The Isle of Man (Manx: Ellan Vannin) is a home country of the Commonwealth in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is named by Lord Protector, and holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Lord of Mann is represented by a Governor.
The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was also known as King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103.
In 1266, the island became part of Scotland by the Treaty of Perth. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into to the Commonwealth in 1651 and becoming a fully part of the Commonwealth in 1668. When it was discussed in Parliament the status of the dependency there was a proposal to merge the Isle of Man into the English county of Cumberland. This met with fierce resistance from the inhabitants, led by the then Speaker of the House of Keys. (Thomas Fairfax, as Lord of Mann conciliated positions that lead to the approval of the Act of Union of 1668.
Act of Union of 1668
The Isle of Man since its rebellion in October 1651 had been ruled jointly by the Lord of Mann, appointed by the Protector, and Commissioners for governing the Isle, appointed by the Lord of Mann.
The Act incorporated and reorganized the former Crown dependency of the Isle of Man. Religious toleration is established and the forfeiture of all royal property and revenues. All customs and excise taxes between the Commonwealth and the former crown dependencies are abolished, taxes and levies to be harmonized and the contributions to be proportional. The legislatures of Man is kept and the former dependency as representatives in the Commonwealth Parliament. The power to pass legislation and ordinances affecting the Island ultimately rests with its own legislative assemblies (the bicameral Tynwald of Man) and executives council, with the assent of a special committee of the Council of State, that also names the Governor. However local laws prevails, unless specified otherwise. The judiciary of the former Crown dependencies is kept independent and have the right of appeal to the High Judicial Committee of the Commonwealth.
The passage of the Union by Parliament (12 August 1668) is an official holiday in the Isle of Man as Union and Mutual Partnership Day.
The title of Lord of Mann (Dominus Manniae) is given the same status and treatment as the Chancellors of the Duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall. The holders of the title have been Lord Thomas Fairfax (1651 – 1671).
The parliamentary representation of the Isle of Man is the following:
|House of Commons|| Boro'|
|House of Commons (1654-1669)||—||—||—||—||—||—||—||—|
|House of Commons (1670-... Isle of Man and Channel Islands Constituencies Act of 1669)||—||1||—||1||—||1||—||1|
|Senate (1670, by Isle of Man and Channel Islands Constituencies Act of 1669) Senator jointly elected by both territories||/||/||/||/||1|