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Ionia was a state in Asia Minor. Its was bordered by Turkey. Created after World War I by the Treaty of Lucerne as an independent state under the protection of Greece. Its stated purpose was to function as a buffer and satellite state of Greece in Anatolia.
A High Commissioner of Smyrna, appointed by Greek government, safeguards the defensive arrangements and diplomatic relations between Greece and Ionia.
Iona was recognized and had diplomatic relations with France, Italy, Greece, UK and Austria-Hungary. The Turkish republic never recognized its status of an independent state and reclaimed it as part of its territory.
Ionia was a parliamentary republic. Its constitution is based on the Greek and French ones. According to it the republic is organized as follows:
- The Head of State was the President of Republic, elected by a joint session of National Assembly for a mandate of five years. He names the President of the Council of Ministers, that acted as the Head of Government.
- The legislative power rested in the National Assembly, a bicameral body that consisted of a Senate (with a mandate of 9 years, elected by an electoral college in thirds every three years) and Chamber of Deputies (elected for a mandate of 4 years or less if dissolved for new elections).
- The judicature is organized in the Court of Cassation (supreme court over civil and criminal courts) and the Council of State (supreme court over administrative courts).
All men over 21 years can vote in all elections and referenda.
Not stated in the Constitution, the Greek High Commissioner of Smyrna had wide powers and veto over decisions of the Government and could call the use of public force when necessary to preserve order or Greek interests.
Ionia was divided in sanjaks (district), kaza (canton), municipalities of district centers (belediye), and karye (village). Muhtars and their village councils (Azalar) are elected during local elections for five-year terms. All district centers have municipalities (belediye), headed by an elected mayor, who administers a defined municipality area (usually matching the urban zone) for defined municipal matters.
The political parties were organized around the Venizelist National Progressive Party (EPK), the Metaxist National Hellenic Union (EEE), the left-wing the Farmers’ and Workers’ Party (ΑΕΚ). The Communist Party of Ionia (KKI) was outlawed from its inception.
The Turkish nationalist organized themselves in the Turkish People's Party, informally organized and funded by the Turkish Republican People's Party.
Other states created by the Treaty of Lucerne: