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India (English)Timeline: The Fires of God
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
"Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people"
India (in green) and neighbouring countries as of 2015
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Narendra Modhi|
|-||Independence from the United Kingdom||15 August 1947|
India, officially the Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country with over 1 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 29 states and 7 union territories. A pluralistic, multilingual, and multi-ethnic society, the country is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, it shares land borders with Persia to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four religions — Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism — originated here, whereas Zoroastrianism and the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Christianity arrived in the 1st millennium AD and also shaped the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.
Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, inadequate public healthcare, and terrorism. A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, it has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks ninth in military expenditure among nations.