The Republic of Iraq (Arabic: الجمهورية العراقية, Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Iraqiyah), commonly known as Iraq (العراق, al-‘Irāq), is a Middle Eastern nation which occupies the majority of Mesopotamia. The modern day nation gains its roots following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War II, in which the British established a colonial presence in the area. Iraq became a republic in 1958 following the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy. Since 1979, the nation has been under rule of Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party.
Using the nation's oil wealth, Hussein has developed one of the largest armed forces of the world. In the 1990s, Iraq used its wealth to expand its nuclear and space programs. With backing from the Soviet Union and neighboring Syria, Iraq established a settlement on Venus in 2003. Despite revolutions breaking out in the Arab World, Iraq remains under the control of Hussein. In 2011, the Iraqi settlements on Venus declared independence as the Republic of Hilal. While recognized by Venus and several nations on Earth, Iraq continues to claim Hilal as part of Iraqi jurisdiction.