Alternate History

If Lenin was killed

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  • Lenin was killed in April
  • Strong pacifists June riots in Petrograd, collapse of the army, fraternization at the front
  • The first use of tanks of the Entente on the Western Front. But Entente offensive failed
  • In August, Kerensky began peace talks with the Central Alliance
  • Kornilov putsch against Provisional Government and peace talks with the Germany. Army refuses to obey the Kornilov and to go home. General labor strike, riots in Petrograd and Moscow, restoration of the Provisional Government. Kornilov and his supporters fled from the Russia
  • Austro-German offensive against Italy. Complete destruction of the Italian army, socialist revolution in Italy
  • British forces occupied Ottoman Palestine and Mesopotamia with the support of the Arab population, striving to create pan-Arab state in the Middle East
  • Bialystok Peace Treaty: Russian Provisional Government provides independence of Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldavia, Baltic and Caucasus states, Crimea and Finland. These countries are coming under control of the Central Alliance
  • In the occupied (by Central Alliance) territories is imposed puppet regime. German puppets: Finland (ruler is «regent» Karl Mannerheim), Baltic Duchy (power belongs to the Baltic Germans), Kingdom of Lithuania, People Republic of Belarus, Ukraine (ruler is «hetman» Skoropadsky) and Republic of Georgia (rulers is Georgian Menshevics). Ottoman puppets: Crimean People Republic (power belongs to Crimean tatars) and Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Armenia annexed by Ottoman Empire, Moldavia annexed by Romania


  • Italian revolutionary government takes control of the continental Italy, Sicily and Sardinia. Italian Somali annexed by Britain, Eritrea annexed by Ethiopia, Libya was proclaimed independent kingdom
  • Trieste Peace Treaty: Social Republic of Italy was losing Venice in favor of Austro-Hungary
  • The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of the Russian republic. Although the State Duma, dominated by the SRs and Mensheviks (moderate socialists), the Cadets (liberals) form the government, causing resentment of the left-minded people. Victor Chernov elected as first president of Russia. Moving the capital in Moscow
  • Ataman Krasnov declares independence from the Russia Cossack territory. Non-Cossacks declared non-citizens
  • German offensive on the Western Front: Paris besieged
  • US troops removed the siege of the Paris. May Revolution in Germany, coming to power government of the Friedrich Ebert (moderate socialist). Similar revolution taking place in Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria
  • Revolt of the extreme left (the Bolsheviks, the Left Mensheviks and Left SRs) with the requirement to declare Russia a socialist republic. These groups form the Communist Party of Russia (KPR). Revolt is suppressed, leaders of the KPR- Trotsky and Kollontai- was killed. Right Mensheviks and Right SRs form Social Front
  • Italy denounced the Trieste Peace Treaty and annexed Venice, Triest and Trentino
  • Entente offensive on all fronts
  • Unwillingness to make peace with Entente, the government of the Germany overthrown. Karl Liebknecht proclaimed Germany a socialist state (German People Union). The Communists came to power in Austria, announced the accession of Germany. Bela Kun proclaimed the Hungarian People Republic. Italy, Germany and Hungary create Comintern- alliance of the socialist states
  • Jozef Pilsudski, leader of the Polish Legion, declared about Polish independent. In Prague, Czechoslovakia was proclaimed independent. In Zagreb proclaimed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (SSCS). The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria proclaimed Western Ukrainian People's Republic and announces reunion with Ukraine. The Comintern recognized independent states


  • Paris Peace Treaty Comintern with the Entente. Initially, the Entente (especially France), wanted to impose Germany a very humiliating peace treaty with the huge indemnities and complete demilitarization. However, under pressure from the mass of workers and left-wing protesters, many of the most humiliating demands were dropped. It also sought the US who didn’t want to over-rule Anglo-French alliance. However, France annexed Alsace-Lorraine and Saar, Belgium- Eupen and Malmedy, Denmark- north Schleswig, Poland- west Prussia and Poznan, Lithuania- Memelland. It also limited German army, the German navy handed over to Britain, created a demilitarized zone on the French border. Germany loses all colonies. Also, Romania annexed Banat, Bukovina and Transylvania from Hungary
  • Created the Leage of Nations
  • Serbian army occupied and annexed SSCS with the consent of the local population. Created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (KSCS).
  • Greece annexed Bulgarian Thrace
  • In Ukraine, Simon Petliura and Mykhailo Hrushevsky overthrow the regime of hetman Skoropadsky and proclaim the Ukrainian People Republic
  • In place of Baltic Duche arise Estonia and Latvia
  • In returning to Russia Georgia, Armenia, Belarus, Cossack territory and Turkestan, but in these areas (especially in the Cossack territory and Turkestan) actually has no power Russian government
  • Under pressure from the Entente countries, Russia is forced to agree to pay huge reparations for the empire's debts and contributions for a separate Bialystok peace. Also, Russia should grant autonomy to Georgia, Armenia, Belarus, Cossack territory and Turkestan, and give to Azerbaijan Karabakh and Hakhichevan
  • The beginning of the Polish intervention in the territory of neighboring countries in Silesia and East Prussia (Germany), Teshin (Czechoslovakia), the Vilnius region (Lithuania), the West Ukrainian People's Republic


  • Sevres Peace Treaty: hope for a pan-Arab state collapsed. Britain received the League of Nations mandate for Palestine, Iraq and Jordan, France- mandate for Syria and Lebannon. Greece annexed Ottoman Thrace, Dodecanese island and Izmir region. Istanbul and the neighborhood become a Bosporus protectorate (management of the Leage of Nations). On the territory of the vilayets of Van, Bitlis, Erzerum and Trebizond created Armenian state (the Republic of Western Armenia) under the control of the League of Nations, associated with the Armenian autonomy in Russia. Germany doesn’t attempt to provide assistance to Turkey because they do not want to interfere with the US and the League of Nations, with which they cooperate against the Anglo-French alliance
  • Ukrainian troops annexed Crimean People Republic
  • Polish troops occupied almost entirely of the West Ukrainian People's Republic, Belarus, Vilnius region and Upper Silesia. Germany, Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania declared war on Poland.
  • Czech soldiers repulsed the attack of Polish troops in Teshin. Czechoslovakia declared war on Poland.
  • German offensive on Warsaw and Krakow
  • Galician Ukrainian uprising against Polish troops, the Ukrainian army frees the region
  • Russian-Lithuanian forces liberate Vilnius and eastern Belarus from the Polish army
  • The Entente and the League of Nations demand that the warring parties to cease hostilities
  • French troops occupied German Rhineland. Comintern and Entente are on the brink of war
  • British Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon demands from Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania to stop the forces on the line Vilnius-Brest-Lviv ("Curzon Line")
  • Ukrainian forces stopped the Poles in Lviv region, Russian- near Bialystok
  • Poland made ​​peace with Czechoslovakia, abandoning claims to Teshin
  • The coming to power of the Kuomintang in Canton (Guangzhou) and the Guangdong province


  • The defeat of German forces near Warsaw and Czestochowa ("miracle on the Vistula"). The signing of the Bucharest Peace Treaty: Germany recognizes the right of Poland to West Prussia and Poznan, and gives to her Upper Silesia.
  • Polish troops began offensive on the East
  • The fleet of the Entente focuses on the Black Sea, the troops of the Entente, in Romania. The Entente demands from Ukraine, Lithuania and Russia to end the war with Poland
  • Treaty of Kiev: Ukraine gives to Poland Galicia
  • Treaty of Riga: Russia and Lithuania gives to Poland West Belarus and Vilnius (boundary as in the real history)
  • International adventurer, Ungern von Sternberg, seizes power in Mongolia, driving out Chinese troops and turning Mongolia into a Japanese puppet- Mongokuo
  • Kuomintang unsuccessfully trying to convince various Chinese provinces to unite around him against foreigners
  • Washington Conference: US seeks elimination of the Anglo-Japanese alliance, the restrictions of the fleets, the withdrawal of Japanese forces from Shandong (China), and the abolition of Japans "21 demands" to China
  • Massive Communist uprising in Russia.
  • Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Ankara), lead by Mustafa Kemal, announced the abolition of the monarchy. The signing of the German-Turkish treaty "of friendship and brotherhood"
  • Start fighting the Zionist organizations for independent Jewish state in Palestine
  • Tribes Reef go to war for the independence of Morocco in the territories of Spanish Morocco
  • Top of famine in Russia
  • Britain recognizes the independence of Ireland
  • Former SR Savinkov and offspring from the Southern Russia Anton Grishin created the National Union of Sovereign (NUS)- ultranationalist populist party


  • According to the new German-French agreement, created under the mediation of the US and Leage of Nation, the French occupation of the Rhineland stop
  • Sophia treaty between Russia and the Comintern: the beginning of military and economic cooperation between the countries. It also stipulated the assistance of Comintern starving in Russia in exchange for permission to resettle all the Russian Germans in Germany
  • The overthrow of the unpopular after the defeat in Polish-Ukrainian war Simon Petlyura, Ukraine headed by Mykhailo Hrushevsky. The Ukrainian government formed radical left party. Ukraine comes to the Comintern.
  • Inspired by the revolution in Ukraine, the Russian Communist riots in Petrograd and Yaroslavl. Riots crushed.
  • With the support of the Comintern, the troops of the tribe Reef completely liberated Spanish Morocco and declared the emirate of Reef
  • Military coup in Spain. Establishment of far-right government of Primo de Rivera (the dictatorship of the party "Phalanx"). Sending new Spain troops in Morocco
  • The establishment of the fascist regime in Bulgaria
  • Invasion of the Japano-Mongolian forces in Manchuria, the restoration of the power of the Emperor Pu Yi, the creation of the puppet state Manchukuo
  • In view Japanese danger, many Chinese militarists form alliance with the Kuomintang. Also, an alliance with the Kuomintang and the Chinese сommunists are the Comintern
  • Japanese and Mongolian troops occupying Russian protectorate, Tuva. Only under pressure from the League of Nations and the international community, they are derived
  • NUS make attempt to seize power - Rostov Putsch
  • The majority in the government and the Duma were Cadets and far right party, displacing the Social Front and Communists
  • The mass Communists riots in Baltic States. Because to their suppression in the Baltic States established right anti-Communist regimes unfriendly to the Comintern
  • Overthrow the regime of Albanian dictator Ahmed Zog by democratic and leftist opposition. Beginning of the Greece intervention and civil war
  • Rupture of a military anti-Polish alliance of Germany and Czechoslovakia, as Czechoslovakia dissatisfied with Communist propaganda of the Comintern and the support of Germany the movement of Sudeten Germans.


  • Death of Karl Liebknecht, the leader of Germany and Comintern, come to power Heinrich Brandler, who heads the moderate Communists. In Germany, apart from the ruling party allowed the social-democrats and the national-socialists (left-nationalists, led by Otto Strasser and Ernst Nikish). Opposition parties have been allowed in other countries of the Comintern.
  • After civil war, Albania headed by bishop Fan Noli, left liberal, and entered into Comintern
  • Death of Victor Chernov, Russian first president. Russian second president elected Aleksey Brusilov. Government formed the nationalist parties, prime minister appointed nationalist and monarchist Vasily Shulgin
  • The Kuomintang began the Great Northern expedition to unify China. Kuomintang troops and Chinese Communists taken Nanjing and Shanghai. US and Comintern have officially supported the Kuomintang
  • Coming to power in Mexico left anticlerical government. Mutiny of the religious right-minded farmers («kristeros»)
  • With the support of the Persian Cossack Brigade and former officers of the Kornilov to power in Persia comes Reza Shah Pahlavi. Persia was renamed Iran ("the land of the Aryans"), established a fascist regime
  • Mongokuo annexed Chinese Inner Mongolia
  • In the Russian Duma formed a powerful faction of NUS. Anton Grishin dismisses the former leader of the NUS Savinkov and come to grips with the left opposition within the NUS, led by Esenin and Kluyev, who advocating for "national-socialism"
  • The elimination of the autonomy of Turkestan. Governor General of Turkestan appointed Mikhail Tukhachevsky, using very strict measures against supporters of independence («basmachi movement»)
  • Seeking to expel all Europeans from Morocco, Reef forces invaded in French Morocco and Fez took. France declares war on the Reef tribe


  • Kuomintang forces took Bejing. Kuomintang declared itself the legitimate government of a united China
  • Brusilov's death from pneumonia. Russian third president is Vasily Shulgin. Prime minister appointed monarchist and black-hundredist Vladimir Purishkevich
  • Pilsudski's coup in Poland, to establish a military dictatorship
  • The Governor-General Tukhachevsky was authorized by any measure (including the use of chemical weapons, deportation and massacres) against the "unruly" and "incapable of civilization" nomadic (Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Turkmens)
  • Bosporus protectorate renamed as Bosporus republic and became independent state
  • Overthrow of the republic in Portugal, to establish the fascist dictatorship of the New State
  • Corneliu Codreanu creates a Romanian fascist organization «Iron Guard»
  • The government of Purishkevich abolishes the autonomy of Belarus. Tuvan protectorate connected directly to Russia
  • Manchukuo at the inspiration of Japan annexed of the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER). Russian troops under the command of general Yakob Slashchyov entrusted with the defense of the CER, crushed
  • The failure attempt of Greece annexed Bosporus republic
  • Beginning of the territorial conflict Greece with KSСS over the disputed territory in Macedonia
  • Signing the Comintern states agreement with KSHS about friendship, commerce and non-aggression
  • After the destruction of the ruled Chinese militarist cliques, one of the Chinese warlord, Ma Bufan, founded state of Hui (Chinese Muslim) in the provinces Qinghai and Gansu
  • The beginning of the struggle of Indonesian nationalists led by Sukarno for the independence
  • French-Spanish troops destroy the state of Reef. Abd-al Krim, leader of the Reef, runs to Italy


  • Mass protests by workers, the discontent in the countryside because of the low standard of living, failure on the CER and unpopular government led to the resignation of Purishkevich. New prime minister becomes Pavel Milyukoff. The traditional right parties are losing popularity in favor of the lefts and Cadets, but the NUS is gaining power.
  • Attempt of the Kuomintang annexed Hui state. Failed because of pressure from Japan and Mongokuo
  • Seeking revenge for the defeat and eliminate political opponents, Chiang Kai-shek ordered to begin the extermination of the Chinese Communists.
  • Beginning of the Chinese Civil War between Kuomintang and Communists.
  • Brandler rejects the slogan of «world revolution» and announces «peaceful competition» of the socialistic and capitalistic systems. From the German Communist Party out Brandler’s opponents. They form the German Communist Party (Opposition). Same thing happens in other countries of Comintern
  • With the mediation of the US and Vatican reconciled government of Mexico and kristeros
  • Anton Grishin published a book «My Struggle» outlining the program of NUS containing populist, nationalist and anti-Semitic ideas
  • Britain gives autonomy to Hashemite Iraq and Jordan. Strengthening Arab and Jewish independent movement

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