Republic of India
Motto"Satyameva Jayate"
AnthemJana Gana Mana
|250px |center |alt=|Location of India (India is Great)]]
Location of India
Largest city Karachi
Religion  Hinduism
Demonym Indian
Government Federal Parliamentary Republic
 •  President Pranab Mukherjee
 •  Vice President Jaswant Singh
 •  Prime Minister Narendra Modi
 •  Chief Justice TS Thakur
Legislature Parliament of India
 •  Indian Declaration Of Independence August 15 1947 
 •  Republic Day January 26 1950 
 •   estimate 1,241,462,926 
 •  Density 263.61/km2 
682.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP)  estimate
 •  Total 16.387 trillion (3rd)
 •  Per capita 13,200 (88th)
GDP (nominal)  estimate
 •  Total 9.670 trillion (3rd)
 •  Per capita 7,790 (74th)
Gini  30.0 
HDI  0.757 
Currency Indian rupee (INR)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy
Calling code +91
India, officially the United Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Iran to the west; Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north; China to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—originated here, whereas Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and also shaped the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, India became an independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.

Economists estimate India to have been the most populous and wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions edged forward. Currently, the Indian economy is the world's second-largest by nominal GDP and first-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following market-based economic reforms in 1978, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newly industrialised country. A nuclear weapons state and a major regional power, it is considered that India will be one of the future superpowers. It has the largest standing army in the world and ranks second  in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliament consisting of 20 regions and four union territories. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and a multi-ethnic society. It is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.


The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindus. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ινδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. It is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century onward as a native name of India. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in Punjab in the second millennium BCE. It is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya (literally, people's State) is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for "republic" dating back to the ancient times. Hindustan is an ancient Persian name for India dating to 3rd century BCE. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then, often being thought of as the "Land of the Hindus." Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety.


Ancient History

The earliest authenticated human remains in South Asia date to about 60,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. Around 7000 BCE, the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia; it flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.

During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. The Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed during this period, and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. There was once a theory called Aryan Invasion Theory, which states that people from Caucasus migrated to India after the Indus Valley Civilisation, but it's been disproven. The caste system arose during this period, creating.

Indischer Maler des 6. Jahrhunderts 001

Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 6th century

A hierarchy of priests, warriors, free peasants and traders, and lastly the indigenous peoples who were regarded as impure; and small tribal units gradually coalesced into monarchical, state-level polities. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.

In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas. The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira. Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India. In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal, and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire. The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas. The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.

The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South East Asia. In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women. By the 4th and 5th centuries,

Map of Vedic India

Map Of India During Vedic Period

the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms. Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself. The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite. Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.

Medieval History

Big Temple-Temple

The granite tower of Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur was completed in 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola I.

The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity. When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southward, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan. When his successor attempted to expand eastward, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal. When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southward, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south. No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region. During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes. The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.

In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language. They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent. Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised, drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well. Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation. By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java. Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206. The sultanate was to control much of North India, and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north, According to many these Islamic Sultanates bought dark ages to India, because of, which local Indian Cultures and religions were suppressed and progress in science and arts were halted. The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire. Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of Peninsular India, and was to influence South Indian society for long afterward.

Early Modern India

In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Hindu Indian warriors led by Hemchandra Vikramaditya. The resulting Bharatvarsha stamped out most of the Islamic Traditions and also reconverted lots of Muslims, This event is known to be the start of Dharmic Jayati, Where Dharmic religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism will become influential in India. Slowly there were Inclusive ruling elites appearing, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Dharmic identity, especially under Hemchandra, Bharatvarsha united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through an Indianised culture, to an emperor who was God-Like.

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya

Bharatvarsha went on an expansion spree throughout the subcontinent and forcefully reverted nearly most of the Muslims. They also revived Sanskrit and made a bilingual policy of teaching people their native language and Sanskrit. There was also a language called Urdu, a version of Sanskrit written in the Arabic Script. It was used by the Indian Muslims. Many rulers took to themselves to build lots of temples, monasteries and later gurudwaras. They also destroyed most of the Muslim architecture and mosques. Bharatvarsha's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets. The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion. This peace was also broken by long and bloody wars for expansion. This is also called the second golden age of India, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. Sikhism was also founded in Amritsar, By Guru Nanak, Which took the best from Islam and Hinduism, Sikhs later formed their own political Organisation.

Chatrapati Shivaji was perhaps the most important ruler of Bharatvarsha after Hemchandra. He led a massive war against Burma, resulting in their capture. Burma did not experience a lot of change since they were all Buddhists. However, it was changed forever and resulted in Hinduism being the largest religion in the Arakan state due to conversions.


Bharatvarsha at its peak

By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts. The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Bharatvarshan elite; both these factors were crucial in allowing the Company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies. Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s. India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.

Modern India

Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie  as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes — among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph — were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the Company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule. Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East Company and to the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest. In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.

The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets. There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians. There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption. The railway network provided critical famine relief, notably reduced the cost of moving goods, and helped nascent Indian-owned industry. After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served, a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-cooperation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol. During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections. The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II and the Congress's final push for non-cooperation. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947.

Nehru and Bose, who will lead the largest parties of India Congress and CPI respectively

Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic. In the 60 years since, India has had a great record of successes and some notable failures. It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and an independent press. Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1970s, has transformed India with most of its citizens being in middle class and a sizable minority of upper class. India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies, and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China. The India–China nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations.


India is the world's most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system, it has six recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress (INC), Communist Party of India (CPI) and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre, CPI is considered Left-Wing in Indian political culture, and the BJP right-wing. For the period between 1950 — when India first became a republic — and the late 1980s, the Congress and CPI held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalitions at the centre.

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951 and 1957 Subhas Chandra Bose-led CPI easy victories with Congress as the main opposition.1962 Nehru led Congress won but unfortunately died in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971 after Bose also died in 1965. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over three years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi died; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years. Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. But the Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.

A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term. In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's Communist parties. That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term. In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties. The Prime Minister of India is Narendra Modi, who was formerly Chief Minister of Gujarat.


India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. It is a republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the federal government and the states. The government abides by constitutional checks and balances. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1944, states in its preamble that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. Its government has a huge Dharmic influence but it is secular. India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states, has grown increasingly federal since the late 1980s as a result of political, economic and social changes. The federal government comprises three branches:

  •  Executive: The President of India is the head of state and is elected indirectly by the Rastriya Sabha for a five-year term. The Prime Minister of India is the head of government and exercises most executive power. Appointed by the president, the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance holding the majority of seats in the house of parliament. The executive branch of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice-president, and the Council of Ministers—the cabinet being its executive committee headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament. In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and his council are directly responsible to the house of the parliament.
  •  Legislative: The legislature of India is the unicameral parliament. It operates under a parliamentary system and comprises the house called the Rastriya Sabha ("National Assembly"). All but ten of the Rastriya Sabha members are directly elected by popular vote; they represent individual constituencies via five-year terms. The remaining two members are nominated by the president from among the Anglo-Indian community, in case the president decides that they are not adequately represented. There are also regional legislative assembly called Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) which is three times the size of Rastriya Sabha and even each state has its own assembly that is a sub part of the Vidhan Sabha called Rajya Sabha.
  • Judicial: India has a unitary four-tier independent judiciary that comprises the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 20 High Courts, a large number of low courts and hundreds of trial courts. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the centre; it has appellate over the High Courts. It has the power both to declare the law and to strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution, as well as to invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional.


India is divided into 20 regions and four union territories, each region is further divided into districts which also act as constituencies-

Regions of India (India is Great)

Foreign relations and military

Modi staffer 2005169f

Narendra Modi meets Vladimir Putin At the 6th BRICS summit. India and Russia share extensive economic, defense and technological ties.

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. India is one of the founders along with Yugoslavia and Indonesia. However, relations with United States and the Soviet Union were not really bad, they were just not exceptionally good. But relations with USA became low after Nixon's visit to China. As India and China had gone to war over border disputes and the Tibetan Independence Question. Indian relations with USSR grew very strong after this event. It strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and India has tense relations with neighbouring China; the two nations have gone to war two times: in 1959 and 1962. All these wars were fought over the disputed territories between China and India and independence Of Tibet. After the 1972 Nixon visit to China.

Aside from ongoing strategic relations with Russia, India has wide-ranging defense relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organisation. The nation has provided 150,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums. India has close economic ties with South America, Asia and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.

China's nuclear test of 1964, India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1964, just months after the Chinese nuclear test and carried out further underground testing in 1968. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and developed a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine. It is developing a ballistic missile defense shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth-generation fighter jet and even building its own fifth-generation fighter jet. Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.

Since the end of the Cold War, India has dramatically increased its economic, strategic and military cooperation with the United States and the European Union. In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state. India subsequently signed cooperation agreements involving energy with Russia, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 2.7 million active troops, they compose the world's largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force; auxiliary organisations include the Strategic Forces Command and two paramilitary groups: Special Frontier Force, and the Indian Coast Guard. The official Indian defense for 2011 was USD 150.05 billion, or 1.67% of GDP. In 2011, the annual defense budget increased by 11.6%, although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government. As of 2012, India is the one of the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 7% of funds spent on international arms purchases. Much of the military expenditure was focused on defense against China and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea and also recently to become the most powerful nation in the Indian Ocean.


According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2015 was nominally worth US$9.670 trillion; it is the 3rd-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US$16.387 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity, or PPP. With its average annual GDP growth rate of 7.2% over the past two decades, and reaching 8.5% during 2011–12, India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies. However, the country ranks 74th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 88th in GDP per capita at PPP. Until 1975, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. India's recent economic model is largely capitalist. India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.</span>

The 544.8-million worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2011. The service sector makes up 42.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 39.2% and the agricultural sector 18.2%. India's foreign exchange remittances were US$100 billion in year 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries. Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software. In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 26%, up from 4% in 1975. In 2008, India's share of world trade was 11.89%; In 2011, India was the world's fourth-largest importer and the second -largest exporter. Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures. Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals. Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in calendar year 2013.

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007, India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century. Some 659 million Indians have left poverty since 1975; India's middle classes are projected to number around 1.158 billion by 2030. Though ranking 21st in global competitiveness, India ranks 7th in financial market sophistication, 12th in the banking sector, 6th in business sophistication, and 9th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, as of 2010. With 10 of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, as of 2012. India's consumer market, the world's second-largest, is expected to become largest by 2030.Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1975, when economic liberalisation began, to US$7,790 in 2010, and is estimated to increase to US$8,110 by 2016

According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2025. During the next two decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2030. The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle class. The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.


India's telecommunication industry is the world's Largest, India surpassed USA to become the largest Smartphone market in the world.

Its automotive industry, the world's fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 33% during 2009–10, and exports by 42% during 2008–09. India's capacity to generate electrical power is 400 gig watts, of which 25% is renewable. At the end of 2014, the Indian IT industry employed 7.2 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$400 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.

The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant markets for global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $248.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceutical industry. India is among the top 5 biotech destinations of the world. The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–13, increasing its revenues from 604.4 Billion INR (Indian Rupees) to 935.24 Billion INR (3.94 B US$ - exchange rate June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR). Although nearly 86% of Indians pay income taxes.


Despite impressive economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. India contains the one of the largest concentration of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1975 to 40% in 1995, and 13% in 2015. 9.37% of India's children under the age of five are underweight. According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 9% of Indian population is undernourished. The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates. Corruption in India is perceived to have increased significantly, with one report estimating the illegal capital flows since independence to be US$462 billion.

India has one of the highest number of people living in conditions of slavery, 10 million, most of whom are in bonded labour. India has one of the largest number of child labourers under the age of 14 in the world with an estimated 8.6 million children engaged in hazardous occupations.


With 1,241,462,926 residents reported in the 2015 provisional census report, India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 16.75% during 2001–2011, compared to 22.74% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001). The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 955 females per 1000 males. The median age was 24.5 in the 2012 census. The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 425.1 million people. Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly. India continues to face several public health-related challenges.

Life expectancy in India is at 79 years with life expectancy for women being 80.4 years and for men being 78.3. There are around 250 physicians per 100,000 Indians. The number of Indians living in urban areas has grown by 150% between 1981 and 2011. In 2001, over 75% lived in urban areas. According to the 2011 census, there are over 100 million-plus cities in India; among them Mumbai, Karachi, Indraprastha, Bangalore, Indore, Bhagyanagar, Guwahati, Chennai, Ashaval, Kochi, Colombo, Kalikshetra, Kabul, Quetta, Srinagar, Kathmandu, Cuttack, Lahore, Lakshmanpur, Patliputra and Jaipur. The literacy rate in 2011 was 98.5%: 98% among females and 99% among males. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is twice that in urban areas. Kerala is the most literate state with 100% literacy; while Bihar the least with 83.%.

India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 70% of the population) and Dravidian (20%). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic, Iranian and Sino-Tibetan language families. India's national language is Sanskrit, despite only 2% identifying it as their mother tongue, everyone knows it as a lingua franca. English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language"; it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises over 100 "scheduled languages". The Constitution of India recognises 150 scheduled tribal groups which together constitute about 5% of the country's population. The 2011 census reported that Hinduism (80% of the population) is the largest religion in India, followed by Islam (10%). Other religions include Sikhism (3%), Buddhism (2%), Christianity (2%), Jainism (2%), Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Bahá'í Faith and the Free-Thinkers constitute the remaining 1%. India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Baha'i populations and the second largest Muslim country in the world.

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