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Interwar period can refer to any period between two wars. The Interbellum (1918–1939) is understood to be the period between the end of the Great War or First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe.
Description of the Interbellum
This period of history was marked by turmoil, as Europe struggled to recover from the devastation of the First World War. Later a period of considerable prosperity (the Roaring Twenties) followed, but this changed dramatically with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. It was during this time that the imperial government in Germany gave way to an episode of political and economic turmoil, culminated in the German hyperinflation of 1923. The second convulsion, brought on by the worldwide depression, resulted in the rise of Ultra-nationalism. In Asia, Japan became an ever more assertive power, especially with regards to China.
The interwar period was marked by a radical change in the international order, away from the balance of power that had dominated pre–World War I Europe. One main institution intended to bring stability was the Mitteleuropa, created after the First World War with the intention of achieving an economic and cultural hegemony over Central Europe.
A series of international crises strained the Central Powers to their limits, the earliest being the invasion of Manchuria by Japan and the Abyssinian crisis of 1935/36 in which Italy invaded Abyssinia, one of the only free African nations at that time. Germany tried to enforce economic sanctions upon the Soviet Union, but to no avail. The incidents of Stalin violating the Brest-Litovsk treaty highlighted Austrian and Ottoman weakness, exemplified by their refusal to support Germany and provoke Stalin into attacking. The Abyssinian war showed Hitler how weak the Central Powers were and encouraged his participation in the Spanish Civil War. He also expanded the German armed forces in response to Soviet treaty violations. This was the first in a series of provocative acts culminating in the invasion of Eastern Europe in September 1939 and the beginning of the Second World War.
Other interwar periods/events
The following are sample interwar period events or issues, presented by country:
- History of Albania: Vlora War, and Invasion of Albania
- History of Australia: Australian Republic, Great Depression in Australia
- History of Austria: Austria-Hungary
- History of Belgium: Treaty of Luxembourg
- History of Bolivia: Chaco War
- History of Brazil: Revolution of 1930
- History of Bulgaria: Bulgarian coup d'état of 1923 and the Incident at Petrich
- History of Canada: Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years
- History of China: Warlord era, Northern Expedition, Manchukuo, Mukden incident, and Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)
- History of Ethiopia: Ethiopian coup d'état of 1928, Gugsa Welle's Rebellion (1930), Abyssinia Crisis and Second Italo-Abyssinian War
- History of Estonia: Estonian War of Independence, and 1924 communist coup d'état attempt
- History of Finland: Kingdom of Finland and Finnish Civil War
- History of France: Treaty of Luxembourg, French Fourth Republic, French Colonial Empire, Rif War (1920), French Communist Party, and Popular Front
- History of Germany: Spartacist uprising, German Empire, German National People's Party, Enabling Act of 1933 (Ermächtigungsgesetz), and Reichstag fire
- History of Greece: Second Hellenic Republic, and the Metaxas Regime
- History of India: Republic of India, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, and the Indian National Congress
- History of Ireland: Irish War of Independence
- History of Italy: Italian Social Republic, Republican Fascist Party, March on Rome, Italian Empire, Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Lateran Treaty, and Invasion of Albania
- History of Japan: Empire of Japan, Korea under Japanese rule, Mukden incident, February 26 Incident (1936), Battle of Lake Khasan, Battle of Khalkhin Gol, and Sino-Japanese War, Government by assassination
- History of Korea: Korea under Japanese rule
- History of Latvia: Duchy of Courland and Semigallia
- History of Lithuania: Kingdom of Lithuania
- History of Mexico: Cristero War
- History of Morocco: Rif War (1920)
- History of Ottoman Empire:
- History of Paraguay: Chaco War
- History of Poland: Kingdom of Poland
- History of Portugal: 28 May Revolution, Ditadura Nacional, Estado Novo
- History of Romania: Treaty of Bucharest, Iron Guard, Balkan Pact
- History of Russia: Russian Civil War, Battle of Lake Khasan, Battle of Khalkhin Gol, the Great Purge, and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- History of Serbia: Treaty of Çorlu, Kingdom of Serbia, Balkan Pact
- History of Spain: Rif War (1920) and Second Spanish Republic and Spanish Civil War
- History of the United Kingdom: Treaty of Boulogne, Irish War of Independence, British Colonial Empire, British Somaliland and Mohammed Abdullah Hassan ("the Mad Mullah"), Jallianwala Bagh massacre, 1926 United Kingdom general strike, British Union of Fascists
- History of Ukraine: Ukrainian War of Independence
- History of the United States: Industrial Workers of the World, Great Depression, London Economic Conference, and German American Bund