The so-called Irish Government (sometime referred to as "the Republican Government of Ireland in Exile") is an organisation whose stated aim is the separation of Ireland from the British Empire.
It is managed by a president and a senate elected by members of the Irish Diaspora who pay their dues to the organisation. Although this "tax" is voluntary, there have been a few incidents in recent years when some Irish businessmen felt that the aggressive manner in which it was solicited made it akin to racketeering. No charges were ever filed.
While it is not de jure recognised by any countries, some such as the USA and Laurentia have extended it a de facto status of a sort. Their permanent delegations, for example, are afforded a certain level of respect on par with embassies.
Apart from the political side, the organisation also finance a militant wing known as the Irish Republican Army. It was originally intended to be the nucleus of a future national army but as time passed, it became simply a security force for the organisation. Actual overt acts of aggression against British targets are performed by the Fenian Brotherhood, a group which, due to its sometime hardline stance, as fallen in and out of favour with the Irish Government over the years.
A rift as arisen lately within the government as well as the diaspora at large between the "hardcases" who want independence pure and simple and the "stepists" who want a softer approach, engaging the British government in a dialogue to first gain a devolution of powers to Ireland and then securing further independence down the road.