Starting roughly 23 million years ago in the oligocene the Great Rift Valley in east Africa and the Middle East begins a massive volcanic activity and the rift begins to spread quickly.
21 million years ago, the Red Sea begins to spread north and the Dead Sea becomes a northern extension. The Red Sea joins the Mediterranean Sea, the Sinai peninsula becomes an island.
20 million years ago, the Afar depression begins to flood with fresh water flowing from the south. The floor of the great rift valley begins to descend causing the river Nile to change direction and flow south not north, a major tributary of the Congo River to flow east not west and the Zambezi River stops flowing into the Indian Ocean and starts flowing north into the lakes to the north. Several large lakes begin to join together into one massive fresh water lake this then discharges north into the Afar depression, then overflows into the Red Sea.
18 million years ago, the horn of Africa begins to separate from the rest of the continent of Africa. The large rift lake begins to slowly empty northwards into the extending Red Sea.
12 million years ago, an earthquake below the outflowing river from the rift lakes system causes a massive collapse and the river erodes far enough down that the great lake begins to empty rapidly. The lake empties in less than four weeks. The sea then invades the system forming a thin but deep new sea.
Seven million years ago, the east side of Africa totally separates from the main African continent.
3.2 million years ago Homonid Paranthropus robustus evolves on East African island. On the African continent Australopithicus afarensis evolves.
2.6 million years ago Paranthropus robustus evolves into Kenyanthropus platyops on the mainland Australopithicus afarensis evolves into Homo habilis
1.8 million years ago, on the east African island Kenyanthropus platyops evolves into Homo afrensis. On the main continent Homo habilis evolves into Homo erectus and begins to migrate across the African continent.
Homo afrensis colonises all of the east African island.
1.5 million years ago Homo erectus evolves into Homo heidelbergensis 1.2 million years ago Homo heidlebergensis makes it across the Red Sea Straits to the Sinai island and then onto the middle east.
1.1 million years ago Homo afrensis evolves into Homo kenyansis.
870,000 years ago Homo heidlebergensis evolves into Homo sapiens in southern Africa and also into Homo neanderthalensis in Europe.
550,000 years ago Homo kenyansis evolves into Homo idaltu on the east African island. They become boat builders in approx 475,000 years ago and cross the Indian ocean, colonising Madagascar before island hopping to Australia (colonising around 330,000 years ago). They travel across Australia and colonise the northern islands of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia by 250,000 years ago. a small colony is set up in southern Africa however Homo sapiens kills all the majority of the colonists and survivors travel back to east Africa and tell stories of killer humans.
- Homo sapiens- males 6 foot tall, females 5 foot 6 inches tall.
- Homo neanderthalensis- males 5 foot 6 inches tall, females 5 foot tall.
- Homo idaltu- males 7 foot 6 inches tall, females 6 foot tall.
125,000 years ago Homo sapiens are the only species on the African continent and throughout mainland Asia, Europe has Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens, the east African island, Madagascar, Australia, Indian Ocean islands and Indonesian islands are populated by Homo idaltu
35,000 years ago Homo neanderthalensis becomes extinct in Europe. Probably due to competition with Homo sapiens. Homo idaltu colonises the east coast of Asia, driving out the Homo sapiens due to their large size and larger muscle mass.
25,000 years ago, Homo idaltu discovers the west coast of the Americas.
12,000 years ago Homo sapiens and Homo idaltu begin trading by ships. Ports are set up across the world.
8000 years ago, Homo sapiens develops agriculture in the Tigris/Euphrates valley.
7500 years ago, agriculture has spread to the rest of the world. New species of grain, rice and maize are developed.