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In September 12, 1945, the Eleven Japanese Division and Fourth Manchurian Division of the Japanese Armed Forces entered Hohhot, Inner Mongolia. The commander of Chinese Army in Inner Mongolia, General Chen Xuogun officially surrendered to the commander of Japanese Army in Kalgan, General Chiba Ketsuzo in September 19, 1945. The Interim Executive Committee of the Inner Mongolia formed in September 25, 1945 and headed by Nayaan Tuunamiir.
The conference between the delegates of Allied Powers in Inner Mongolia held in Kalgan on December 1, 1945. The Soviet Union and Japan agreed to replace the forces of Red Army and the Mongolian People's Army in southern Xingan with the Japanese forces. Although most of Xingan Province annexed to the Mongolian People's Republic, the conference ended the Pan-Mongolism vision of Outer Mongolian leader, Khorloogiin Choibalsan, for uniting Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia.
Japan convened the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Political Council in aim to establish an independent Mongol state in Inner Mongolia on January 27, 1946. This council attended by the Mongol political leaders and the delegates of Mongol banners from all part of Inner Mongolia. Mönkhtuyaa Balkhiirgol, the leader of Mongol People's Union, was elected as the Chairman of IMAPC Working Committee.
On the meeting of the GPO of Japanese Nationalist Party on May 1946, First Secretary Hotori Etsu emphasized the political goals of the Japanese military administration in the Mongol Territory were "to eliminate the Fascist elements of past Kuomintang government, to restructure the Mongol social system, and to establish a national-democratic state in Inner Mongolia."
In June 1946, the IMAPC began to implement the Japanese-inspired policies, such as the agrarian reform and the plan of national industrialization. The Bank of the Mongol Territory was established on September 1946 and printed the first issue of inner Mongol yuan on January 23, 1947. In a similar move with its neighbor, Manchuria, the Mongol Territory also declared both Mandarin Chinese and Mongolian languages as the co-official languages due to a significant number of Han Chinese population in the Territory.
On January 21, 1950, the Inner Mongolian Political Autonomous Council re-called the representatives from all part of Mongol Territory to convene the Grand Mongol National Conference to draw up a draft constitution of the future Mongol national-democratic state. The Mongol Democratic State was officially inaugurated on May 8, 1950 with Tsolmongerel Batukesig as its first President and Mönkhtuyaa Balkhiirgol as its first Prime Minister.