent as Jews. Benefits were also offered to Jewish families, while there was no support for families following Islam. This convinced many remaining families following Islam (most of whom were now living in poverty due to the backlash against them) to convert and receive benefits.
Many Arab countries in the area were aghast at what was happening, especially Syria and Egypt. The met in secret and decided that they could wait no longer and had to act against Israel to save their Muslim brethren from the Jews. Tensions between the Arab countries and Israel had been rising from 1956 itself and it was a surprise that the Arab countries had not invaded Israel earlier.
Egypt, soon after the meeting, declared the Strait of Tiran closed to Israeli shipping. After this, Iraqi troops soon mobilised on the Jordanian border, while Syria and Egypt began the build-up to war. Israel soon widened its Cabinet, including opposition parties, and for the first time, parties operating out of Jordan itself. The Jordanians realised that they would be at the same amount of risk as the Israelis if the Iraqis invaded alongside the Syrians, and soon a few new divisions (consisting of mostly Jordanians) were formed to defend against an invasion from the north and north-east.
Israel realised that they had to grab the initiative. On the morning of 15 June, Israel launched a surprise attack on the Egyptian Air force, effectively destroying their capability to to launch fighters for the remainder of the war. Out of the 450 fighters present in the Egyptian Air force, over 398 were destroyed. Among the other aircraft destroyed included Tu-16s, Il-28s and Su-12s. They then launched a land offensive into Egypt by crossing the Suez and invading the mainland.
Syria entered the war on the false Egyptan accounts of destroyed Israeli aircraft.