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Hurricanes (1983: Doomsday)

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Tropical storms and hurricanes, 1984 through 2009

1984

Hurricane Diana With Category 4 winds of 135 mph, Diana threatened to become the most intense hurricane to strike North Carolina since Hurricane Hazel in 1954. However, it looped and weakened just offshore and made landfall on September 13, as a Category 2 hurricane.[1] Because of this, Diana only caused $65.5 million in damage (1984 USD) due to heavy flooding from up to 19 inches (480 mm) of rain,[8] tree damage, and downed power lines. Most of the damage was experienced between Wilmington, North Carolina and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The Carolina Power and Light Brunswick Nuclear Power Plant recorded winds of over 75 mph, making Hurricane Diana the first hurricane to bring hurricane force winds to a nuclear power plant. Some yard damage was seen, but the plant was mostly unaffected.[9]

Three indirect deaths were reported from Diana. One person died from a heart attack while making hurricane preparations, and the other two were from automobile accidents.[9] Following the storm, President Ronald Reagan declared North Carolina a federal disaster area, allowing the affected regions to receive government funds and assistance.[10]

1985

Hurricane Danny A tropical wave moved off the west coast of Africa on July 30 and continued across the Atlantic and though the Leeward Islands with no sign of development. On August 12, data from hurricane hunter flights indicated that a tropical depression formed near the Cayman Islands.[1] The tropical depression then crossed the tip of Cuba and entered the Gulf of Mexico on August 13. In a 24 hour period, the depression rapidly intensified into a tropical storm and then a hurricane and was named Danny by the National Hurricane Center. Danny continued northwest with a peak wind speed of 80 mph and minimum barometric pressure of 987 millibars before making landfall (August 14) near Lake Charles, Louisiana. Danny then quickly weakened into a tropical storm as it moved inland. The center was still identifiable before the storm became extratropical near the East coast of the United States.[1] [edit] Impact Danny's storm total rainfall.

Danny killed 3 people (2 direct, 1 indirect)[2] and left up to $100 million dollars in damage (1985 USD) in damage. Danny also produced an outbreak of tornadoes. About 47 tornadoes were reported in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and the Carolinas. Moderate to heavy rainfall fell to the east of the track while Danny remained tropical. As it was transitioning into a frontal wave across the East, heavy rainfall became focused to the left of its track, overrunning the frontal surface ahead of the storm.[3] [edit] Gulf of Mexico

Forty miles offshore the Gulf coast, seven Texans sailed a 41-foot (12 m) yacht into the storm. They were airlifted to a hospital in the New Orleans metropolitan area after experiencing various injuries.[4]

Louisiana and Mississippi

In Louisiana, the storm dropped heavy rainfall with totals of 3 inches reported in New Orleans and Baton Rouge.[5] there was moderate flooding and 275 homes were destroyed or severely damaged. About 792 people were left homeless and sixty six were injured by the storm there were no deaths. The American Red Cross reported that there was up to $23 million dollars (1985 USD) in damage.[3] Governor Edwin Edwards declared a state of emergency for 13 parishes.[4] In Mississippi, an F2 tornado spawned by Danny touched down near Hickory at 1235 UTC. The 72 ft wide tornado caused no damage. Another tornado, an F0 touched down near Enterprise causing no damage.[2]

Alabama

In Alabama, two of the most damaging tornadoes spawned by Hurricane Danny was the "Redstone Arsenal Tornado" and the "Jasper Tornado" that struck Huntsville and Jasper, Alabama. The Redstone tornado touched down at 2030 UTC near Gold-Rithe area. The twister damaged trees and signs and flipped over two trailers. The tornado also damaged a runway at Marshall Space Flight Center.[2]

The Jasper Tornado, touched down 45 minutes before the Redstone Arsenal Tornado. The F2 tornado, caused considerable damage and showed a multiple-vortex.[2] There were two fatalities and fourteen injuries in Alabama and $5 million dollars (1985 USD) in damage, mostly from tornadoes.[3]

Remainder of the southeast United States

An F3 Tornado spawned by Danny, struck Waco, Tennessee and produced a damage path of 500 yards wide making the tornado the largest hurricane spawned tornado.[2]

Hurricane Elena The precursor to Hurricane Elena was a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa on August 23. It remained weak due to its fast westward motion and Saharan Air Layer around the circulation. As it moved through the Greater Antilles, it slowed somewhat, and a tropical depression formed on August 28 between Cuba and Haiti. It paralleled the northern cost of Cuba, and became Tropical Storm Elena that night. Conditions were favorable for additional development in the Gulf of Mexico, and Elena became a hurricane on the 29th.

A frontal trough of low pressure turned Elena to the northeast, but when the trough outran the storm, steering currents collapsed, leaving behind a stalled, strengthening hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. It posed a threat to the west coast of Florida,[1] but after the crowds returned to the Mississippi and Florida panhandle coasts, it slowly looped back to the northwest and was changed to a north Gulf Coast threat, prompting another evacuation of the Mississippi Coast. Elena reached its peak of 125 mph (201 km/h) on September 1, 120 km (75 mi) south of Apalachicola, Florida while moving back to the west-northwest due to steering by a building high pressure area to its northeast. Elena imaged near its peak intensity.

Elena weakened steadily to a 115 mph (185 km/h) hurricane before making landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi on September 2.[2] The hurricane weakened rapidly over land, becoming a tropical depression on September 3 with its surface circulation dissipating across Missouri. Its mid-level circulation spurred thunderstorm development as it turned eastward, dissipating by September 6 over Kentucky.[3] [edit] Impact.

Though a powerful and damaging storm, it was Elena's unpredictable movement that forced over one-half million people to evacuate from Florida to Louisiana, the largest evacuation order at the time.[4] Because of the evacuation, there were no direct deaths from the storm. The hurricane caused a total of $1.25 billion (1985 USD) in damage,[5] mainly in the form of property damage and beach erosion.

Florida Elena's Storm Total Rainfall.

From the Florida Panhandle through Sarasota, Florida, many people were evacuated from low-lying coastal areas. Rainfall totals along the western Florida peninsular coastline ranged from 1.7 inches (43 mm) in Key West to a maximum of 15.67 inches (398 mm) two miles west-northwest of Cross City.[3] While Elena stalled off the coast, the hurricane's outer bands produced several tornadoes across the western part of the state, severely damaging some motor parks northeast of Tampa Bay. A few injuries were reported, some serious, but there were no deaths across the state.

Apalachicola on the Florida Panhandle received a 10-foot (3.0 m) storm surge, the maximum storm surge from the hurricane. In addition, the city reported 11.3 inches (290 mm) of precipitation, among the highest from the hurricane.[6] The oyster industry in the town suffered greatly from the storm, with the hurricane destroying nearly all of the $6.5 million oyster crop. Apalachicola Bay provides for around 10% of United States oysters, and hopes were ruined for a quick recovery when Hurricane Kate destroyed much of what Elena didn't ruin. In addition, 3 days of rough seas eroded away 40 feet (12 m) of beaches and caused significant coastal flooding. The amount of time to replenish the beaches was estimated at 10 years.[7]

Northern Gulf Coast

While Elena was moving northward for the first time, Hurricane Warnings were issued from Morgan City, Louisiana through the Florida Panhandle, prompting hundreds of thousands to evacuate. When Elena looped and turned to the west, warnings were issued again, and many were forced to evacuate two times in three days.[8]

Tides ranged from three to six feet above normal, though rainfall was relatively minimal along the coastline. Near the ocean, the maximum rainfall amount was 5.7 inches (140 mm) in Pearl River Locks, Louisiana, though much greater amounts were recorded further inland, including 8.6 inches (220 mm) in Clinton, Arkansas. At least a dozen tornadoes were reported in coastal areas of Mississippi, though damage was limited and localized.

The city of Pass Christian, Mississippi, near where Elena made landfall, received a negative storm surge from the hurricanes extended northerly winds. Because of this, there was little flooding damage. Extensive wind damage effected 75% to 80% of homes in the town, resulting in widespread debris and property damage amounting to $2.9 million (1985 USD) in the small town of 6,500.

In all, Elena only caused four deaths, all indirectly related to the hurricane due to automobile accidents, falling from trees, or heart attacks. The hurricane's strong winds, combined with torrential flooding, resulted in a damage toll of about $1.25 billion (1985 dollars). At the time, it was among the costliest Atlantic hurricanes.[5]


Hurricane Gloria

Gloria then struck Cape Hatteras, North Carolina early on September 26, with winds of 105 mph (170 km/h) and a pressure of 942 mbar while accelerating to the northeast. Gloria became the strongest recorded hurricane to strike the U.S. East Coast so far north, a distinction it still holds. It paralleled the coastlines of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey, coming within miles of land.

Gloria made its final landfall on western Long Island near Long Beach, New York as a weaker yet still strong hurricane just 10 hours after hitting the Outer Banks.[3] Originally, the National Hurricane Center classified Gloria as a major hurricane upon making landfall but it was later downgraded in the seasonal post-analysis. Even so, the hurricane did produce Category Three wind gusts throughout Long Island.[5] Shortly thereafter the storm crossed the Connecticut coastline near Bridgeport, and while continuing northeastward through New England, it became extratropical over Maine early on the 28th. After moving through Atlantic Canada, the extratropical storm tracked eastward before dissipating on October 2 to the southwest of Iceland.[3]

Preparations Gloria on September 27 at 16:01 UTC

As Gloria approached the East Coast of the United States, National Hurricane Center director Neil Frank called it the "Storm of the Century", due to its intensity and potential track over the densely populated region of New England.[6] Such a track gathered the attention of many people, and led to the evacuation of 380,000 people along the coast from North Carolina to Connecticut.[7] In Maryland, officials implemented lane reversing to expedite the evacuation process, a policy many other coastal states use.[8]

Officials advised 95,000 citizens along the New Jersey coastline, an area that rarely experiences hurricanes, to evacuate. Cape May County—the most vulnerable part of the state and among the most susceptible in the entire country—would require 36 hours in 2005 to evacuate the 100,000 citizens and 900,000 tourists that were commonly present during busy summer weekends.[9]

Offices and classes of Harvard University closed only for the third time in the 20th century, the previous cases being the New England Hurricane of 1938 and the Blizzard of '78. Although Gloria's winds downed numerous trees and caused tens of thousands in damage in the area, overall effects were much less than expected.[10]

Impact Flooding from Hurricane Gloria

Hurricane Gloria was a large hurricane that affected much of the northeastern United States. Gloria brought strong wind gusts to the area, downing thousands of trees and leaving over two million people without power. Overall, Gloria caused $900 million (1985 USD) in property damage and eight deaths, a total lower than expected due to the hurricane's arrival at low tide.

Carolinas and Mid-Atlantic

Upon making landfall on the Outer Banks, Gloria was a fast-moving hurricane that struck at low tide, reducing storm surges to a maximum of 6 ft (1.8 m) in North Carolina. Other locations from South Carolina through New Jersey reported surges less than 1–5 feet (0.3–1.5 m) high. Similarly, winds were relatively minimal and confined to the coast. Diamond Shoal Light reported sustained winds of 100 mph (160 km/h), and Cape Hatteras, where the storm's eye came ashore, experienced 75 mph (120 km/h) winds. Much of the Mid-Atlantic coastline was largely unscathed from Gloria's winds, excluding a report of 90 mph (145 km/h) on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel and a report of 80 mph (130 km/h) in Ocean City, New Jersey. Though Gloria moved quickly through the region, it dropped moderate rainfall in locations, including peaks of 7.09 inches (180 mm) in New Bern, North Carolina and 6.04 inches (153 mm) at Baltimore-Washington International Airport.[2][3] In addition, some unofficial reports in southeastern Virginia indicated amounts of up to 8 inches (200 mm) of rain.[11]

Because much of the Mid-Atlantic experienced the western, weaker side of this hurricane, damage was relatively light. High winds downed numerous trees throughout the area, leaving hundreds of thousands without power, including 237,000 in New Jersey, 124,000 in Maryland, and 56,000 in Virginia.[12] Extreme rainfall in Virginia resulted in $5.5 million (1985 USD, $9.8 million 2005 USD) in damage.[11] Intense flood waters split Long Beach Island in half for a period of time.[13] The hurricane's winds caused significant beach erosion, the area most affected being the Outer Banks.[2] [edit] Long Island and New York Newspaper cover of Gloria showing an uproofed house

Though Gloria hit Long Island with winds of 95 to 100 miles per hour (153 to 161 km/h), wind gusts reached 115 miles per hour (185 km/h) in eastern Long Island.[12] Islip, New York recorded a wind gust of 85 miles per hour (137 km/h). However, few other wind reports were available from the island, as other weather instruments were damaged. Weather forecasters believe that damage across parts of Long Island indicated winds in the Category Three range, as evidence of the damaged received at MacArthur Airport. Because the hurricane arrived at low tide, storm surges were generally low, peaking at 6.9 feet (2.1 m) at Battery Park. Because it moved quickly, Gloria failed to produce significant rainfall amounts, and caused only 3.4 inches (86 mm) of rain in Central Park.[2]

Gloria's high winds caused significant damage across Long Island and southeastern New York. The area hit the worst was eastern Long Island, where high wind gusts blew thousands of trees into buildings and across roads. In addition, the winds ripped rooves off of many buildings, including hangars at the MacArthur Airport and the roof of the Islip Police Station.[12] Prolonged exposure to high winds and waves led to moderate beach erosion, washing away several piers and docks.[12] The storm surge, though relatively weak, destroyed 48 houses on the ocean side of the island. Gloria's high winds left 683,000 people in New York without power, with some lacking electricity for over eleven days. Even though damage amounted to $300 million ($532 million in 2005 USD),[14] due to well-executed evacuations there was only one casualty, the death occurring from a falling tree.[12]

New England and Canada

Upon making landfall in Milford, Connecticut, Gloria was a weakened hurricane that passed quickly through the area. Though still a large hurricane, Gloria hit at low tide, resulting in low to moderate storm surges of 5 feet (1.5 m) in Groton, Connecticut, six feet (1.8 m) in New Bedford, Massachusetts, and one foot (.3 m) in Portland, Maine. The hurricane produced gusty winds across New England, with a peak observation of 83 mph (135 km/h) in Waterbury, Connecticut and Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory in Massachusetts. Gloria dropped moderate precipitation in the area amounting to a maximum of six inches (150 mm) in Littleville Lake, Massachusetts. In addition, Gloria caused significant beach erosion in Connecticut and Rhode Island.[2] Rainfall totals from Gloria

Gloria's high winds downed numerous trees across New England, causing minor to moderate damage. In the region, Connecticut received the worst of the hurricane, where tree and structural damage was greatest. Along the coastline, storm surge and strong waves washed away several fishing piers, and some roadways were underwater during the storm's passage. The hurricane did not pass close enough to Rhode Island and parts of Massachusetts, so these areas did not receive significant damage.[12] New Hampshire was affected only slightly from the hurricane, and was limited to minor wind damage and localized flooding.[15] In Maine, damage was more severe, where strong wind gusts ripped off rooves and uprooted hundreds of trees. High winds across New England resulted in significant power outages, leaving 250,000 in Maine,[16] 84,000 in Massachusetts, 174,000 in Rhode Island, and 669,000 in Connecticut without power. In all, 7 deaths occurred in New England, many of which occurred from falling tree limbs.[12]

The extratropical remnants caused minimal damage in Nova Scotia and produced tropical storm force winds across southern Newfoundland.[17]

Aftermath See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricane names

In the immediate aftermath in New York, hundreds of thousands had great difficulty living their everyday lives without power. The long duration without electricity led to a general disdain for the Long Island Lighting Company. This increased further when the company left the $40 million (1985 USD) repair bill to the ratepayers, citing the company didn't have hurricane insurance. Citizens quickly protested this privately owned company, and within years the publicly owned Long Island Power Authority was formed.[14]

In Maine, most citizens remained indoors during the passage of the hurricane. One police officer noted that even the criminals stayed home. In the Lewiston area, restaurants experienced a great surge in business. During the power outage after the storm, several businesses stored frozen goods for houses without a generator.[16] After the storm, President Ronald Reagan declared several counties in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts as federal disaster areas. This declaration allowed those counties to apply for disaster assistance.[18]

Hurricane Gloria's less-than-expected damage prompted Environment Canada to create the Canadian Hurricane Centre.[19] Due to its impact, the name Gloria was retired from the Atlantic tropical storm name list in the spring of 1986, so it will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane.[20] It was replaced with Grace in the 1991 season.

Hurricane Juan An upper level low pressure system combined with a tropical wave developed a broad trough of low pressure over the central Gulf of Mexico on October 24. A rapid increase in cloudiness and convection led to the formation of a tropical depression on October 26. A high pressure system to its northeast forced it westward, where it became Tropical Storm Juan later on the 26th.

At the time and throughout its lifetime, Juan was very disorganized, and resembled a subtropical cyclone with its winds well away from the center. A developing trough brought the storm northward, where it became better organized. Early on October 28, Juan reached hurricane strength, and hours later it reached a peak of 85 mph (140 km/h) winds.

Under the influence of a large scale upper-level low pressure area, Juan executed a cyclonic loop off the Louisiana coast later on October 28. It turned northward, and hit near Morgan City, Louisiana on the morning of the 29th. Still under the influence of the low, Juan again looped to the southeast, and weakened to a tropical storm over land on the 29th, and emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on the 30th over Vermilion Bay.

Juan paralleled the southern Louisiana coastline and crossed the extreme southeast portion of the state on October 31. Over the open waters of the Gulf, Juan restrengthened to a 70 mph (110 km/h) storm, just before hitting near the Alabama/Florida border that night. Once over land, Juan rapidly weakened, and became extratropical over Tennessee on November 1. Its remnants accelerated northward into Canada by the morning of the 3rd. Of interest, an upper level low closed off in the wake of Juan, forming a new occluded cyclone, which added to the rainfall totals across Virginia and West Virginia. The combined impact of Juan and the occluded cyclone that formed in its wake led to a flood of record across West Virginia.

Impact

Hurricane Juan caused $1.5 billion in damage (1985 US dollars, $2.71 billion in 2005 USD), most of it from crop damage. At the time, Juan was the 8th costliest hurricane in history, and is currently the 24th. [1] It later caused extensive flooding across the Mid-Atlantic states as a partial remnant, causing an additional $1.3 billion and 50 deaths not included in its final effects. [edit] Gulf of Mexico

Early in its lifetime, Juan caused 25 to 35 foot (7.5 to 10.5 meter) swells, damaging several offshore oil platforms and overturning two. High winds prior to the storm's development encumbered evacuation efforts. Because of this, 9 people died, either from toppled oil rigs or from drowning while being transported from the rigs. The oil industry suffered greatly from the hurricane, both due to the lack of production and from lost oil rigs.

Northern Gulf Coast

Juan's storm total rainfall.

Because the hurricane looped twice near the coastline, Hurricane Juan brought extensive rainfall along the northern Gulf Coast, particularly across Louisiana and Texas. Deweyville, Texas received a maximum of 8.7 inches (220 mm) and Mobile, Alabama reached a total of 11.9 inches (302 mm), while Louisiana reported over to 10 inches (254 mm), with a storm maximum of 17.78 inches (452 mm) of rain in Galliano according to information compiled from the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. Storm surge was moderate, peaking at 8.2 feet (2.5 m) on the southern portion of Louisiana, though tides returned to below normal levels when offshore winds forced the surge out to sea. A few small tornadoes were reported along Juan's outer edges, though little damage was reported.

Severe coastal flooding resulted in significant crop damage and loss of livestock in southern Louisiana. Thousands of houses were flooded and destroyed, mainly around Lake Pontchartrain, though property damage was seen from Texas through the Florida Panhandle, albeit much less than Louisiana. 2 people drowned from the flood waters in Louisiana, and 1 person died in a boating accident of the Texas coast. There were 1,357 injuries reported by FEMA, though most were minor. [2] Total damage from Hurricane Juan amounted to $1.5 billion (1985 USD), making it one of the costliest hurricanes at the time and making it the costliest non-retired hurricane name. [3] [edit] Appalachian Mountains

Though not directly related to the hurricane, Juan's tropical moisture combined with another low pressure system to drop large amounts of moisture across the Appalachian Mountains and the Mid-Atlantic. Many locations reported record amounts of rainfall from West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. [4]

Flooding in West Virginia was the worst in the state's history. The worst hit areas were the Cheat River and South Branch Potomac River basins. The remnants of Juan caused 38 fatalities and $578 million from the flooding. [4]

Flash flooding on November 4 and 5 resulted in overflown rivers across much of Virginia, including the Roanoke River which rose 23 feet above its banks. The flooding resulted in 12 casualties in Virginia, with $800 million in damage (1985 USD). [5]

Hurricane Kate Storm path

In the autumn of 1985, a strong high pressure system persisted over the southeastern United States, while a major trough existed over the southwestern United States. With the exception of a minor cold front, the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic Ocean remained favorable for tropical development up until November, with water temperatures near 27 °C (80 °F), and little upper-level shear. When a tropical wave reached a position north of the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, it was able to organize under the favorable conditions, and became Tropical Storm Kate on November 15.

An anticyclone developed over the Florida Keys, providing Kate with the opportunity to strengthen. After drifting northwestward, Kate accelerated to the west over the southern Bahamas, becoming a hurricane on November 16 and a 110 mph (175 km/h) hurricane on the 19th. It hit northern Cuba on the 19th, where 200,000 people in Havana were evacuated. With the eyewall over land, Kate weakened to a 90 mph (155 km/h) hurricane before emerging into the Gulf of Mexico on the night of the 19th.

Hurricane Kate maintained its organization while crossing northern Cuba, and quickly re-strengthened in the Gulf of Mexico. It rapidly intensified on November 20 to a 120 mph (195 km/h) major hurricane. An approaching frontal trough brought Kate to the northeast, where slightly cooler waters over the northern Gulf of Mexico weakened the hurricane. It hit Mexico Beach, Florida late on the 21st as a 95 mph hurricane, and quickly weakened over land. After crossing Georgia, Kate approached very cold waters and increasing upper-level shear, causing the hurricane to become extratropical on November 23 while southeast of North Carolina. [edit] Late formation

Kate was unusual, because it became a major hurricane in November, one of only 7 storms to do so. Other storms that became major hurricanes in November include The Jamaica Hurricane of 1912, The Great Cuba Hurricane in 1932, Hurricane Greta in 1956, Hurricane Lenny in 1999, Hurricane Michelle in 2001, and Hurricane Paloma in 2008. Kate was also the latest-season major hurricane, having become a major hurricane on November 20. Kate was also one of the latest landfalls, as well as the strongest U.S. landfall in November, hitting with 105 mph winds.

Impact

Cuba

In preparation for the hurricane's arrival, 300,000 people evacuated low-lying coastal areas. Heavy flooding and 125 mph (200 kph) gusts destroyed 4382 houses and damaged 88,207 on Cuba's northern coastline. Downed trees and power lines were common along the coast and ten people were killed in Cuba from the hurricane. Kate's winds and flooding resulted in significant crop damage, destroying significant amounts of the sugarcane and banana harvests. Over 3600 sq mi (9300 sq km) of sugar cane were destroyed, while 155,000 short tons (136 million kilograms) of sugar cane were lost. [1] In all, damage totaled to $400 million (1985 USD, $710 million 2005 USD). [2]

Following the storm's passage, the crop losses prompted the Cuban government to request for international aid. The affected population needed food for 60 days, over 10,000 metric tons (10 million kg) of flour, and over 1,200 tons of cooking oil. Countries around the world contributed over $17 million in either money or food. [3] [edit] Northern Gulf Coast Damage after Hurricane Kate.

Over 100,000 people were evacuated from the Florida Panhandle prior to Kate's arrival. Just 2 months after Hurricane Elena caused significant damage to the oyster industry, Hurricane Kate destroyed much of what little was left in Apalachicola Bay. Lack of production caused many oystermen to lose their jobs, and many fishermen before and after the storm were suffering due to lack of fish. In addition, severely eroded coastlines lost even more beach from a 10 foot (3 m) storm surge and strong waves. [4] Rainfall from Kate

Rainfall amounts along the coast ranged from a trace to a maximum of 5.8 inches (150 mm) in Panama City, Florida. Along the coastline, there was extensive road damage, with potholes up to 4 feet (1.2 m) in length along U.S. Route 98. [5] Kate's strong winds and rain damaged at least 600 houses and water craft, amounting to $300 million (1985 USD) in damage. A total of five people were killed in Florida.

Hurricane Kate passed just west of Tallahassee, but because it was becoming extratropical, damage was limited to downed trees and minor structural damage. [6] Flooding and power outages across 90% of the city forced a curfew, taking up to two weeks to clean up. A positive aspect of the storm was the economic boost from coastal evacuees. Restaurants, hotels, and stores were full from those taking refuge from the storm. [7]

1986

Hurricane Bonnie The origins of Hurricane Bonnie can be traced back to a low pressure system associated with a stalled out frontal system over the extreme northeast Gulf of Mexico and Florida on June 20. A low-level-circulation eventually developed the next day as the low passed near Tampa Bay, Florida. Lacking deep convection, the system slowly moved towards the southwest. However, by June 23, sufficient shower and thunderstorm activity had developed around the low for it to be classified Tropical Depression Two while located 330 mi (535 km) southwest of Cape Coral, Florida. [1]

Gradual intensification took place over the next day as the depression became better organized while moving towards the west-northwest.  [1] By the end of the next day, the depression was declared Tropical Storm Bonnie.  [2] Operationally, it was not upgraded to a tropical storm until a reconnaissance flight into the storm found winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) sever hours later . [1] The intensification tend continued over the following 24 hours leading to Bonnie being upgraded to a hurricane around midday on June 25. The upgrade was based on another reconnaissance flight which found surface winds of 77 mph (124 kph).  [3]

As Bonnie neared the northwest Gulf coast, it began to speed up and turn towards the northwest.  [3] Intensification continued until the hurricane made landfall on the upper Texas coastline near High Island at peak intensity with winds of 85 mph (140 kph) . [2] Bonnie rapidly weakened after landfall and began to take a gradual turn towards the northeast. The storm dissipated on June 28 as it was absorbed by a frontal system while located in southwestern Missouri. [3] [edit] Preparations

Upon being declared a tropical depression, there was a high risk of landfall near Port Arthur, Texas, giving officials a lead on warning residents about a possible hurricane .[4] As the storm neared land, tropical storm warning and Hurricane Watch were issued for the northwest Gulf coast from Port O'Connor, Texas to the Mouth of the Mississippi River about 24 hours before landfall. Several hours later, a Hurricane Warning was issued for areas between Freeport, Texas and Morgan City, Louisiana. [5] About 22,200 residents were evacuated in advance of the Hurricane, 10,000 of which were in Galveston County, Texas. [4] [edit] Impact

Due to the small size of Hurricane Bonnie[1], damage was relatively low, totaling to $7 million (1986 USD; $14 million 2008 USD). There were also only four fatalities attributed to the storm.[6][7] Eleven tornadoes were also confirmed.[3] [edit] Texas and Louisiana Rainfall map for Hurricane Bonnie

Hurricane Bonnie was responsible for four deaths and $7 million (1986 USD; $14 million 2008 USD) in damages in Texas and Louisiana combined.[4][7] The hurricane's compact size lead to the low loss of life and damages.[1] Heavy rains caused by Bonnie also lead to a small dam collapse in northeastern Liberty County, Texas, resulting in severe flooding. Power outages were reported in the areas around the area where Bonnie made landfall. The storm left broken windows, scattered tree limbs, and debris filled streets in Port Arthur, Texas. The damages in Texas totaled to about $1 million. 25 homes, trailers, and cabins in southwestern Louisiana were destroyed resulting in about $1 million in damages.[1] Severe flooding left behind by the heavy rains caused extensive damage, with damages amounting to $5 million in damages.[7] [edit] Rest of the Southeast United States

Despite rapidly weakening after landfall, heavy rains from the remnant low-pressure area of Bonnie led to heavy rains in several states in the Southeastern United States. Rainfall was generally minor in most areas, however in Arkansas, rains totaled up to 10 in (254 mm) in the southern part of the state. There was also a small area of heavy rains totaling up to 5 in (127 mm) along the border of Tennessee and Georgia.[8]

Hurricane Charlie Hurricane Charley originated in an area of convection associated with a trough, first observed on August 11 across southern Florida and the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. The area spread northward, developing a weak and broad low pressure area on August 12. Moving northward into the Florida panhandle, the low became slightly better organized, and at the same time it merged with a weakening weather front.[1] On August 13, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) assessed it as developing into a subtropical low near Apalachee Bay along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico;[2] the NHC defines a subtropical cyclone as "a non-frontal low pressure system that has characteristics of both tropical and extratropical cyclones."[3]

Upon becoming a subtropical low, the cyclone tracked northeastward through Georgia, before turning eastward and exiting South Carolina into the Atlantic Ocean; its track was influenced by the western periphery of the subtropical ridge, which is a large belt of high pressure.[4] While moving over land, the cyclone had become better organized, [1] and on August 15 it transitioned into a tropical depression about 70 miles (110 km) southeast of Charleston, South Carolina. [2] The depression strengthened further, and based on reports from the Hurricane Hunters, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Charley by late on August 15. With a weak ridge to its north, the storm initially tracked slowly eastward just off the coast of North Carolina, before turning to the north-northeast as a trough approached from the west. [1] A broad cyclone, Charley gradually intensified, and a single ring of convection around the center developed into an eyewall;[5] at 1200 UTC on August 17 it attained hurricane status about 13 mi (21 km) off the North Carolina coastline. About two hours later, Hurricane Charley made landfall near Cape Fear, and it subsequently moved across the eastern portion of the state. [2]

Hurricane Charley did not weaken while moving over land; instead it intensified, attaining peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) after emerging into the Atlantic Ocean near the North Carolina/Virginia border.[6] Within 12 hours of reaching peak intensity, however, the hurricane weakened to tropical storm status.[4] The approaching trough, which had previously caused Charley to turn northward, forced the hurricane to accelerate northeastward and later eastward, resulting in the storm passing about 80 mi (130 km) southeast of Nantucket, Massachusetts on August 19.[1] As the trough was not very strong, Charley slowly underwent the process of extratropical transition, unlike other tropical cyclones which complete the transition much quicker with a stronger trough; for several days, the storm maintained hybrid, or subtropical characteristics.[7] By August 21, Charley completed the transition into an extratropical cyclone to the south of Atlantic Canada, after which it re-intensified under baroclinic instability. The resulting storm was a very large and fairly strong gale that gradually moved across the northern Atlantic Ocean.[8] As an extratropical cyclone, Charley attained an atmospheric pressure of 980 mbar, which was lower than its pressure as a tropical cyclone. It accelerated as it approached the British Isles, and after passing south of Ireland it moved across Great Britain on August 27.[6] While in the North Sea, the cyclone weakened as it executed a counter-clockwise loop, and on August 30 the remnants of Charley dissipated near Denmark as a new circulation developed to its southwest.[8] [edit] Preparations

As the hurricane paralleled the east coast of the United States and its exact track and strength were uncertain, there were several tropical cyclone warnings and watches issued in association with Charley; in an analysis subsequent to the storm, the NHC described "the complication of the warning process for this type of situation."[9] Initially, the storm was not expected to affect land. In its first advisory, the NHC assessed a 22% probability for Charley passing within 65 mi (105 km) of land, and specifically it was predicted to be closest to the South Carolina coastline. Thus, the agency assessed a 78% probability for Charley not passing near land.[10]

About 16 hours prior to it making landfall, the NHC issued a gale warning between Bogue Inlet and Oregon Inlet along the North Carolina coastline, including the Pamlico Sound. As its strengthening became evident, the gale warning was replaced by a hurricane warning, and additional gale warnings were issued westward to Topsail Beach and northward to Virginia Beach, Virginia.[11] Up to 10,000 people evacuated the Outer Banks, which resulted in traffic jamming on the roadways leaving the area. Ocracoke island was partially evacuated by six ferries, although many people were unable to leave and instead rode out the storm on the island.[12] As Charley moved across eastern North Carolina, the hurricane warnings were extended northward, first to Virginia Beach, then to Cape Charles, and later to the Maryland/Delaware border.[11] Prior to its arrival, the storm resulted in the closure of Norfolk International Airport, and more than 9,000 people evacuated the coastline for emergency shelters.[12] Hurricane warnings ultimately reached as far north as Sandy Hook, New Jersey, and gale warnings continued further north to Chatham, Massachusetts, including Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.[11][13] In New York, after Hurricane Gloria in the previous season left thousands of customers without power, the Long Island Lighting Co. arranged for additional workers for potential power restoration.[12]

After Charley became extratropical, the Irish Meteorological Service issued weather alerts prior to the arrival of the storm, noting the potential for "extremely heavy rainfall [which would] cause local flooding."[14] In the United Kingdom, the threat of the storm resulted in the cancellation of ferry service between Northern Ireland and Great Britain, as well between Great Britain and France.[15] [edit] Impact [edit] North America Satellite image of Charley prior to attaining tropical storm status

Hurricane Charley affected at least ten U.S. states,[8][9][16] resulting in five total deaths and $15 million in damage (1986 USD, $29 million 2008 USD).[4] Charley was the first hurricane to threaten the east-central United States since Hurricane Gloria affected the area about eleven months prior.[6] The precursor disturbance to Charley brought rainfall to much of Florida, including a total of 8.61 inches (219 mm) in Steinhatchee; that rainfall maxima was the greatest total associated with Charley within the United States.[16] The system also produced light to moderate rainfall across Georgia and South Carolina,[16] which proved beneficial as the region was in a major drought. However, its heaviest rainfall remained over open waters.[8]

Moving across eastern North Carolina as a minimal hurricane, Charley produced locally strong wind gusts, peaking at 80 mph (130 km/h) in Frisco. However, no stations recorded sustained winds of hurricane force.[17] The hurricane dropped moderate precipitation along the coastline, including over 7 in (175 mm) near Manteo.[16] As it moved ashore, it produced above normal tides, peaking in the state at 5.78 feet (1.76 metres) at Duck Coe fishing pier.[18] Near Cape Hatteras, a woman drowned while attempting to drive through a flooded roadway.[8] Impact in the state was primarily from tidal flooding and downed trees, and a preliminary damage estimate for the state was about $400,000 (1986 USD, $786,000 2008 USD).[8]

Tropical storm force winds spread across southeastern Virginia, with wind gusts reaching 82 mph (133 km/h) on Cape Charles.[4] Offshore, a station on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel recorded sustained winds of 97 mph (157 km/h) with gusts to 104 mph (168 km/h).[9] After the gust, the bridge-tunnel was closed overnight.[12] The winds downed many trees,[9] and in Norfolk, a motorist died after crashing into a downed tree.[8] In Virginia Beach, the winds blew off the roof of a hotel and destroyed two homes under construction.[9] Across the area, the storm left about 110,000 customers without power.[12] Rainfall in Virginia was fairly light, including a 24 hour total of just over 1 in (25 mm) in Norfolk.[17] Strong waves destroyed 250 ft (76 m) of Harrison's Pier in Norfolk.[12] A preliminary damage estimate for the area was $1 million (1986 USD, $2 million 2008 USD).[9] Rainfall Summary for Hurricane Charley in the United States

Thunderstorms to the north of the circulation brought moderate rainfall to Maryland; the same thunderstorms caused a light aircraft to crash near Baltimore, resulting in the death of its three occupants.[8] Rainfall spread across much of Maryland,[16] peaking at 4.24 in (105 mm) in Hollywood.[18] The rainfall flooded a few roads, including along a portion of U.S. Route 50 which left one lane closed for about seven hours.[19] Tropical storm force winds extended into Delaware, and a peak wind gust of 75 mph (121 km/h) was reported in Rehoboth Beach.[18] Only isolated and minor damage occurred in Maryland in Delaware.[8] In New Jersey, a hurricane force wind gust was reported on Long Beach Island, and 1.3 in (33 mm) of rainfall was reported in Atlantic City.[4] In the southernmost counties in the state, the winds left about 15,000 electrical customers without power.[12] Further north, light rainfall and gusty winds extended into the New York metropolitan area.[4]

As Charley passed south of Massachusetts, it produced precipitation to the southeastern portion of the state. Nantucket reported 3.20 in (81 mm), while Chatham recorded 2.68 in (68 mm) in a 24 hour period. Nantucket also reported sustained winds of 60 mph (96 km/h), and as the storm passed the island it produced a storm tide of 3.5–4 ft (1–1.2 m).[17] High tides and heavy rain caused significant street flooding on Nantucket. Several boats were damaged, others were beached, and one large boat sunk in Nantucket Harbor. Damage on the island $75,000 (1986 USD, $150,000 2008 USD).[9]

Before becoming extratropical, the storm brushed the coast of Nova Scotia with wind gusts of 65 mph (105 km/h) and moderate precipitation totaling 4.57 in (116 mm).[14] [edit] Europe

The extratropical remnants of Hurricane Charley moved across Ireland and Great Britain, with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[6] Ireland and England were significantly affected by its accompanying rainfall,[15] and the only portion of Britain and Ireland not affected seriously by the storm was Scotland.[20] In the English Channel, rough waves up to 26 ft (8 m) in height caused waters to breach and flood a 31 person ship; the passengers were rescued by rescue helicopters and ships.[20] Throughout the region, the storm resulted in at least 11 deaths.[15]

First passing just south of Ireland on the 25th, the storm dropped heavy rainfall and brought strong winds, significantly affecting the coastline where winds of 65 mph (105 km/h) were reported. Rainfall spread across the entire country, peaking at 11.0 in (280 mm) in Kippure. A station in Kilcoole reported more than 7.8 in (200 mm), which set the record for the greatest daily rainfall total in the country. Several 24 hour rainfall records were set during the storm, and new six-hour and twelve-hour record totals at Casement Aerodrome were set with 1.63 in (41.5 mm) and 2.61 in (66.2 mm).[14] The rainfall left some areas flooded,[15] particularly in the Dublin area where 451 buildings were flooded, some up to a depth of 8 ft (2.4 m). Preliminarily, it was described as the worst flooding in the history of Dublin.[14] Two small rivers, the Dodder and the Dargle, overflowed their banks due to the rainfall.[14] The River Dargle overflowed in Bray, flooding some areas up to a depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) and forcing about 1,000 people to evacuate;[20] several special-needs people were evacuated by boat. The flood, which originated about one mile north of the town, damaged over 500 houses and brought down several trees. Despite local politicians promising for flood protection after the flood, the city remained vulnerable to such flooding at least 20 years after the storm.[21] The River Dodder, which also overflowed, nearly exceeded the reservoir dam in Bohernabreena, although additional spillways were later added in the event of another similar flood.[22] In the Wicklow Mountains, the rainfall resulted in significant runoff, which caused erosion along the Cloghoge River.[23] The passage of the storm left heavy crop damage, part of a larger period of poor agriculture in the country.[20] Throughout the country, the storm caused at least five deaths, four of which were drownings in flooded rivers; the fifth death was caused by a heart attack while being evacuated from flooding.[15] Two months after the storm struck, the government of Ireland allocated IR£6,449,000 (1986 IEP, $8,650,000 1986 USD) to repair roads and bridges damaged by the weather system.[24]

The storm also affected the United Kingdom, moving across the southern portion of the country.[6] The storm struck the area during the Summer Bank holiday, creating unfavorable conditions for driving and resulting in several accidents.[20] Heavy rainfall flooded rivers, which swept away several people. This prompted officials to deploy boats and helicopters to assist in rescues, although at least three deaths were reported due to drowning in the rivers. Severe flooding was reported in Cumbria and Gloucestershire. The passage of the storm also left roads blocked by fallen trees and power lines. In Whitland, Wales, local soldiers assisted rescuing people, and later contributed to the cleanup of the town. Throughout the country, five people were missing after the storm, all of whom presumed drowned; and additional death was confirmed in Newry, Northern Ireland.[15]

1987

Hurricane Emily was the only major hurricane to develop during the below-average 1987 Atlantic hurricane season. Forming out of a tropical disturbance that moved off the west coast of Africa on September 20, the storm quickly attained hurricane status before undergoing rapid intensification. On September 22, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 958 mbar (hPa). The storm weakened slightly to Category 2 status before making landfall in the Dominican Republic. After weakening to a tropical storm, Emily rapidly tracked northeastward through the Atlantic Ocean, undergoing a second phase of rapid intensification before passing directly over Bermuda on September 25. The following day the final public advisory from the National Hurricane Center was issued on the storm as it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.

Hurricane Emily brought heavy rains and strong winds in the Windward Islands on September 21, leaving numerous homes damaged and severe losses in the banana industry. Losses throughout the islands amounted to $291,000. In the Dominican Republic, despite the storm's high intensity, relatively moderate damage occurred. Three people were killed by the storm and damages amounted to $30 million. Unexpected intensification of the storm led to severe impact in Bermuda. The storm caused $50 million in damages and injured 16 people.

1988

Hurricane Debby Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration August 31 – September 8 Intensity 75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min), 987 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Debby (1988)

Debby formed from the southern part of a tropical wave that became Tropical Storm Chris. In the mid-tropical Atlantic, the northern area of convection detached and became Tropical Depression Seven. The southern portion continued moving westward as a disorganized area of showers.[4] The system did not develop until the low-level center emerged from the Yucatán into the Bay of Campeche on August 31. It is estimated that the storm became Tropical Depression Eight just offshore at around 12 p.m. local time.[32]

Drifting west-northwest over the Gulf of Mexico, the depression organized and reached tropical storm-strength early on September 2. Later that day, based on observations from aircraft reconnaissance, Debby was upgraded to a hurricane.[32] At peak intensity, the hurricane's center was just 30 miles (48 km) (50 km) from the coast. With little change in intensity, Debby made landfall near Tuxpan, Veracruz, six hours later.[32] The storm brought high winds, inland flooding, and mudslides and caused 10 deaths.[36]

Debby weakened considerably over the Sierra Madre Oriental mountains, although the remnants continued moving across Mexico. The tight center tracked towards the Pacific coast and reemerged near Manzanillo on September 5.

Hurricane Florence On September 4, a cold front exited the coast of Texas into the Gulf of Mexico. A convective band from the front continued southeastward and stalled between Veracruz, Mexico and Tampa, Florida. The band began to split into two on September 6; the northeastern portion developed into a frontal wave and tracked northeastward, while the southwestern portion remained nearly stationary and began showing signs of tropical organization. Located in an area of generally low pressures, the system developed a spiral band structure, though deep convection was mostly intermittent. Subsequent to the formation of a surface circulation, the system developed into a tropical depression while located about 450 miles (725 km) northwest of Mérida, Yucatán.[1] Tropical Storm Florence on September 9

The depression drifted eastward under the influence of the dissipating frontal trough, and intensified into Tropical Storm Florence to the north of the Yucatán Peninsula, as confirmed by Hurricane Hunters.[1] Initially, the center was located to the north of the deep convection, with only one weak rainband to the north of the circulation.[2] However, subsequent to a drop in vertical wind shear, an increase in moisture, and increase in upper-level outflow, deep convection greatly increased and organized over the circulation early on September 9.[3] As the trough dissipated and a ridge built northwestward behind it, steering currents became weak, leaving Florence temporarily stationary. Later on September 9, the influence of a mid- to upper-level trough to its north caused Florence to accelerate northward. Steadily intensifying, Florence attained hurricane status about 100 miles (165 km) south of the mouth of the Mississippi River. The hurricane intensified slightly further, and struck the western Mississippi River Delta with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) at 0200 UTC on September 10.[1] Upon making landfall, dry air became entrained in the circulation,[2] and Florence rapidly weakened over southeastern Louisiana. By the time it passed over New Orleans and Lake Ponchartrain most convection had dissipated, and about ten hours after making landfall Florence degenerated into a tropical depression. The system subsequently crossed over southwestern Mississippi as it turned northwestward, and later entered northern Louisiana before dissipating over northeastern Texas on September 11.[1] The mid-level circulation turned northeastward through the central United States before dissipating over Ohio on September 13.[4] [edit] Preparations

On September 9, about 16 hours before Florence made landfall, the National Hurricane Center issued a hurricane watch from Port Arthur, Texas to Pensacola, Florida. Three hours later, the watch was upgraded to a hurricane warning from Pensacola to Cameron, Louisiana, with a tropical storm warning issued from Pensacola eastward to Apalachicola, Florida. Around the time of Florence moving ashore, the National Hurricane Center limited the hurricane warning from Pensacola, Florida to Morgan City, Louisiana. Hours after the hurricane made landfall, the warning was replaced by a tropical storm warning from Mobile, Alabama to Grand Isle, Louisiana, which was discontinued two hours later.[5]

Prior to the arrival of the hurricane, an estimated 20,000 people evacuated the coastal parishes of southeastern Louisiana, including nearly all of the 2,000 residents on Grand Isle. Small-scale evacuations were issued for residents living in low-lying or coastal areas of Mississippi and Alabama.[6] Offshore, the threat of the hurricane prompted oil companies to evacuate employees on oil rigs to the mainland.[7]

The threat of the hurricane caused Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis to cancel a rally and two fund-raising events in New Orleans. Governor Buddy Roemer issued for the Louisiana National Guard to be on standby for emergency duty.[8] Officials closed several bridges across southeastern Louisiana and also canceled ferry travel across Lake Ponchartrain. In Pensacola, Florida, the Navy base moved the USS Lexington into the Gulf of Mexico during the hurricane, and also sent more than 100 aircraft to a base in Ohio.[9] [edit] Impact Rainfall Summary for Hurricane Florence

The primary rainband extending southward from the circulation of Florence dropped moderate rainfall across the Yucatán Peninsula and through southern Mexico. Rainfall amounts peaked at 10.79 inches (274 mm) in San Baltazar Loxicha, Guerrero, with 10.67 inches (271 mm) reported in southeastern Chiapas and 9.74 inches (247 mm) near Merida. Damage, if any, is unknown.[4]

Upon making landfall on Louisiana, Hurricane Florence produced higher than normal tides, including a peak observation of 7.5 feet (2.3 m) above mean sea level on the Bayou Benvenue to the east of New Orleans. Rainfall was relatively light, ranging from about 1 inch (25 mm) to a maximum of 4.05 inches (103 mm) at Watson.[10] Winds of tropical storm force occurred across southeastern Louisiana, with wind gusts peaking at 64 mph (103 km/h) at an automatic Coast Guard Station on the Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River Delta.[11] An unofficial tornado was reported in Tangipahoa Parish.[12] Minor storm surge flooding occurred outside of the levee system of southern Louisiana in Plaquemines, Saint Bernard, and Saint Tammany Parishes. On Grand Isle, strong wave action resulted in significant beach erosion, with most areas on the island losing about 40 feet (12.2 m) of beach.[6] The storm surge also flooded a portion of Louisiana Highway 300 near Delacroix.[13] The passage of the hurricane broke a levee in Delacroix; it was quickly repaired with flooding from the levee being pumped to the gulf.[14] Light to moderate damage was reported across the southeastern portion of the state, primarily from falling trees. The winds also downed numerous power lines, leaving about 150,000 people without power for some period of time during the storm.[6] The power outages were short-lived, with about 6,900 left without power by the day after the hurricane.[12] Damage in the state was fairly minor, totaling about $2.5 million (1988 USD, $4.4 million 2007 USD).[13]

Rainfall from Florence reached over 7 inches (178 mm) at one location in southeastern Mississippi, while a station 3 miles (4.8 km) south-southeast of Brewton, Alabama reported a storm-wide peak rainfall total of 10.67 inches (271 mm).[4] Despite the rainfall, no damage was reported in Alabama or Mississippi. In Mobile Bay in Alabama, one man died while attempting to secure his boat — the only direct fatality related to the hurricane.[6]

Heavy rainfall was reported along the Florida Panhandle, peaking at over 10 inches (254 mm) in the extreme northwestern portion of the state. The rainfall caused the worst flooding in ten years, and resulted in additional flooding to the already swollen Coldwater and Blackwater rivers in Santa Rosa County. Near the river, 30 homes were destroyed with an additional 50 houses damaged, totaling about $320,000 (1988 USD, $560,000 2007 USD) in damage.[6] Several roads were closed from the flooding, as well.[15] The strong convective band associated with Florence extended across the Florida Panhandle, spawning nine tornadoes in Walton County and one waterspout in Bay County.[10] Damage from the tornadoes amounted to about $100,000 (1988 USD, $175,000 2007 USD).[6]

Hurricane Gilbert Category 5 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 8 – September 20 Intensity 185 mph (295 km/h) (1-min), 888 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Gilbert

The 12th tropical depression formed just east of the Lesser Antilles on September 8. As it moved west-northwest, it became Tropical Storm Gilbert over the islands on September 9. The tropical storm turned west and rapidly intensified to a major hurricane on September 11. Gilbert continued to strengthen as it brushed the southern coast of Hispaniola. It passed directly over Jamaica as a Category 3 hurricane and brought torrential rains to the island's mountainous areas. When the center reemerged over water, Gilbert rapidly intensified again. On September 13 the central pressure dropped 72 millibars (mbar) (hPa), the fastest deepening of an Atlantic hurricane on record until Hurricane Wilma.[45] Gilbert's pressure of 888 mbar (hPa) at the time was the lowest sea level pressure ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere.[46]

Gilbert weakened slightly before landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, although it struck at Category 5 strength. As the eye moved over land, the storm rapidly lost strength, reemerging on September 15 in the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane. Hurricane Gilbert continued its northwest track and restrengthened to a minimal Category 4 hurricane. On September 16 Gilbert made its final landfall in northeast Mexico near the town of La Pesca with maximum sustained winds of 125 mph (201 km/h). The center passed south of Monterrey, Mexico, on September 17 and brought heavy flooding to the city. Gilbert's remnants turned north and eventually merged with a developing frontal low pressure system over Missouri.[46]

Hurricane Gilbert was the most intense hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin until Hurricane Wilma broke this record in 2005.[45] The storm caused $5 billion (1988 USD) in damage across the Caribbean and into Central America. Gilbert was the first hurricane to make landfall in Jamaica since Hurricane Charlie in 1951. Until 2007's Hurricane Dean, it was also the most recent storm to make landfall as a Category 5 hurricane in Mexico. The death toll from Gilbert was reported to be 318 people, mostly from Mexico.[47]

Hurricane Joan One of the latest Cape Verde-type hurricanes to form in any season,[4] Joan formed from an area of convection in the intertropical convergence zone that moved off the coast of Africa early in October. It developed banding and was upgraded to Tropical Depression Seventeen on October 10 and later designated as Tropical Storm Joan while located at low latitude in the central Atlantic Ocean.[5] Hurricane Joan on October 19

Joan gradually strengthened as it passed over the southern Windward Islands on October 15. It continued heading west in response to a strong Ridge, and passed over the Guajira Peninsula on October 17.[5] After entering the extreme southwestern Caribbean Sea, Joan strengthened into a hurricane. It then slowly executed a small counterclockwise loop, possibly in response to the nearby Tropical Depression Eighteen.[2] Upwelling caused by the quasi-stationary hurricane weakened the system. As the nearby depression dissipated, Joan resumed its westward track. A strong anticyclone over the southwestern Caribbean Sea created an extremely favorable environment, and Joan underwent rapid deepening at a rate of 38 millibars in the space of a day.[4] With a minimum pressure of 932 millibars, Joan was one of the strongest October hurricanes since 1961.[4] At the time, it was located at 12°N, the southernmost Category 4 hurricane ever recorded at the time.[5] That record has since been broken by Hurricane Ivan.[6] [7][2]

Joan made landfall just south of Bluefields on October 22.[7] It passed over the northern portion of Lake Nicaragua, passed over Managua, and entered the Pacific Ocean near Leon on October 23.[2] Joan remained a hurricane or tropical storm during its entire passage over Central America, and was a minimal tropical storm when it reached the Pacific.[2] As per the policy at the time, Joan was renamed Miriam.[2]

Tropical Storm Miriam hugged the coast of Central America and reached its peak of 986 millibars on October 24.[8] Ordinarily, a pressure this low would indicate a Category 1 hurricane, but due to its disorganized convection, Miriam was not upgraded to a hurricane.[8] Land interaction and wind shear weakened Miriam to a tropical depression on October 26. Low-level winds carried the system out to sea, and its convection dissipated on October 28.[8]

Miriam's remnants continued out to sea, and they regenerated on October 30. The tropical depression hung on for the next few days, until its second, and final, dissipation on November 2.[9] [edit] Unusual path

Hurricane Joan's path through the southern Caribbean in late October was highly unusual. Most October storms in the Atlantic gravitate towards the northern portion of the Caribbean, and often recurve quickly.[10] Joan took the southernmost path of a tropical cyclone since a June system in 1933, although Hurricane Irene in 1971 took a path that was just north of Joan's.[5] Joan-Miriam was also unusual in that it survived passage from the Atlantic to Pacific Ocean or vice-versa. Only seven other storms have been known to survive the passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.[11] [edit] Preparations

Tropical Storm watches and later warnings were issued for the Windward Islands as far north as Martinique on October 13. They were dropped over the subsequent two days as Joan passed through. Along the coast of South America, additional warnings were raised and later dropped as Joan paralleled the coast.[12]

The first hurricane watches were issued for parts of Panama, and Providencia starting on October 18. The watch area was expanded to include Costa Rica and Nicaragua on October 19 as the watches were upgraded to warnings. These warnings provided several hours' worth of lead time, allowing evacuations and preparations to be made.[13] In addition, flash flood and mudslide warnings were issued for western Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Nicaragua starting on October 21.

In response to Miriam, the flood and mudslide warnings issued because of Joan were not lifted until October 23 and 25. Tropical Storm warnings were issued for the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, El Salvador, and the Gulf of Fonseca on October 24. They were dropped the next day. Guatemala was placed under a warning on October 24. In addition, new flash flood and mudslide warnings were raised for Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas on October 24 and 25, respectively. All warnings and watches were discontinued later on October 25 as Miriam turned away from the coast.[14]

Despite the dangers from the intense hurricane, evacuations in Bluefields were met with resistance and disbelief from residents.[3] In Managua, 70,000 people were evacuated to safe areas.[2] In the remaining areas of Nicaragua, 300,000 people were evacuated.[15] In Costa Rica, a total of 55,000 people were evacuated.[3] [edit] Impact Impact by Country Country Deaths Damage Nicaragua 148-248 $751.1 million Costa Rica 28-46 $60 million Colombia 25 $1 billion Venezuela 11 Unknown Panama 7 $60 million Total 219-337 $1.85 billion

Hurricane Joan killed at least 216 people, with 118 unaccounted for. The total cost of damage was around 2 billion USD (1988 dollars).[1] All of the deaths and most of the damage were due to the Joan portion of Hurricane Joan-Miriam.[9] [edit] Lesser Antilles

No casualties were reported in the Windward Islands, including Grenada, where, on October 15, Joan made landfall. There were also no casualties in any of Aruba, Bonaire, or Curaçao. It is not known if there was any damage in the Lesser Antilles.[3] In Trinidad and Tobago, Joan was described as a "minor inconvenience".[16] Sustained winds up to 51 mph (82 km/h) with gusts up to 64 mph (103 km/h) were recoded on Grenada. Heavy rains amounted to 6 in (152.4 mm) in St. George's. Significant flooding was reported throughout the island, resulting in hundreds of thousands of dollars in damage.[17] A rare invasion of African desert locusts in the Windward Islands were blamed on the storm.[18] [edit] South America

In Venezuela, 11 people were killed due to flash-flooding caused by heavy rains. Landslides and flooding killed 25 people in Colombia. The rains and flooding left 27,000 people homeless.[3] Throughout Colombia, damages amounted to $1 billion.[19] [edit] Nicaragua

Most of the destruction was in Nicaragua. Throughout the country, 148 people perished, 184 were badly hurt, and 100 were unaccounted for. Roughly 23,300 homes were destroyed, with 6,000 being damaged.[2] Many settlements on the Atlantic coast of the country were completely destroyed.[15] The national electric company had 620 miles (1,000 km) of downed power lines, at the cost of 2.5 million USD (1988 dollars).[20] A port being constructed with Bulgarian help at El Bluff was severely damaged. On a brighter note, public health measures managed to keep the death toll lower than it could have been.[15]

Bluefields was hit with extreme impact. Almost all of the 7,500 structures in the city were demolished[17] or had their rooves blown off. The majority of the main buildings in the city were destroyed.[2] The hurricane also wreaked havoc on agriculture in the country. Around 15,700 head of cattle, 20,000 pigs, and 456,000 chickens were killed.[2] The hurricane caused severe disruption in most of Nicaragua's remaining rain forests in the areas it hit, and also stripped trees of leaves.[21] In the southeast rain forests, Joan toppled or snapped 80 percent of the trees and completely destroyed 500,000 hectares (1,200,000 acres) of canopy.[22] Hurricane Joan caused transportation difficulties in the country. Floodwaters destroyed 30 bridges and seriously damaged 36 others. Roads totaling 404 miles (650 km) in length were washed away.[2]

In an unfortunate coincidence, Hurricane Joan hit shortly after an armed conflict in the region had started to cool off. The hurricane destroyed much of the infrastructure in Nicaragua, contributing to a recession that was already underway. The losses to cash crops severely reduced exports to under 200 million dollars (1988 USD).[20] These factors combined to aggravate a recession and deepen the economic crisis. Government spending to rebuild infrastructure negated recently-introduced anti-inflation measures. Hurricane Joan was a partial cause of Nicaraguans being, on average, worse-off than they were in the 1970s.[23] In all, the storm left at least 250,000 people homeless.[24] Total damages in the country amounted to $751.1 million.[19] Joan was the first major hurricane to strike Nicaragua since 1911.[25] Joan-Miriam's Rainfall in Mexico [edit] Rest of Central America

In Costa Rica, 28 people were killed, 75 were injured, and 18 were missing. Rainfall caused 20 rivers to burst their banks, flooding 75 settlements, including the city of Quepos, Costa Rica on the Pacific coast. At Ciudad Neily, Costa Rica, the Rio Corredores broke through a dike. In total, 7500 Costa Ricans were rendered homeless.[3] Damages in Costa Rica amounted to $65 million.[26]

In the remaining portions of Central America, heavy rainfall, locally exceeding 300 mm (12 in), was reported. These rains caused flooding and landslides, especially in mountainous regions.[2] Those heavy rains caused seven deaths in Panama and left $60 million in damages.[27] [edit] Mexico

In Mexico, heavy rainfall associated with Tropical Storm Miriam caused the cancellation of flights from the airport at Tuxtla Gutiérrez. The highest rainfall reported recorded was 10.37 inches (263 mm) at Lazaro Cardenas.[28] In small settlements, rivers were flooded and mudslides were reported. Casualties from the flooding are not known.[9] [edit] Aftermath

The response to requests for international aid was moderate. American church groups, Cuba, and Mexico collectively contributed around 2500 tons of food and medicine. The Canadian, Swedish, West German, Spanish, and Dutch Governments contributed aid amounting to 2 million dollars (1988) each. No aid was sent by the United States government. The Soviet Union contributed an unknown sum.[20] The slow response to requests for aid was contributed to by the Sandinista Government's actions, which was viewed by a few anonymous diplomats from other countries who commented to the press, as undermining the peace process championed by Óscar Arias.[20] Those actions were the July 10 arrests of opposition activists and the closing down of independent radio stations.[20] In addition, the government also barred foreign humanitarian groups from receiving American aid, as well as turning back a relief shipment days before the storm.[20]

On October 28, 1988, the United Nations General Assembly passed without a vote Resolution 17 of its 43rd session in response to the disaster. The resolution called on countries to contribute to the relief effort.[29]

1989

Tropical Storm Allison Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration June 24 – July 1 Intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min), 999 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Allison (1989)

A tropical depression formed off the Mexican coast on June 24 from a tropical wave influenced by the remnants of Hurricane Cosme of the 1989 Pacific hurricane season. It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Allison two days later and made landfall near Freeport. Although it rapidly became extratropical over land, the remnants wandered over the southern United States for several days bringing heavy rains. The maximum amount measured in the storm was 25.67" at Winnfield, Louisiana.[2] The storm reached as far north as Indiana before turning south again and finally dissipating over Arkansas on July 7.

Eleven deaths by drowning were attributed to the rains associated with Allison, and flood damage in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi was estimated at $500 million (1989 USD).

Hurricane Chantal Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration July 30 – August 3 Intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min), 984 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Chantal (1989)

Chantal developed from an Intertropical Convergence Zone disturbance first observed near Trinidad, but did not become a storm until north of Yucatan on July 31. It strengthened to a Category 1 hurricane before landfall at High Island, Texas on August 1. The storm's surface circulation dissipated in southwest Oklahoma, but its mid-level circulation persevered; recurving northeastward across the central Plains through the Great Lakes and through New York state.[4]

13 deaths were reported, including 10 crew of the oil-rig construction vessel Avco 5 which capsized off Morgan City, Louisiana. Damage caused by wind and flooding was estimated at $100 million (1989 USD).

Hurricane Hugo Hugo's origins were from a cluster of thunderstorms that moved off the coast of Africa on September 9th.[1] On a westward track, Hugo steadily intensified, becoming Tropical Storm Hugo on the 11th, and a Hurricane on the 13th.[1] Hugo reached its peak intensity while several miles to the east of Puerto Rico.

Hugo began to execute a more north-northwest track, still intensifying as it did so. On the 17th, Hugo's eye was over Guadeloupe. Shortly thereafter, Hugo"s accelerated to the north-northwest, and by the 19th, Hugo was located to the north of Puerto Rico.[1] On the 18th, Hugo was located a couple hundred miles east of Florida, when it began a more northward track, in response to a steering flow that was associated with a low pressure system that was moving across the United States.[1]

Hugo moved toward the northwest, and made landfall on the Isle of Palms, South Carolina, as a Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale on September 22nd.[1] The storm continued inland, and weakened to a tropical storm later that day.[1] The storm continued weakening as it moved inland, and on September 23rd, the storm was making its transition into a remnant low. [edit] Preparations

Savannah was evacuated in anticipation of Hugo, but saw no effects of the storm other than isolated and light showers. Had Hugo hit Savannah, it would have been the first major hurricane to make landfall in Georgia since Storm 7 of the 1898 season. Governor Carroll Campbell of South Carolina ordered an evacuation of the South Carolina coast in advance of the storm. [edit] Impact Storm deaths by region (estimates) [2] Region Deaths United States 37 Puerto Rico 12 Guadeloupe 13 Montserrat 22 Virgin Islands 6 Antigua and Barbuda 10 Saint Kitts and Nevis 11 Total 111

Hugo caused $7 billion (1989 USD) in damage in the mainland United States.[3] At the time it was the costliest hurricane in U.S. history, but was exceeded in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew, and by three other storms since then. It remains the sixth costliest hurricane in U.S. history. An additional $3 billion of damages was reported throughout the Caribbean. Therefore, total damages from the storm were $10 billion (1989 USD).

Sources differ on the number of people killed by Hugo, with some citing the American Meteorological Society's figure of 49, and others claiming 56 deaths.[4] Some government agency sources claim only 32 deaths in the United States.

Damage in Puerto Rico was severe, especially in the eastern part of the island. The agricultural sector was devastated, with the banana and coffee crops being almost completely wiped out. Heavy rains caused severe flooding in the vicinity of San Juan; in addition, several roads and bridges were washed away.[7]

In all, 12 deaths in Puerto Rico are attributed to Hugo,[2] six of which occurred in the southern city of Guayama where some residents were electrocuted by downed power lines. Nearly 28,000 people were left homeless by the storm as damage exceed 1 billions damages.[7]

[See Wikipedia article for damage and deaths in the Atlantic/Caribbean islands]

[edit] United States [edit] South Carolina Mobile homes destroyed by Hugo's storm surge Hugo proved to be devastating to beachfront property

While downtown Charleston, South Carolina suffered extensive damage, the greatest damage was reported in the surrounding suburbs of Mount Pleasant, Sullivan's Island, Isle of Palms, and Goose Creek. Sullivan's Island and the Isle of Palms were cut off from the mainland by the storm's destruction of the Ben Sawyer Bridge. Along the coast, Hugo destroyed many houses and the storm surge piled boats on top of each other.[citation needed]

The storm's most intense wind and storm surge came ashore still further north between the small towns of Awendaw and McClellanville. An extraordinary 20-foot storm surge was reported between Cape Romain and Bulls Bay. Most mature trees in the Francis Marion National Forest were uprooted. Many of the stands were old growth longleaf pine, an important habitat for some endangered species. In McClellanville, a small fishing town, residents took refuge in Lincoln High School, and were surprised by the sudden tidal surge which flooded the school. With water pouring into the rooms, the refugees helped one another in pitch darkness to climb into the space in the hanging ceiling above the rooms. All survived.[citation needed]

The Myrtle Beach & Surfside Beach/Garden City/Murrells Inlet areas also took quite a hit from the storm, not so much from wind, but mainly with storm surge. The surge in addition to the fact that Hugo hit the area during an astronomical high tide created a 12 to 14 foot surge in the area. Many beach-front homes built in these areas were destroyed, leaving numerous ones laying across the middle of Ocean Blvd throughout Surfside Beach & Garden City. Telephone poles were standing in a 45 degree angle, and the boulevard was covered in approximately 4 feet of sand. Many homes just blocks from the beach were left untouched. It is said however that a Surfside Beach "Beach Access" sign was found at the corner of U.S. 17 Bypass and S.C. Hwy 544 after the storm, almost three miles away from where it would have been standing.[citation needed]

According to Governor Carroll Campbell, there were about 3,000 tornadoes embedded within the hurricane, which accounts for extensive damage in some areas not within the path of the eyewall. The term "tornado" was a misnomer; the intense localized winds are more properly referred to as vortices.[citation needed]

Hurricane Jerry

Now Tropical Depression Fourteen, the storm moved northward where it became a tropical storm on October 13 and was named Jerry. Jerry continued to move northward before turning northeastward as the storm gained strength. On October 14, Jerry encountered an upper level system which slowed the storm down and nearly sheared it apart, but the still-strengthening storm continued northward and entered an area with less wind shear. Within 12 hours, Jerry had attained Category 1 hurricane status. [1]

Hurricane Jerry made landfall in Galveston, Texas on October 15 as a category one hurricane. The storm then moved inland, its forward speed always increasing. By the end of October 16, Jerry was absorbed by a frontal system. [1] [edit] Unpredictability The forecast models of Jerry were never close to the hurricane's actual landfall

Jerry was an unpredictable storm as the strengthening before landfall and the continuation to the northwest was not anticipated. Equipment failure meant that data was not readily available, resulting in the release of a hurricane warning only eight hours prior to landfall. The NHC forecast model was also disabled, throwing the accuracy of Jerry's track off.[1] [edit] Impact

Jerry killed three people and caused $70 million dollars (1989 USD, $110 million 2005 USD) in damage. Jerry's landfall (along with Chantal and Allison earlier) was the most tropical cyclone landfalls for Texas since the 1886 season. Rainfall totals from Hurricane Jerry

Jerry produced heavy rainfall when it made landfall, with 6.4 inches (160 mm) of rain being reported in Silsbee, Texas[2] Three people were killed when their car crashed off the Galveston Seawall during the storm. It was unknown if the car simply drove off the seawall because of heavy rains or it was blown off by high winds. Jerry also caused light beach erosion along the Texas coast. [1]

3-5 inches (8-13 cm) of rain was reported in Tennessee and Kentucky.[2]

Hurricane Jerry provided the final destruction of Texas State Highway 87 between High Island and Sabine Pass. This section of the highway had become a victim to shoreline erosion and high tides. The twenty mile (32 km) section was destroyed by the hurricane. As of 2009, there are no plans to rebuild it. [edit] Aftermath

In Polk County, Texas, Jerry knocked out power for five to ten days to half of the residents. Trees were downed everywhere, blocking roads and destroying area homes. Jerry became only the fourth storm to hit this area directly since 1983, the others being Alicia of 1983, Bonnie of 1986 and Hurricane Chantal earlier in the season.[3] Campbell also stated that enough timber was lost within South Carolina to build a home for every family in West Virginia. An immense salvage effort was undertaken to harvest downed pine trees for pulpwood before they deteriorated to the point where they could not be used. Still standing timber that appeared usable for lumber and plywood frequently had annular separations of the rings that made them dangerous to saw and nearly impossible to cut into plies, so they were also downgraded into pulpwood, leading to such a drop in pulpwood prices that eventually much of the salvage effort ceased.[citation needed]

Inland, the storm destroyed homes, timber, and the area's cotton crop. Rainfall totals associated with Hugo were slightly below the average for a direct United States strike, likely due to the storm's rapid forward motion. The maximum amount measured was 10.28" at Edisto Island, South Carolina. [9]

Schools as far north as Greenville County were cancelled the day following Hugo's landfall into South Carolina. [edit] North Carolina Rainfall totals from Hugo in the continental United States

North Carolina's coastline suffered significant damage along its southward-facing beaches, including Brunswick County and the Outer Banks.[citation needed]

By the time it reached Charlotte, North Carolina, Hugo had sustained winds of 69 mph (111 km/h)[10] but gusts of 87 mph (140 km/h)[11] and was still strong enough to topple many trees across roads and houses leaving many without power, closing schools for as long as two weeks, and spawning several tornadoes. The storm took Charlotte by surprise; the city is 200 miles (320 km) inland and is frequently a stopover for people fleeing from the coast. Damage to trees was reported across much of western North Carolina.[citation needed]

In all, twenty-nine counties in North Carolina were declared federal disaster areas, with damages in that state alone estimated at $1 billion (1989 US dollars). [12] [edit] Mid-Atlantic

The last death caused by the storm was in East Aurora, New York near Buffalo when the winds toppled a tree onto a motorist.

1990

Hurricane Diana A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on July 27. It travelled westward across the unfavorable Atlantic Ocean, and remained disorganized until reaching the Caribbean Sea. Convection increased as it paralleled the north coast of South America, and it continued to organize as it moved westward. Over the western Caribbean Sea, conditions became very favorable for development, and the wave organized into a tropical depression to the east of Nicaragua on August 4. [1]

The tropical depression moved to the northwest under the influence of a mid-level trough, and intensified to a tropical storm on August 5 to the north of eastern Honduras. Named Diana, it continued quickly northwestward, and hit the Quintana Roo coast, south of the island of Cozumel, on the night of the 5th as a 65 mph tropical storm. The storm weakened slightly over the Yucatán Peninsula, and emerged into the Bay of Campeche on the 6th as a 50 mph tropical storm. [1]

When the trough of low pressure over the Gulf of Mexico weakened, steering currents forced Diana westward, where conditions remained favorable. The storm quickly strengthened over open waters, and Diana became a hurricane on August 7. On the night of the 7th, the hurricane reached its peak of 100 mph (160 km/h) winds, just before making landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas. It moved across Mexico, maintaining a weak yet discernible circulation until dissipating over the Gulf of California on the 9th. [1] [edit] Impact Rainfall from Diana in Mexico See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricane names

While crossing over the Yucatán Peninsula, Mérida reported maximum sustained winds of 34 mph (54 km/h) with gusts of 40 mph (65 km/h). In addition, Diana caused heavy rain across the area, though damage is unknown. [1]

On mainland Mexico, the states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Puebla were hardest hit, with over 75,000 people affected by the hurricane. [2] Hurricane Diana caused torrential rainfall while crossing the country, which, in turn, triggered mudslides and flooding. [1] The rainfall caused extensive property damage, destroying numerous houses and leaving 3,500 homeless. [3] The torrential rain blocked highways and railways across six states. The flooding also destroyed 400 sq km (155 sq mi) of farmland. The hurricane also injured 25,000 people. Excluding 56 people that were missing by the end of 1990, Hurricane Diana caused 139 deaths, and $90.7 million in damage (1990 USD, $135 million 2005 USD). [2]

Hurricane Klaus A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 27. It tracked westward to the south of a subtropical ridge, becoming convectively active, and a low-level circulation was observed as it passed south of the Cape Verde islands on September 28. The organization of the convection oscillated over the subsequent days, and a few times the system showed signs of developing into a tropical depression. As it approached the Lesser Antilles it organized further, and despite unfavorable upper-level wind shear the system developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen on October 3 while located about 115 miles (185 km/h) east of Dominica. Located in an area of weak steering currents, the depression drifted to the northwest, and about six hours after first developing the cyclone intensified into a tropical storm; the National Hurricane Center designated it with the name Klaus.[1]

Upon becoming a tropical storm, Klaus was located in an area of 29 mph (47 km/h) of wind shear, although concurrently it was located over warm water temperatures of 83.1° F (28.4° C).[2] Tracking through a highly baroclinic environment,[3] the storm became better organized, and at 1200 UTC on October 5 Klaus attained hurricane status about 30 miles (50 km) east of Antigua; shortly thereafter, it passed 12 miles (19 km) east of Barbuda, its closest point of approach to the Lesser Antilles. Klaus reached peak winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 985 mbar, though most of its deep convection and strong winds remained to its northeast due to wind shear.[1] At the time the hurricane was forecast to continue tracking to the north-northwest. However, after weakening to a tropical storm on October 6, Klaus turned westward.[3]

Klaus continued tracking just north of the Lesser Antilles, and after continuing to deteriorate from the wind shear, the cyclone weakened to a tropical depression on October 8 to the north of Puerto Rico. Later that day, convection redeveloped over the center, and Klaus re-attained tropical storm status as it accelerated toward the northeast Bahamas; it briefly reached winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[1] A low pressure area to its west over Cuba had been steadily intensifying and building toward the surface, and on October 9 it developed into a tropical depression; the cyclone became the dominant system, eventually becoming Marco, and Klaus dissipated under the influence of the system late on October 9. The remnant moisture continued to the northwest, reaching the coast of South Carolina by October 11.[4] [edit] Preparations

Shortly after Klaus attained tropical storm status early on October 4, a tropical storm warning was issued for the northern Leeward Islands from Saint Martin to Antigua, which was upgraded to a hurricane warning as its quick strengthening became apparent; additionally, the government of France issued a tropical storm warning for Guadeloupe. A hurricane watch was issued for the Virgin Islands, though it was dropped as Klaus began to weaken.[5] In Guadeloupe, officials advised citizens to transport livestock to safer areas, and also to avoid potentially flooded areas. Prior to its arrival, schools were closed in Martinique,[6] Sint Maarten, and Antigua. The VC Bird International Airport was closed during the passage of the hurricane.[7]

Later in its duration, the government of The Bahamas issued a tropical storm warning for the central and later northern Bahamas, though it was discontinued as the cyclone dissipated.[5] [edit] Impact

Hurricane Klaus dropped moderate to heavy rainfall across the Lesser Antilles, potentially as high as 15 inches (380 mm); the hurricane affected many areas struck by Hurricane Hugo in the previous year. On Barbados, flooding from the rainfall blocked a few roads and forced a few families to move to safer areas; lightning from the outskirts of the storm left a portion of the island without power.[6] High winds and rainfall affected the island of Saint Lucia, which destroyed about 15% of the nation's banana crop for the year; damage totaled about $1 million (1990 USD, $1.6 million 2007 USD).[8]

The rainfall resulted in severe flooding on Martinique, which accrued to almost 10 feet (3 m) in some locations; two sisters drowned near Saint-Joseph after a bridge was washed away.[6] Several landslides were reported on the island.[9] The passage of the cyclone left damaged and power and telephone systems. 750 people evacuated their homes in Le Lamentin due to flooding,[6] and a total of 1,500 residents were left homeless on the island.[7] Offshore, rough conditions damaged a fishing vessel, leaving its two passengers drifting on the boat for 25 days before being rescued about 640 miles (1035 km) to the north-northwest of Martinique.[10] In all, seven people were killed on the island.[11]

On Dominica, winds from the hurricane damaged power lines and downed trees in the northern portion of the island.[6] High winds on Antigua damaged a few rooves, and also downed communications from two radio networks.[7] The outer rainbands of the storm dropped light rainfall on the United States Virgin Islands, reaching about 1.25 inches (32 mm) on Saint Thomas; wind gusts peaked at 33 mph (53 km/h) on Saint Croix.[12] Moderate rainfall continued into the Turks and Caicos Islands, with Grand Turk reporting a total of 4 inches (100 mm) in 36 hours.[4]

On the east coast of Florida, Klaus produced 15 foot (4.5 m) waves and tides of 3 feet (1 m) above normal. Beach erosion was reported along the east coast, due to persistent easterly winds.[13] As the remnant moisture of Klaus entered the southeastern United States, it produced heavy rainfall between 10–15 inches (250–380 mm) of rainfall in South Carolina, with slightly lower totals in North Carolina. In South Carolina, the rainfall caused a dam to burst, killing four people.[4] About two days after the remnants of Klaus entered the southeastern United States, Tropical Storm Marco made landfall on northwestern Florida, dropping more heavy rainfall and causing heavy damage across the region.[14]

Tropical Storm Marcos Storm path

By early on October 6, a low pressure area and circulation persisted over eastern Cuba in the middle levels of the atmosphere. The low drifted westward, and interacted with Hurricane Klaus to its east.[1] Initially cold-core in nature, the system gradually built downward to the surface, and on October 9 the low developed a low-level circulation; at 1200 UTC the National Hurricane Center classified it as Tropical Depression Fifteen while located near the Cuban city of Caibarién,[2] though the cyclone was initially subtropical in character.[3] Tropical Storm Klaus to its east continued weakening, and the depression became the dominant system after it absorbed Klaus.[1] The tropical depression tracked along the north coast of Cuba, and after turning to the northwest it intensified into Tropical Storm Marco about 35 miles (55 km) south-southwest of Key West, Florida.[2]

After passing midway between Key West and the Dry Tortugas, Tropical Storm Marco turned to a steady northward track and quickly intensified, reaching peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) on October 11 just southwest of Englewood, Florida. The center paralleled the west coast of Florida just offshore, and by six hours after its peak intensity Marco reached a position about 6 miles (10 km) west of Bradenton Beach; much of its circulation was over land,[2] and initially the storm was forecast to move ashore between Fort Myers and Sarasota.[4] However, the cyclone continued northward just offshore, and weakened to a tropical depression just prior to making landfall near Cedar Key early on October 12.[2] Because much of its inner circulation had crossed over Saint Petersburg as a tropical storm, Marco was considered a tropical storm direct hit for the United States, the only of the year for the country; had it not been considered a direct hit, the season would have been the first since 1890 without a tropical storm or hurricane direct hit on the nation.[5]

After landfall, the cyclone accelerated northward and weakened, and by 1200 UTC on October 12, Marco transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. It turned to the northeast and east through South Carolina, under the influence of Hurricane Lili to its northeast.[3] The weakening low was absorbed by a cold front to its north on October 13,[2] though moisture from the remnants of Marco continued dropping heavy rainfall across the southeast United States for another day.[3] [edit] Preparations

A tropical storm warning was issued at some point during the duration of the cyclone for the west coast of Florida from Key West to Apalachicola. Additionally, a tropical storm warning was put in place for the east coast from Vero Beach northward to Fernandina Beach.[6] Prior to the arrival of the storm, elementary schools were closed on the three barrier islands in Lee County.[4] Florida governor Bob Martinez ordered for the closure of state offices in the Tampa Bay, and also decided not to open the University of South Florida and other community colleges in the area. Public schools were not opened on the day of the storm's passage in Manatee and Sarasota counties, though most other schools remained open.[7] As the storm tracked northward, the National Weather Service issued a flood watch for much of Georgia. A flood watch was later issued for western portions of the Carolinas and for high elevations in Virginia and West Virginia.[8] [edit] Impact Rainfall Summary for Tropical Storm Marco

With most of its circulation over the western portion of Florida during its duration, Tropical Storm Marco produced tropical storm force winds across western Florida.[6] As it brushed the coastline, the storm developed strong convective rainbands,[9] leading to peak sustained winds of 69 mph (112 km/h) with gusts to 85 mph (137 km/h) on the Sunshine Skyway Bridge;[6] the bridge was closed after gusts reached 70 mph (115 km/h).[10] Squalls from the storm spawned four tornadoes in the state,[6] one of which struck the city of Crystal River which destroyed a mobile home and left 2,000 people without power for about an hour.[11] A total of about 25,000 customers across the state were left without power, and about 40 families were left temporarily homeless due to storm damage.[10] Paralleling the coastline, the storm produced a light storm surge that peaked at 2.62 feet (0.8 m) above normal on Sanibel Island.[6] In some locations, the surge rose rapidly, and despite the unusual geography of the area the levels varied only by as much as 9.8 inches (250 mm) than the predicted levels from the SLOSH model.[9] The surge and waves caused some minor beach erosion.[6] Moderate to heavy rainfall fell across western Florida, peaking at 6.14 inches (156 mm) near Bradenton;[12] the rainfall was beneficial after a very dry summer, though because it fell quickly the precipitation failed to cease water restrictions across the area.[13] The storm resulted in some flooding across its path, including some flooded homes in Manatee County. Several roadways, including two U.S. highways, were also flooded. Damage in the state totaled $3 million (1990 USD, $5 million 2007 USD),[6] of which $1 million (1990 USD, $1.6 million 2007 USD) occurred in Manatee County.[10]

As the remnants of Marco entered Georgia, it combined with the remnant moisture from Hurricane Klaus and a slow-moving cold front, which caused large amounts of precipitation to fall across the eastern portion of the state. Rainfall peaked at 19.89 inches (505 mm) at a station near Louisville, where over 16 inches (400 mm) fell in a 24 hour period.[6] In Augusta, 2.79 inches (71 mm) of rainfall fell in one hour, which forced the evacuation of about 300 people. Some roads in eastern Georgia were flooded up to 6 feet (1.8 m) deep, and police officers in Augusta rescued people in flooded cars. The flooding resulted in some power outages. The deluge killed five people through drowning,[8] and left over 450 people homeless.[14] The remnants of the storm spawned a tornado in Brantley County, which destroyed 25 unoccupied homes.[15] Damage in the state totaled $42 million (1990 USD, $66 million 2007 USD).[6] On October 19, 1990, President George H. W. Bush declared several counties in Georgia as federal disaster areas, which permitted the use of emergency funds for disaster victims.[16][17]

Heavy rainfall continued into the Carolinas. Much of South Carolina experienced over 7 inches (175 mm) of precipitation, and the statewide rainfall total peaked at 13.96 inches (355 mm) in Pageland.[3][18] The rainfall, which caused the highest totals in 100 years in some locations,[19] also ended a severe drought in South Carolina.[20] The rainfall caused 80 bridges in the state to fail, while more than 120 bridges were either closed, damaged, or destroyed.[21] In South Carolina, the system caused three deaths from drowning;[14] damage totaled $12 million (1990 USD, $19 million 2007 USD).[6] In North Carolina, rainfall reached 10.74 inches (273 mm) in Albemarle.[18] Two direct deaths occurred in the state,[6] and there were two indirect traffic deaths.[14]

Rainfall from the remnants of Marco and Klaus extended into the Ohio Valley, with 3.67 inches (93 mm) recorded near Mountain City, Tennessee.[18] Totals of 2 – 5 inches (50 – 125 mm) spread across northwest Virginia, western Maryland, eastern West Virginia, and the Susquehanna Valley of Pennsylvania.[6] In New York, the rainfall combined with moisture from Hurricane Lili, which closed a portion of a railway line and a highway.[22]

1991

Hurricane Bob originated from the remnants of a frontal trough to the southeast of Bermuda on August 12. The system tracked towards the southwest and later west towards the Bahamas. By August 15, satellite analysis of the system found a weak low pressure area a couple hundred miles east of the Bahamas.[2] Operationally the system was not declared a tropical depression until 0600 UTC on August 16 after a reconnaissance mission into the storm found a closed circulation and flight level winds of 37 mph (60 km/h).[3] After post-storm analysis, it was determined that the low had developed into a depression around 0000 UTC. Several hours after being designated, the system began to develop convective banding features. Roughly 18 hours after being declared a depression, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) upgraded it to a tropical storm, giving it the name Bob. At this time, Bob was situated roughly 140 mi (225 km) northeast of Nassau, Bahamas. The storm tracked slowly towards the northwest in response to a deep layer mean flow.[2]

A deepening trough over the eastern United States was forecast to turn the storm toward the north on August 16. This turn took place earlier than forecasters anticipated.[4] The storm slowly intensified as convection was displaced from the center of circulation; however, upper-level outflow was well-defined and intensification of the storm was expected as it tracked over the Gulf Stream.[5] Later that day, Bob began to consolidate and a reconnaissance plane recorded hurricane-force winds at 1719 UTC, following this reading, the NHC upgraded the storm to a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.[2] Shortly after, the hurricane began to turn towards the north-northeast in response to a subtropical ridge over the Atlantic and the trough over the southeastern United States.[6]

By August 18, the NHC noted that the hurricane was asymmetrical, having uneven distribution of the wind radii.[7] Later that day, deep convection continued to form and an eye later appeared on satellite imagery. Early the next day, the eye became increasingly defined as the center of Bob passed roughly 35 mi (55 km) from the North Carolina coastline. By 0600 UTC, Hurricane Hunters recorded flight level winds of 140 mph (225 km/h), corresponding to surface winds of 115 mph (185 km/h). At this time, the barometric pressure of the storm also decreased to 950 mbar (hPa; 28.05 inHg), the lowest pressure recorded during the storm. After attaining this intensity, the hurricane tracked quickly northeast at 25 mph (35 km/h), steered by the trough over the southeast United States, an upper-level cutoff low over the Great Lakes Region and the subtropical ridge over the Atlantic.[6] Hurricane Bob near peak intensity

The track of Bob by August 19 was similar to that of Hurricane Carol in 1954, another major hurricane that impacted New England.[6] Significantly cooler sea surface temperatures in the path of the hurricane resulted in weakening, leading to the eye becoming cloud-filled. Later on August 19, the western portion of the eyewall brushed the eastern tip of Long Island. Around 1800 UTC, the center of Bob made landfall near Newport, Rhode Island with winds of 100 mph (155 km/h), making it a Category 2 hurricane. The storm quickly weakened as it tracked through Rhode Island and Massachusetts before entering the Gulf of Maine. Around 0130 UTC on August 20, the now weakened Tropical Storm Bob made another landfall near Rockport, Maine with winds of 70 mph (110 km/h).[6]

Later on August 20, Bob had crossed through Maine and part of New Brunswick, Canada and entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Around 1800 UTC, the former hurricane transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. Early the next day, the storm passed over northern Newfoundland before re-entering the Atlantic Ocean. Rapidly tracking eastward, the storm briefly weakened to the equivalent of a tropical depression on August 22. After the brief weakening, the remnants of Bob turned towards the southeast and slowed. Once more, the extratropical system weakened to the equivalent of a tropical depression; however, it did not re-intensify. The storm slowly tracked towards the east before dissipating off the coast of Portugal on August 29.[6] [edit] Impact

Hurricane Bob brought sustained hurricane force winds to the immediate coastal communities of Rhode Island and most of southeast Massachusetts. Storm surge in Narragansett Bay peaked at 11.5 feet (3.5 m). Strong tropical storm force winds blew across the remainder of the region, with many areas receiving gusts to hurricane force east of the Connecticut River. Wind damage to trees and utility poles was common and resulted in numerous power outages. Over 60 percent of the residents across southeast Rhode Island and southeast Massachusetts lost power. Damage was also extensive to apple and peach orchards across these areas. Hurricane Bob making landfall on Rhode Island

Coastal communities bore the brunt of the storm, with sustained winds between 83 to 107 mph (172 km/h). Peak wind gusts to 125 mph (201 km/h) were recorded on Cape Cod in the towns of Brewster and Truro, as well as in Wethersfield, Connecticut. The highest sustained wind of 100 mph (160 km/h), was recorded in North Truro. Block Island reported sustained winds of 90 mph (140 km/h), with gusts in excess of 105 mph (maximum speed of equipment). Wind gusts to near 100 mph (160 km/h) were recorded in Newport and by the Navy Ship USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), which was riding out the storm on the east passage between Newport and Jamestown, Rhode Island. Additionally, six confirmed tornadoes were associated with hurricane Bob; four touched down in North Carolina and two on Long Island, New York. There were 16 unconfirmed tornadoes reported, including nine on Hatteras Island, NC, two in Rhode Island, and two in Massachusetts. The lowest barometric pressure was recorded by the USS Valdez (FF-1096) while in the east passage of Narragansett Bay, with a reading of 28.47 inches (723 mm).

Hurricane Bob caused a storm surge of 6 to 10 feet (above mean tide) along the Rhode Island shore, which would have resulted in four feet of water inundating downtown Providence had its protective hurricane barrier that sheltered it failed.[8] The surge was worse (10 to 15 feet (4.6 m)) in Buzzards Bay. The Buzzards Bay shore east to Cape Cod was hardest hit. The highest surges, of 12 to 15 feet (4.6 m), were observed in Onset, Bourne, and Wareham, at the head of Buzzards Bay. Cove Road, in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts had 29 of 37 homes destroyed, while Angelica Point lost 32 of 35 homes along the shore. Boat damage was significant, as many boats were torn from their moorings. On the portion of the lower Cape Cod, residents were without power for serveral weeks after the storm had passed. Contracted electrical companies from as far away as Canada, were called in to fix down power lines as a result of the storm. Extensive beach erosion occurred along the shore from Westerly, Rhode Island eastward. Some south facing beach locations on Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island lost up to 50 feet (15 m) of beach to erosion. Due to the extensive damage, President George H.W. Bush declared Rhode Island a "disaster area" because of Hurricane Bob.

The storm also affected the Canadian Maritimes. Two boys were killed by being swept out to sea. The eye passed directly over Campobello Island, New Brunswick.

Significant rainfall of 3 to 6 inches (150 mm) fell across all but southeast Rhode Island and eastward to Cape Cod, where less than 1-inch (25 mm) fell. The heaviest rainfall of over 7 inches (180 mm) affected western Rhode Island and extreme eastern Connecticut. Portland, Maine had the highest amount of rain with 8.24 inches (209 mm); the 24 hour rainfall associated with Bob set a record for Portland. Its storm total rainfall graphic is located here.

Wind gusts of up to 61 mph (98 km/h) were reported in Portland, Maine. 2.8 feet (0.85 m) storm surge occurred in the Portland Tide Gauge. A total of three fatalities from Bob were reported in Maine. The total damage in Maine topped off at $212 million (1991 USD). Many locations in Maine experienced long-duration power-outages. The Sebago Lake area also reported heavy damage.[9]

It was the strongest hurricane to strike New England since Hurricane Gloria hit on September 27, 1985. Bob was responsible for six deaths in Connecticut, 18 deaths in the United States and for 20 deaths overall. It spawned tornadoes in North Carolina and Long Island. Total damage in southern New England was approximately $1.7 billion ($2.5 billion in 2005 dollars).

1992

Hurricane Andrew --

It's best to just go to

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Andrew

This hurricane would have devastated any survivors in South Florida, and significantly effected any developing survivor communities in Louisiana and Mississippi.

Tropical Storm Danielle Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration September 22 – September 26 Intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min), 1001 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Danielle (1992)

The storm that would become Danielle formed on September 18 off the U.S. East Coast. It became a tropical storm on the 22nd and moved parallel to the seaboard. The storm made landfall in Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula and continued northwest where it dissipated. Danielle was a very rare tropical cyclone to make landfall in Virginia, one of only a few.

Two deaths were reported as a result of Danielle: a sailboat was battered and sunk by high seas off the coast of New Jersey.

1993

Tropical Storm Bret Main article: Tropical Storm Bret (1993) Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration August 4 – August 11 Intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min), 1002 mbar (hPa)

Bret formed along 10°N about 1,150 miles (1,850 km) west of Cape Verde on August 4, a latitude it would stay at for most of its life. The storm tracked westward over Trinidad and a small portion of the Venezuelan coast on the 7th, and then back over the Caribbean Sea. The next day, Bret again crossed into Venezuela, and travelled into Colombia. It weakened over the mountainous terrain, and after becoming a tropical depression over the Caribbean, Bret hit southern Nicaragua on the 10th with 45 mph (72 km/h) winds. 184 people were killed from the storm, with heavy damage reported.

Hurricane Gert Main article: Hurricane Gert (1993) Category 2 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 14 – September 21 Intensity 100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min), 970 mbar (hPa)

Gert formed as a tropical depression in the extreme southwest Caribbean Sea on September 14, about 105 miles (169 km) north of Panama. The depression travelled west-northwest and was upgraded to a tropical storm on the 15th, just before landfall near Bluefields, Nicaragua. Gert weakened back to a tropical depression, travelled across Nicaragua and Honduras, and emerged briefly over water where it regained tropical storm strength. It hit Belize on September 18, crossed the Yucatán Peninsula, and emerged into the Bay of Campeche later that day. Over open water for the first time since it formed, Gert strengthened rapidly, reaching Category 2 strength just before landfall near Tuxpan on September 20. Gert dissipated on the 21st, having caused over $166 million in damage (1993 USD) and killing 76 people.

1994

Tropical Storm Alberto, which triggered some of the worst flooding ever observed across portions of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. As a result of the storm's slow motion, 27 inches (690 mm) of rain fell in some locations. Due to flash flooding, 33 deaths were reported, primarily in Georgia. Over 18,000 homes were damaged or destroyed, and in excess of 1,000 roads sustained damage. About 900,000 acres (360,000 ha) of crops were affected by the storm, and 218 dams failed. Total damage from the storm amounted to $750 million (1994 USD; $1.03 billion 2007 USD).[25] The flooding from Alberto was considered the worst natural disaster in Georgia's history.[26]

In November, Tropical Storm Gordon affected Florida, causing eight fatalities and 43 injuries. In Volusia County, 1,236 buildings reported flood damage. In the state, damage totaled $400 million (1994 USD; $553 million 2007 USD).[31]

The Caribbean was primarily affected by two tropical cyclones. Tropical Storm Debby killed four people and injured 24 on St. Lucia. Heavy rainfall caused flooding and mudslides, which washed away hillside shacks, eight bridges, and parts of roads. Flood waters were chest-high in some locations, and the storm's winds damaged banana plantations.[32] Mudslides caused by the storm blocked roads, and water supply was disrupted.[33] On Martinique, one person drowned and some towns were flooded. Downed trees made roads impassable, and up to 20,000 people on the island lost power. Three deaths occurred in the Dominican Republic, and a fisherman drowned off of Puerto Rico. Throughout the areas affected by Debby, it is estimated that hundreds of people were homeless.[32] Later in the season, Hurricane Gordon caused heavy damage and 1,122 fatalities in Haiti; the storm's effects extended from Costa Rica to North Carolina in the United States. Over Hispaniola, the persistent southerly flow to the east of the storm, combined with the steep upslope motion of the land, generated prolonged rainfall which triggered disastrous flooding and mudslides.[34] The extreme flooding led to an estimated 1,122 fatalities in Haiti, although some reports indicate that up to 2,000 people died. Six deaths were also reported in Costa Rica. Elsewhere, five fatalities were reported in the Dominican Republic, two in Jamaica, and two in Cuba.[35]

1995

Tropical storm Allison, coming ashore in June near Apalachicola, caused significant rain (7+ inches) in the panhandle of Florida and SE Georgia (Darien).

Tropical Storm Dean, coming ashore in late July near Galviston, caused up to 15 inches of rain to fall in East Texas and Oklahoma.

Huricane Erin, after crossing central Florida, made a second landfall at Pensacola, caused 5 to 7 inches of rainfall in SW Alabama (New Montgomery) and central Mississippi (Hattiesburg).

Tropical Storm Gabrielle Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration August 9 – August 12 Intensity 70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min), 988 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Gabrielle (1995)

Too close to land to reach hurricane strength. Landfall was in Mexico, near La Pesca, Tamaulipas, on August 11.[9] Severe damage was reported in relation to Gebrielle and six people were killed.[10]

Tropical storm Jerry, August 22-29, landfall Jupiter, FL (east coast), but dropped over ten inches of rain near Darien, GA, and especially in the upstate of SC (18.51 in. at Antreville, SC). The storm crossed SC going to see near Myrtle Beach (dropping 10+ inches near Georgetown.

Hurricane Luis Category 4 hurricane (SSHS) Duration August 27 – September 11 Intensity 140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min), 935 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Luis

A typical rare and most impressive Cape Verde-type hurricane since Hurricane Hugo, Luis formed on August 29, becoming the fourth concurrent named storm in the Atlantic basin. Luis would intensify as it travelled across the Atlantic, and satellite estimates placed it at Category 4 intensity on September 3. By late September 4 and 5, Luis had reached the Leeward Islands, the center passed 20 miles north of Sint Maarten/Saint Martin as it caused very extensive damage totaling $1.8 billion USD on the small island. It would eventually head north and became a strong extratropical storm over Newfoundland.

Luis is officially reported to have killed 16 with numerous missing in the Leeward Islands and 1 in Newfoundland. Damage was substantial, with upwards of half the structures reported damaged on the northern Lesser Antilles. Estimated total damage was $2.5 billion (1995 USD). RMS Queen Elizabeth 2, en route to New York early in the morning of September 11, encountered an 87 foot (29 m) rogue wave generated by Hurricane Luis. Damage to the ship was somewhat minor, and no passengers or crew were injured. Luis affected the Leeward Islands only a week after Hurricane Iris and only ten days before Hurricane Marilyn.[16]

Hurricane Marilyn Category 3 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 12 – September 22 Intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min), 949 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Marilyn

Marilyn formed late in the UTC day on September 13, and reached hurricane strength soon thereafter. Marilyn struck the Lesser Antilles on September 14 at Category 1 strength, and intensified to nearly Category 3 strength by the time it reached the U.S. Virgin Islands. A Hurricane Hunter reconnaissance flight reported hail, which is unusual for tropical cyclones. After heading north past Bermuda, Marilyn weakened and became extratropical on September 22.

Marilyn is directly responsible for eight deaths, most due to drowning on boats or offshore. Ten thousand people were left homeless on the island of St. Thomas, and estimated damages were set at $1.5 billion (1995 USD), making it the most destructive hurricane to hit the Virgin Islands since Hurricane Hugo in 1989.[18]

Hurricane Opal, coming ashore near Pensacola, FL, in early October, dumping over 19 inches of rain on Brewton, AL. Most of Alabama, North GA, and Western NC received over 5 inches of rain, with a corner of the upstate of SC over 10 inches falling in the mountains near Asheville. The article on wikipedia is notable in giving a good report of how this affected the whole easter US http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Opal

Hurricane Roxanne Category 3 hurricane (SSHS) Duration October 7 – October 21 Intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min), 956 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Roxanne

Roxanne, the first storm to receive an 'R' name since Atlantic hurricane naming began in 1950, formed from a tropical depression in the western Caribbean on October 9. It was initially expected to pose a threat to Cuba; however, it turned west and rapidly intensified to Category 3 strength. The storm made landfall just north of Tulum, a small town on the Quintana Roo coast across from the island of Cozumel, with sustained winds near 115 mph (185 km/h). Roxanne emerged over water in the Bay of Campeche as a minimal hurricane, and then meandered in a small area of the bay for almost a week. It eventually weakened to a depression and moved inland.

Roxanne resulted in 14 deaths, with five of them coming from the sinking of a petroleum work barge with 245 people on board. There was massive damage in Mexico across numerous states; the area had been affected by Opal a week before and all damage could not be sorted out from Opal and Roxanne. Damage was estimated at $1.5 billion (1995 USD).[23]

1996

A bad year for eastern NC (affecting Outer Banks).

Hurricane Authur hits on June 19th, causing very little damage with five inches of rain.

Hurricane Bertha, July 12th, brings over seven inches of rain to NC. The storm would pound the whole east coast of the North American coast.

Hurricane Cesar Main article: Hurricane Cesar-Douglas Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration July 24 – July 29 Intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min), 985 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Cesar formed off the coast of Venezuela, near Curaçao, on July 25. It traveled west, and landfall occurred near Bluefields, Nicaragua on July 28, with Cesar at Category 1 strength. A weakened Cesar moved into the Pacific Ocean where it was renamed Hurricane Douglas. The previous hurricane to strike Nicaragua, 1988's Hurricane Joan, also made the transition to a Pacific hurricane.

There were 51 deaths caused by Cesar, 26 of which were in Costa Rica. Most deaths were due to flooding and mud slides caused by Cesar's heavy rainfall.

Hurricane Dolly Main article: Hurricane Dolly (1996) Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration August 19 – August 26 Intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min), 989 mbar (hPa)

Dolly was named on August 19 in the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and Honduras. Dolly strengthened and was a minimal hurricane at landfall near Chetumal, Quintana Roo on August 20. Weakened to a tropical storm, Dolly continued out into the Bay of Campeche, and it regained hurricane strength before a second landfall near Tampico, Tamaulipas on August 23. The storm's remnants continued across Mexico before dissipating over the Pacific on the 25th.

Fourteen people were reported dead in Mexico, six of them drowning victims in Veracruz. Hundreds of homes were destroyed, and large areas of crop land were flooded. A monetary estimate of the damage is not available.

Hurricane Fran, Sept 4-8, hits Cape Fear, NC, but dumps over seven inches in much of central Virginia (16 inches in Big Meadows, VA)

Tropical storm Josephine formed from the tail end of a front that had stalled in the Gulf of Mexico. Josephine then reached tropical depression status on October 4 and became a tropical storm on October 6 after meandering around for days as a tropical depression. Between the 6th and 7th of October, Josephine rapidly moved eastward and was nearing hurricane strength before upper level wind shear disrupted the storm structure. Later on the 7th, the storm made landfall near Apalachee Bay, Florida as a strong tropical storm. When the storm crossed the coast, it lost tropical characteristics and was declared an extratropical storm as it moved over Georgia. The extratropical remnants of Josephine then raced across the U.S. East coast and Atlantic Canada before merging with another extratropical storm on October 16. [edit] Impact Rainfall totals from Tropical Storm Josephine.

In all, Josephine indirectly caused two fatalities and left $130 million dollars in damage (1996 USD, $158 million 2005 USD).

Hurricane Lili Main article: Hurricane Lili (1996) Category 3 hurricane (SSHS) Duration October 14 – October 27 Intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min), 960 mbar (hPa)

Hurricane Lili was a strong storm that took a track to the northeast for most of its existence. The tropical depression that would become Lili formed off the east coast of Nicaragua on October 14, and moved slowly to the northwest. On October 16, as it was north of Honduras, it reached tropical storm strength and was named Lili. A well-organized storm, Lili reached hurricane strength the next day. Lili grazed the Isle of Youth on October 18, then hit Matanzas Province, Cuba eight hours later at Category 2 strength. The storm's path turned eastward, and Lili emerged over water twelve hours later on Cuba's northern coast. Lili maintained most of its strength during its trip over Cuba, and as the storm approached the Bahamas, it strengthened further. The center passed over San Salvador Island and Great Exuma on October 19 before heading into the open ocean. Over open water, Lili reached Category 3 strength, and continued its northeastward track. It continued across the Atlantic until it was finally declared extra tropical 300 n mi north of the Azores on October 27. The extra tropical storm retained tropical storm force winds and crossed Ireland and Great Britain on October 28.

The storm caused eight deaths in Central America from flooding during its formative stages. Two direct deaths were reported in the United Kingdom. No deaths were reported in Cuba. Damage in Cuba and the United Kingdom totaled to $804 million (2005 USD), and was reported as severe in the Bahamas and Central America.

1997

Hurricane Danny, "second" landfall at Dauphin Island, near Mobile, AL, on July 17. It drops over 35 inches of rain there. Western Alabama receives significant rain, as does central NC. Except for a small area in the mountains near Asheville, no rain significally effects Blue Ridge or Piedmont.

1998

Hurricane Bonnie, with landfall near Wilmington, drenched the coast with up to 14 inches of rain. Little damage recorded further inland. Back side of the storm causes some problems to the outer banks of NC.

South Carolina

As the hurricane passed to the east of the state, rainfall ranged from 2 to 4 in (51 to 100 mm), and storm surge was around 2 to 3 ft (0.61 to 0.91 m).[41] The highest recorded wind gust in the state was 82 mph (132 km/h) at the Cherry Grove pier, and sustained winds peaked at 76 mph (122 km/h) at the Myrtle Beach Pavilion. Damage was widespread in Horry County, where downed trees and power lines and structural damage was reported.[42] The high winds blew down several trees in Charleston County,[43] and tore the roof off a strip mall in North Myrtle Beach.[44] A 50-year-old man died near Myrtle Beach; he was electrocuted while checking his generator after a power outage.[45] Total damage in South Carolina was estimated to be around $25 million (1998 USD).[1] [edit] North Carolina

Hurricane Bonnie came ashore just at or below major hurricane intensity, bringing with it intense wind gusts of up to 98 mph (158 km/h) in North Carolina,[1] though offshore at the Frying Pan Shoals Light Tower, winds reached 104 mph (167 km/h).[40] The strongest winds were found in the precursor rainbands, where localized downbursts caused severe damage.[1] Sustained winds officially peaked at 51 mph (82 km/h) at Elizabeth City, where gusts reached 63 mph (101 km/h). Rainfall was heavy as a result of the storm's slow movement, peaking at 11 in (280 mm) at Jacksonville, while several totals of over 10 in (250 mm) were reported. However, because the area had been experiencing drought conditions, the flooding was not as severe as it could have potentially been. The most significant flooding occurred near the Cape Fear River, where high waters were reported. The highest storm surge occurred along the beaches of Brunswick County, mostly reaching 5 to 8 ft (1.5 to 2.4 m) above average.[1] Elsewhere, flooding was mostly limited to locations with poor drainage and low-lying areas.[46] Coastal flooding was not widespread, though surge in the Pungo River flooded several local homes. Other coastal flooding was reported in various harbors and coastal cities. Part of North Carolina Highway 12 was flooded and closed on Hatteras Island due to tidal flooding. At North Topsail Beach, many of the protective dunes constructed after Hurricane Fran in 1996 were destroyed, and along the Bogue Banks, tens of thousands of tires, part of an artificial reef, were washed ashore.[46]

Hurricane Earl, Sept 1-6. Coming ashore west of Panama City, cuts a path NE into central NC. Doesn't affect any NTL settlements except for heavy rains in the panhandle (Apalachicola). SW Georgia gets 7+ inches. Florence, SC gets 5+ inches. Tornatoes touch down in the Georgetown area.

Tropical Storm Frances Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration September 8 – September 13 Intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min), 990 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Frances (1998)

Frances formed in the western Gulf of Mexico on September 8. It briefly drifted south, but then turned north and then northwest. It made landfall north of Corpus Christi, Texas on September 11 as a moderately strong tropical storm. It weakened to a tropical depression as it travelled north, and dissipated north of Dallas, Texas.

The storm was relatively large, with tropical storm force winds extending 300 nmi (485 km) from the center of circulation. A storm surge of up to eight feet was reported along the Texas coastline, and rainfall totals for many areas exceeded ten inches (254 mm) .

Tropical Storm Frances was responsible for one direct death in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana caused by a tornado. Heavy rainfall caused large amounts of flood damage in southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana, with an estimated total of $500 million in property damage.

Hurricane Georges Category 4 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 15 – October 1 Intensity 155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min), 937 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Georges

A tropical wave that emerged from the coast of Africa in mid September organized into a tropical depression on September 15 while 300 nmi (560 km) south-southwest of Cape Verde. It continued to develop, and reached tropical storm force on the 16th, while centered 620 nmi (1,150 km) west-southwest of Cape Verde. Georges took a typical track for a Cape Verde-type hurricane, with a nearly straight west-northwest track. Georges continued to strengthen, and nearly reached Category 5 classification on September 20, while 285 nmi (528 km) east of Guadeloupe. Georges weakened from this point on, but was on a track to travel up all of the Leeward Islands and the Greater Antilles.

On the 21st, Georges began its seven landfalls in the Lesser Antilles, starting with Antigua. After passing through the smaller islands, it made landfall in Puerto Rico. It strengthened slightly as it left the island, but its passage over the mountainous terrain of Hispaniola left it a minimal hurricane. Georges continued on, and traveled up the northern coast of Cuba. By September 25, it made landfall at Key West, Florida at Category 2 strength. As it entered the Gulf of Mexico, Georges began a turn to the north, and made landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi on September 28. Georges meandered over southern Mississippi, then slowly traveled east before dissipating over northern Florida on October 1.

The damage caused by Georges was immense. There were 604 deaths directly associated with Georges, nearly all in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Property damage to the United States and its possessions is estimated at $5.9 billion. Monetary estimates of damage in other areas affected are not available. However, 185,000 were left homeless in the Dominican Republic, another 167,000 in Haiti, and 3,500 homes were destroyed in Cuba. Hurricane Georges was a very damaging storm, the 19th deadliest of the 20th century. Georges was one of 4 active Atlantic hurricanes on September 26.

Hurricane Mitch was the most powerful hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (285 km/h). The storm was the thirteenth tropical storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the season. At the time, Hurricane Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane observed in the month of October, though it has since been surpassed by Hurricane Wilma of the 2005 season. The hurricane matched the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record (it has since dropped to seventh).

Mitch formed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting through extremely favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 status, the highest possible rating on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. It drifted through Central America, reformed in the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a strong tropical storm.

Due to its slow motion from October 29 to November 3, Hurricane Mitch dropped historic amounts of rainfall in Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, with unofficial reports of up to 75 inches (1900 mm). Deaths due to catastrophic flooding made it the second deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history; nearly 11,000 people were killed with over 11,000 left missing by the end of 1998. 2.7 million were left homeless or missing in all. The flooding caused extreme damage, estimated at over $5 billion (1998 USD, $6.5 billion 2008 USD)

[1]

1999

Hurricane Bret was the first of five Category 4 hurricanes that developed during the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season and the first tropical cyclone since Hurricane Jerry in 1989 to make landfall in Texas at hurricane intensity. Forming from a tropical wave on August 18, Bret slowly organized within weak steering currents in the Bay of Campeche. By August 20, the storm began to track northward and underwent rapid intensification on August 21. After this period of strengthening, Bret attained its peak intensity with winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 944 mbar (hPa; 27.88 inHg). Later that day, the storm weakened to a Category 3 hurricane and made landfall on Padre Island, Texas. Shortly thereafter, the storm weakened further, becoming a tropical depression 24 hours after moving inland. The remnants of the storm eventually dissipated early on August 26 over northern Mexico.

Hurricane Dennis (Aug 24 - Sep 7) of the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season was a Category 2 hurricane that was erratic in both track and intensity. Although it never made landfall as a hurricane, the storm was responsible for producing hurricane force winds along the North Carolina coast along with beach erosion. The hurricane caused $157 million in damage, and killed four people. The heavy rains from Dennis also set the stage for destructive flooding from Hurricane Floyd about two weeks later.

Hurricane Floyd was the sixth named storm, fourth hurricane, and third major hurricane in the 1999 Atlantic hurricane season. Floyd triggered the third largest evacuation in US history (behind Hurricane Gustav and Hurricane Rita, respectively) when 2.6 million coastal residents of five states were ordered from their homes as it approached. The Cape Verde-type hurricane formed off the coast of Africa and lasted from September 7 to September 19, peaking in strength as a very strong Category 4 hurricane—just short of the highest possible rating—on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It was among the largest Atlantic hurricanes of its strength ever recorded.

Floyd struck The Bahamas at peak strength, causing heavy damage. It then paralleled the East Coast of the United States, causing massive evacuations and costly preparations from Florida through North the Mid-Atlantic states. The storm weakened significantly, however, before making landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, and caused further damage as it traveled up the Mid-Atlantic region and into New England.

The hurricane produced torrential rainfall in eastern North Carolina, adding more rain to an area hit by Hurricane Dennis just weeks earlier. The rains caused widespread flooding over a period of several weeks; nearly every river basin in the eastern part of the state exceeded 500-year flood levels. In total, Floyd was responsible for 57 fatalities and $4.5 billion ($6.0 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars) in damage, mostly in North Carolina.

[The rainfall up the east coast along this storms path is extensive. Th most effected in the NTL would be Delmarva and Vermont, since eastern NC (except Outer Banks and Elizabeth City) did not survive.]

Hurricane Lenny Category 4 hurricane (SSHS) Duration November 13 – November 23 Intensity 155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min), 933 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Lenny

Hurricane Lenny was a damaging late season hurricane first named on November 13 while in the western Caribbean Sea. Lenny tracked generally east over the Caribbean, and is the only storm recorded to have done so for an extended period of time and by November 15, Lenny had intensified to hurricane strength and was just south of Jamaica. Later that day, the National Hurricane Center upgraded Lenny to a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane scale. It weakened back to a Category 1 storm, only to rapidly strengthen to its maximum pressure just as it made landfall on the south coast of Saint Croix on November 17. As a weakening but slow moving storm, Lenny made landfall at Saint Martin, Anguilla, Saint-Barthélemy, and Antigua on November 18 and November 19. Lenny weakened to a tropical depression in the open Atlantic two days later and dissipated on November 23.[16]

Lenny brought more heavy rains to areas in the Leeward Islands that had been affected by Hurricane Jose just one month earlier, and brought more damage to areas struck by Hurricane Georges the previous year. Lenny also brought damaging surf to western shores of the entire Eastern Caribbean island chain, resulting in significant damage on a number of the islands. Many residents had to evacuate their homes as huge waves threatened — and in a number of cases (such as in St. Lucia) destroyed many buildings. There are seventeen deaths directly attributed to Lenny, including two in Colombia. Damage to the islands was considerable, totaling at $330 million United States dollars.

Lenny's 155 mph (249 km/h) peak, just below Category 5 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, makes it the strongest November hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin, although records before 1944 remain incomplete.[17]

2000

Tropical Storm Beryl Main article: Tropical Storm Beryl (2000) Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration August 13 – August 15 Intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min), 1007 mbar (hPa)

Beryl formed in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico on August 14. Beryl headed west and landfall occurred the next day 30 nmi (56 km) north of La Pesca, Tamaulipas (90 nmi south of Brownsville, Texas). Initially feared to be a hurricane at landfall, Beryl remained disorganized, and hit with 50 mph (80 km/h) winds. The storm caused extensive flooding in Tamaulipas, with one reported drowning death. Monetary damage estimates for Mexico are not available, and there were no reports of damage in southern Texas.

Hurricane Debby Main article: Hurricane Debby (2000) Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration August 19 – August 24 Intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min), 991 mbar (hPa)

Debby formed east of the Windward Islands on August 20. The storm strengthened to a Category 1 hurricane the next day. Debby remained a somewhat disorganized hurricane for the rest of its life. It moved west, passing over the Leeward Islands, and just north of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. Debby dissipated off the southern coast of Cuba on the 24th.

In Barbuda, Debby caused moderate roof damage. Throughout the Lesser Antilles, gusty winds damaged fruit trees and power lines. [7] In the United States Virgin Islands, damaged totaled to $200,000 (2000 USD). [1] Debby also dropped up to 12 inches of rainfall across Puerto Rico, causing mudslides and damaging bridges and roads. [7] 406 homes were affected from the flooding, with damage totaling to $501,000, primarily in the Caguas municipality. [2] Also on the island, the storm was indirectly responsible for one death. On the northern coast of the Dominican Republic, waves and rainfall caused light to moderate damage. In Cuba, the remnants of Debby helped relieve a severe drought. [7]

Hurricane Gordon was one of two U.S. landfalling tropical storms of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season, and was the 7th named storm and 4th hurricane of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season. Gordon was a category 1 hurricane over the Gulf of Mexico but weakened to a tropical storm before making landfall in Florida. Gordon left 24 dead and 2 missing and $10.8 million (2000 USD) in damage.

Impact [edit] Latin America

As a tropical wave, Gordon killed 23 people in Guatemala mainly due to flooding and landslides in mountainous regions.[1] While drifting over the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Gordon dropped heavy rainfall peaking at 9 inches (230 mm) in Cancún.[9] The storm also dumped heavy rainfall in western Cuba with totals reaching 10 inches (250 mm). [edit] Atlantic Ocean

Gordon forced the evacuation of several oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. This caused the companies of Royal Dutch Shell and Chevron to suspend oil production.[5] Gordon also forced the cruise liner Carnival's Sensation, consisting of 2,200 passengers and 900 crew members, to remain at sea for one day. [edit] United States [edit] Florida Total rainfall from Gordon

Before Gordon made landfall in Florida, one death occurred when a surfer drowned in the raging seas close to Pensacola in Florida. During landfall, the storm brought a storm surge to Cedar Key with waves over six feet high (over 1.8 m). The majority of the damage was to trees and power-lines, and as a result, 20,000 people in Florida lost power for over six hours.[1] At the peak of the storm, 120,000 people were without electricity, mostly in the Tampa metropolitan area.[10] Numerous homes along the Florida coast between the Tampa Bay area and Cedar Key received minor roof damage, and several roads near the coast experienced minor flooding due to the storm surge and were closed temporarily.[1]

Many evacuations took place once Gordon crossed the Florida coast. The Emergency Operations Center in Florida said authorities had arranged mandatory evacuations for coastal regions in the Citrus, Franklin, Hernando, Levy and Taylor counties, while also recommending voluntary evacuations for numerous other counties. The Red Cross reported that the storm forced 500 people to seek refuge in shelters.[11] Also, many flights were canceled at the Tampa International Airport. About 200 national guardsmen were called to help cleanup the damage in flooded areas. Officials forced schools in six counties - Gilchrist, Columbia, Citrus, Taylor, Lafayette and Suwannee to close down for one day.[10]

Gordon also spawned two tornadoes that touched down as it made landfall. One tornado touched down near Cape Coral, Florida, damaging three homes, while an F0 tornado touched down near Ponce Inlet in Volusia County, Florida, causing minimal damage, mainly to trees and rooves.[1] [edit] Carolinas

Flooding in North Carolina occurred as the storm moved up the East Coast, indirectly killing two people when a car lost control and struck a tractor trailer during the storm.[12] Two men in a fishing boat were also reported missing.[12] Hoffman Forest, North Carolina received 5.71 inches (145 mm) of rain,[13] the most rain in the area since Hurricane Floyd the year before.[citation needed] In South Carolina, there was also flooding from heavy rain. Despite the rain, Gordon did little to help a drought that had been affecting the southeastern United States.

Tropical Storm Helene, Sept 15-25. Landfall at Apalachicola, FL.

Impact

Tropical Storm Helene caused $16 million (2000 USD, $18.7 million 2006 USD) in total economic losses.[10] The highest rainfall measurement recorded to have fallen from Helene was 10.32 inches (262 mm) in Apalachicola. One direct death, one indirect death, and six injuries were also attributed to the storm. [edit] Florida

Nearly 8 inches (203 mm) of rain caused minor flooding and power outages[11] affecting approximately 5,000 people[9] in Tallahassee, Florida, while over 10 inches (254 mm) of rain swamped Apalachicola. Six or more tornadoes touched down between the two cities, but caused no significant damage as they crossed sparsely populated land.[11]

Six homes across Franklin, Leon, and Wakulla counties in Florida were destroyed, while 17 suffered major damage, and another 65 had minor damage done to them.[12] The Gulf County Division of Emergency Management estimated there was between $100,000 and $300,000 (2000 USD, $117,000 and $351,000 2006 USD) in road damage and beach erosion on the part of a peninsula called Cape San Blas.[9] [edit] The Carolinas Counties eligible for public assistance

An F2 tornado ripped through Martin, South Carolina on September 23, directly killing a man in a trailer while he slept and injuring six others in adjacent homes.[2][11] The highest rainfall measurement in South Carolina came from Bamberg, at 9.6 inches (244 mm).[13] Flash flooding also occurred in Aiken County.[14] Downed trees were blocking state Highway 125 in Allendale County, and the county emergency management office reported major damage to five or six mobile homes. Reports from the local weather service say that state Highway 47 was flooded near Elgin and too dangerous to drive on. The weather service also stated that Virginia Avenue was washed out in Barnwell. An indirect fatality occurred from flood related traffic in Berkeley County. A middle-aged woman lost control of her car when she hit a patch of water on the road and the car hit a pine tree.[15]

Hurricane Keith Category 4 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 28 – October 6 Intensity 140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min), 939 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Keith

A long-lived tropical wave organized into a tropical depression while 60 nmi (110 km) north-northeast of Cape Gracias a Dios, Nicaragua on September 28. A day later it was classified as Tropical Storm Keith. Keith began to rapidly intensify as it moved slowly west, reaching Category 4 strength. Keith weakened slightly and after its eyewall passed over Ambergris Cay and Caye Caulker, Belize on October 1, it spent two days meandering off the coast of Belize. During this time it weakened dramatically and was a Category 1 hurricane when it made landfall in Belize between Belize City and Chetumal, Quintana Roo.

It passed through Belize into Campeche, and from there back into the Gulf of Mexico. After emerging over water, Keith restrengthened and was a minimal hurricane at its second landfall just north of Tampico, with a direct impact to the metropolitan city of Monterrey.

Keith is responsible for twenty-four deaths, twelve due to flooding in Nicaragua. Monetary damage in Belize is estimated at 225 million USD. No damage estimates are available for Keith's final landfall in Mexico, or for Guatemala where it caused flooding.

2001

Tropical Storm Allison was a tropical storm that devastated southeast Texas in June of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. The first storm of the season, Allison lasted unusually long for a June storm, remaining tropical or subtropical for 15 days. The storm developed from a tropical wave in the northern Gulf of Mexico on June 4, 2001, and struck the upper Texas coast shortly thereafter. It drifted northward through the state, turned back to the south, and re-entered the Gulf of Mexico. The storm continued to the east-northeast, made landfall on Louisiana, then moved across the southeast United States and Mid-Atlantic. Allison was the first storm since Tropical Storm Frances in 1998 to strike the northern Texas coastline.[1]

The storm dropped heavy rainfall along its path, peaking at over 40 inches (1,000 mm) in Texas. The worst flooding occurred in Houston, where most of Allison's damage occurred: 30,000 became homeless after the storm flooded over 70,000 houses and destroyed 2,744 homes. Downtown Houston was inundated with flooding, causing severe damage to hospitals and businesses. Twenty-three people died in Texas. Throughout its entire path, Allison caused $5.5 billion ($6.7 billion 2008 USD) in damage and 41 deaths. Aside from Texas, the places worst hit were Louisiana and southeastern Pennsylvania.

[Affected East Texas, southern parts of La, Ms, Al, and Ga., Apalachicola, Fl, and Florence, SC]

Tropical Storm Chantal was a poorly forecast Atlantic tropical cyclone that moved across the Caribbean Sea in August 2001. Chantal developed from a tropical wave on August 14 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. It tracked rapidly westward for much of its duration, and after degenerating into a tropical wave it passed through the Windward Islands. Chantal reached a peak intensity of 70 miles per hour (110 km/h) twice in the Caribbean Sea, and each time it was anticipated to attain hurricane status; however, wind shear and later land interaction prevented strengthening to hurricane status. On August 21 Chantal moved ashore near the border of Mexico and Belize, and the next day it dissipated.

In the Windward Islands, lightning caused two indirect deaths in Trinidad. Chantal dropped light to moderate rainfall across its path, most significantly in Quintana Roo in Mexico where it caused widespread mudslides. Damage in Belize totaled $4 million (2001 USD, $4.8 million 2008 USD), due to the combined impact of high waves, moderate winds, and rainfall. Overall damage was minor.

Hurricane Gabriel, Sept 11-19. Affected southern and western Florida and Newfoundland.

Hurricane Iris Category 4 hurricane (SSHS) Duration October 4 – October 9 Intensity 145 mph (230 km/h) (1-min), 948 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Iris

Tropical Depression Eleven formed just southeast of Barbados on October 4. It traveled across the Windward Islands, and was named Tropical Storm Iris while south of Puerto Rico on the 5th. Iris continued to the west and intensified. After passing just south of Jamaica, Iris reached Category 4 hurricane strength. Iris made landfall near Monkey River Town, Belize on October 9 at Category 4 strength, but weakened rapidly. It dissipated later that day.

An exact death toll is unknown, but 31 are confirmed dead, 3 in the Dominican Republic, 8 in Guatemala, and 20 from the M/V Wave Dancer, a ship that capsized off the Belize coast. Newspapers have reported an additional 30 deaths in Belize, but the government there has only confirm the 20 deaths from the Wave Dancer. Damage in Belize is reported at $66.2 million.

Hurricane Karen Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration October 12 – October 15 Intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min), 982 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Karen (2001)

On October 12, an extratropical low just south of Bermuda was classified as Subtropical Storm One. After passing Bermuda, the storm took on enough tropical characteristics to be reclassified as Tropical Storm Karen. Karen continued north, strengthening into a hurricane, but slowly weakened and made landfall on Nova Scotia on October 15 as a tropical storm. Its remnants were absorbed by a larger system later that day.

Karen was responsible for sinking several small ships in St. George Harbor, and caused $1.4 million in damage (2001 USD) in Bermuda. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick benefited from the storm, as it dropped light rainfall that helped relieve a drought in the area.

Hurricane Michelle was the 13th named storm and the strongest hurricane of the 2001 Atlantic hurricane season. Michelle developed from a tropical wave that moved across the Atlantic, and formed into tropical depression fifteen on the 29 October. Still weak, shower activity increased, and formed into tropical storm Michelle on November 1. It strengthened more, until reaching its peak strength as a Category 4.

One of only five November Category 4 hurricanes, Michelle made landfall on south-central Cuba with winds of 140 mph (225 km/h), the strongest Cuban landfall since Hurricane Fox in the 1952 season. The hurricane brought torrential rains across its path from Central America through the Greater Antilles, killing 17 people and causing widespread damage.

Impact Impact by region Region Direct deaths Missing Damage (In millions USD) Honduras 10 50

?

Cuba 5 0 1,800 Nicaragua 4 12 ? Jamaica 2 0 18 Haiti 1 0 ? Cayman Islands 0 0 28 Florida 0 0 0.02 Total 22 62 1,846.02

Hurricane Michelle brought torrential rains along its path through the western Caribbean Sea, killing 22 people and causing extensive damage in Central America and Cuba. [edit] Jamaica

As the tropical wave that would become Michelle was drifting through the western Caribbean Sea, it produced torrential rainshowers on the island of Jamaica. When the hurricane passed to the northwest, it brought more rainfall, amounting to a 10-day total of 37.44 inches (951 mm) at Comfort Castle. Many other locations across the island recorded over 15 inches (380 mm), resulting in widespread mudslides and moderate property damage, killing 2 people. [2] Many roads were blocked, and numerous houses were either damaged or destroyed. [3] Damage on Jamaica totaled to $18 million (2001 USD, $19.1 million 2006 USD). [4] [edit] Central America

As Tropical Depression Fifteen was drifting over Central America, it dropped torrential rains, forcing over 100,000 people from their homes from Panama through Honduras. In Honduras, the deadly flooding led to overflown rivers and mudslides, cutting off around 100 villages in the department of Gracias a Dios from the rest of the country. [2] Bridges, roads, and houses were destroyed across the coastal areas of Central America, with extensive corn and bean crop damage, affecting millions. In areas where the rain was not extreme, the precipitation was welcome to farmers, helping to end a severe drought that had been in place all year. Other drought areas denounced the extreme flooding that destroyed the rest of their crops. [5] Though south of where the depression came ashore, Costa Rica experienced flooding in the north part of the country, forcing thousands to evacuate. [2]

Michelle was responsible for 10 deaths in Honduras and 4 deaths in Nicaragua, with an extensive amount of damage. An additional 62 people were reported missing in Central America.[6][2] The areas most affected by the storm coincided with the areas ravaged by Hurricane Mitch almost exactly three years prior. [7] [edit] Cayman Islands

Hurricane Michelle brought heavy surf, storm surge, and flooding in the Cayman Islands. Grand Cayman experienced about $28 million in damage, mostly along the west coast. No casualties were reported. [2] [edit] Cuba

In Cuba, about 750,000 people and 741,000 animals were evacuated prior to the hurricane's arrival. [8] Hurricane Michelle quickly crossed the island as a Category 4 hurricane, the strongest since 1952's Hurricane Fox. To the south of Cuba, Cayo Largo del Sur received a 9-10 foot storm surge, inundating the entire island with water. Closer to Cuba, the Isle of Youth experienced 11.83 inches (300 mm) of rain with 15-foot (4.6 m) waves, causing extensive power outages and flooding. [2]

On the coast of western and southern Cuba, Michelle produced 4-5 foot waves, along with a heavy storm surge. Rainfall amounts up to 754 mm/29.69 inches were recorded across the island.[9] In addition, 300 mm/11.83 inches was reported at Punta del Este. The provinces of Matanzas, Villa Clara, and Cienfuegos were hardest hit, where 10,000 homes were destroyed and another 100,000 damaged. Severe damage was also reported to the sugar cane [2] and in the tourist town of Varadero. In Havana, winds and rain destroyed 23 buildings, with many others damaged. Due to well-executed warnings and evacuations, only 5 people were killed in Cuba. [8] The Category 4 hurricane caused $1.8 billion in damage (2001 USD, $1.98 billion 2006 USD). [10] Wettest tropical cyclones in the Bahamas Precipitation Storm Location Rank (mm) (in) 1 747.5 29.43 Noel 2007 Long Island[11] 2 508.0 20.00 Donna 1960 [12] 3 436.6 17.19 Flora 1963 Duncan Town[13] 4 390.1 15.36 Inez 1966 Nassau Airport[13] 5 321.1 12.64 Michelle 2001 Nassau[14] 6 309.4 12.18 Erin 1995 Church Grove[15] 7 279.4 10.00 Isidore 1984 Nassau[16] 8 260.0 9.88 Fay 2008 Freeport[17] 9 236.7 9.32 Floyd 1999 Little Harbor Abacos[18] 10 216.4 8.52 Cleo 1964 West End[13]

The United States offered aid to the island, an act it had done in the past despite a political embargo. [19] President Fidel Castro refused, believing his country would survive with enough resources for the reconstruction process. [20]

2002

Hurricane Gustav Category 2 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 8 – September 12 Intensity 100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min), 960 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Gustav (2002)

Gustav formed as a subtropical storm on September 8 while about 440 nm southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The next day, Gustav had taken on more tropical characteristics and was reclassified as a tropical storm. It moved generally northwest over the next day, bringing it within a few miles of Cape Hatteras. Before making landfall, Gustav turned to the northeast and away from North Carolina. As it headed out to sea, Gustav strengthened over the warm Gulf Stream waters. It became a hurricane on September 11, the latest day a season's first hurricane formed since detailed records began in 1944. Gustav continued strengthening and peaked as a Category 2 hurricane. On September 12, it grazed eastern Nova Scotia, then made landfall at Newfoundland. Gustav lost all its tropical characteristics over Newfoundland, and dissipated three days later. In North Carolina, one person died from high surf and 40 people had to be rescued from the storm surge in Hatteras, with $100,000 dollars in damage occurring. Tropical storm force winds were felt in New York, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, downing trees and damaging docks. Gustav was the first subtropical storm to be named by the National Hurricane Center. Previously, subtropical storms were not given names. [edit] Tropical Storm Hanna Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration September 12 – September 15 Intensity 55 mph (90 km/h) (1-min), 1001 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Hanna (2002)

A tropical depression in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico formed into Tropical Storm Hanna on September 12. Hanna remained poorly organized, but held together long enough to make landfall near the border between Mississippi and Alabama on September 14. Although weak and disorganized, Hanna caused three drowning deaths due to rip currents, and $20 million in damage, primarily to agriculture in Georgia.

[Worst rain, Donaldsonville, in SW Georgia. Significant rain in Apalachicola Nat. Forrest, FL, Toccoa, CSA, and Greenville RoP]

Hurricane Isidore Category 3 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 14 – September 27 Intensity 125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min), 934 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Isidore

On September 9, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. By September 14, it had developed to the point of being classified a tropical depression. It quickly degenerated, but on September 17 regained tropical depression status. The next day the storm was located just south of Jamaica, and it developed into Tropical Storm Isidore. 36 hours later, it had achieved hurricane status. On September 20, Isidore made landfall in western Cuba as a Category 1 storm, the first of three landfalls it would make.

Isidore slowly left Cuba and restrengthened while approaching the Yucatán Peninsula. Just before landfall near Puerto Telchac on September 22, Isidore reached its peak intensity, with wind speeds of 125 miles per hour (201 km/h), making it a strong Category 3 storm. Isidore meandered over the peninsula for more than a day, then returned to the Gulf of Mexico as a tropical storm. It headed north, but did not significantly redevelop. Isidore's final landfall was near Grand Isle, Louisiana on September 26. Isidore weakened to a depression and was absorbed by a front the next day.

In Mexico, there was one fatality, and 140 people reported missing at sea. Damage estimates for Mexico are not available, however tens of thousands of homes were damaged or destroyed and agriculture was devastated by inland flooding. In the US, Isidore was blamed for four direct deaths, and $330 million in damage. Exact Cuban damages are unknown, but were reported to be severe.

Hurricane Kyle was the fourth longest-lived Atlantic tropical or subtropical cyclone on record. The eleventh named storm and third hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season, Kyle developed as a subtropical cyclone on September 20 to the east-southeast of Bermuda. Looping westward, it transitioned into a tropical cyclone and became a hurricane on September 25. For the next two weeks, Kyle tracked generally westward, oscillating in strength several times because of fluctuations in environmental conditions. On October 11, the cyclone turned northeastward and made landfalls near Charleston, South Carolina, and Long Beach, North Carolina, at tropical storm status. After lasting as a cyclone for 22 days, Kyle dissipated on October 12 as it was absorbed by an approaching cold front.

The hurricane brought light precipitation to Bermuda, but no significant damage was reported there. Moderate rainfall accompanied its two landfalls in the United States, causing localized flash flooding and road closures. Floodwaters forced the evacuation of a nursing home and several mobile homes in South Carolina. Kyle spawned at least four tornadoes, the costliest of which struck Georgetown, South Carolina; it damaged 106 buildings and destroyed seven others, causing eight injuries. Overall damage totaled about $5 million (2002 USD, $6 million 2008 USD), and no direct deaths were reported. However, the remnants of Kyle contributed to one indirect death in the British Isles.

Hurricane Lili was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season for the United States. Lili was the twelfth named storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm developed from a tropical disturbance in the open Atlantic on September 21. It continued westward, affecting the Lesser Antilles as a tropical storm, then entered the Caribbean Sea. As it moved west, the storm dissipated while being affected by wind shear south of Cuba, and regenerated when the vertical wind shear weakened. It turned to the northwest and strengthened up to category 2 strength on October 1. Lili made two landfalls in western Cuba later that day, and then entered the Gulf of Mexico. The hurricane rapidly strengthened on October 2, reaching Category 4 strength that afternoon. It weakened rapidly thereafter, and hit Louisiana as a Category 1 hurricane on October 3. It moved inland and dissipated on October 6.[1]

Lili caused extensive damage through the Caribbean, particularly to crops and poorly built homes.[2] Mudslides were common on the more mountainous islands, particularly Haiti and Jamaica.[3] In the United States, the storm cut off the production of oil within the Gulf of Mexico, and caused severe damage in parts of Louisiana. Lili was also responsible for severe damage to the barrier islands and marshes in the southern portion of the state. Total damage amounted to $882 million (2002 USD; $1.15 billion 2007 USD), and the storm killed 15 people during its existence.[1]

2003

Tropical Storm Bill Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration June 29 – July 2 Intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min), 997 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Bill (2003)

Tropical Storm Bill developed from a tropical wave on June 29 to the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. It slowly organized as it moved northward, and reached a peak of 60 mph (95 km/h) shortly before making landfall 27 miles (43 km) west of Chauvin, Louisiana. Bill quickly weakened over land, and as it accelerated to the northeast, moisture from the storm, combined with cold air from an approaching cold front, produced an outbreak of 34 tornadoes. Bill became extratropical on July 2, and was absorbed by the cold front later that day.[15]

Upon making landfall on Louisiana, the storm produced a moderate storm surge, causing tidal flooding.[16] In a city in the northeastern portion of the state, the surge breached a levee, which flooded many homes in the town.[17] Moderate winds combined with wet soil knocked down trees, which then hit a few houses and power lines,[18] and left hundreds of thousands without electric power.[19] Further inland, tornadoes from the storm produced localized moderate damage. Throughout its path, Tropical Storm Bill caused around $50 million in damage (2003 USD, $56 million 2007 USD) and four deaths.[15]

Hurricane Claudette Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration July 8 – July 17 Intensity 90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min), 979 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Claudette (2003)

A well-organized tropical wave tracked quickly through the Lesser Antilles on July 7, producing tropical storm force winds but failing to attain a low-level circulation. After organizing in the Caribbean Sea, it developed into Tropical Storm Claudette to the south of the Dominican Republic on July 8. Its intensity fluctuated over the subsequent days, attaining hurricane status briefly on July 10 before weakening and hitting Puerto Morelos on the Yucatán Peninsula on July 11 as a tropical storm. The storm remained disorganized due to moderate wind shear, though after turning west-northwestward into an area of lighter shear, it re-attained hurricane status on July 15 off the coast of Texas; it intensified quickly and made landfall on Matagorda Island with peak winds of 90 mph (145 km/h). It slowly weakened after moving ashore, tracking across northern Tamaulipas before dissipating in northwestern Chihuahua.[20]

The precursor cyclone caused light damage in the Lesser Antilles, and waves from the hurricane caused an indirect death off of Florida.[20] Widespread flooding and gusty winds destroyed or severely damaged 412 buildings in southeast Texas, with a further 1,346 buildings suffering lighter impact. The hurricane caused locally severe beach erosion along the coast.[21] High winds downed many trees along the coast, causing one direct and one indirect death. Damage was estimated at $180 million (2003 USD, $200 million 2007 USD).

Tropical Storm Grace Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration August 30 – September 2 Intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min), 1007 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Grace (2003)

A strong tropical wave accompanied with a low pressure system moved off the coast of Africa on August 19. It moved quickly westward, failing to organize significantly, and developed a surface low pressure area on the 29th in the Gulf of Mexico. Convection continued to organize, and the tropical wave developed into Tropical Depression Eleven on August 30 while located 335 miles (540 km) east-southeast of Corpus Christi, Texas. The depression quickly intensified to become Tropical Storm Grace, though further intensification was limited due to a nearby upper-level low. On August 31 Grace moved ashore on Galveston Island, Texas, and it quickly weakened over land. The storm turned northeastward and was absorbed by a cold front over extreme eastern Oklahoma on September 2.[43]

The storm produced light to moderate precipitation from Texas through the eastern United States, peaking at 10.4 inches (263 mm) in eastern Texas.[44] Near where it made landfall, Grace produced flooding of low-lying areas and light beach erosion.[45] In Oklahoma and southern Missouri, the remnants of the storm caused localized flooding.[46][47] No deaths were reported, and damage was minimal.[43]

Tropical Storm Henri Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration September 3 – September 8 Intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min), 997 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Henri (2003)

On August 22, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa, and it remained disorganized until reaching the eastern Gulf of Mexico on September 1. A tropical disturbance developed into Tropical Depression Twelve on September 3 about 300 mi (480 km) west of Tampa, Florida. It moved eastward and strengthened into Tropical Storm Henri on September 5, and despite strong wind shear it intensified to reach peak winds of 60 mph (95 kph) later that day. Subsequently it quickly weakened, and it struck the western Florida coast as a tropical depression. On September 8 it degenerated into a remnant low pressure area off the coast of North Carolina, [48] and after moving ashore near Cape Hatteras, [49] it crossed the Mid-Atlantic states and dissipated on September 17 over New England. [50]

Henri was responsible for locally heavy rainfall across Florida, but damage was minimal.[48] The remnants of Henri caused heavy precipitation in Delaware and Pennsylvania, causing $19.6 million in damage (2003 USD, $22 million 2007 USD).[51][52] In Delaware, the rainfall caused record-breaking river flooding, with part of the Red Clay Creek experiencing a 500-year flood,[53] and the system left 109,000 residents without power in Pennsylvania.[52] The impacts of the storm were severely compounded the following week by Hurricane Isabel across the region.

Hurricane Isabel Category 5 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 6 – September 19 Intensity 165 mph (270 km/h) (1-min), 915 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Isabel

A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 1, which developed into Tropical Depression Thirteen early on September 6 to the southwest of the Cape Verde islands. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Isabel,[54] and it continued to gradually intensify within an area of light wind shear and warm waters.[55] Isabel strengthened to a hurricane on September 7, and the following day it attained major hurricane status. Its intensity fluctuated over the subsequent days as it passed north of the Lesser Antilles, and it attained peak winds of 145 knots (270 km/h) on September 11, a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. The hurricane oscillated between Category 4 and Category 5 status over the following four days, before weakening due to wind shear. On September 18 Isabel made landfall between Cape Lookout and Ocracoke Island in North Carolina with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h). It continued northwestward, becoming extratropical over western Pennsylvania before being absorbed by a larger storm over Ontario on September 19.[54]

Strong winds from Isabel extended from North Carolina to New England and westward to West Virginia. The winds, combined with previous rainfall which moistened the soil, downed many trees and power lines across its path, leaving about 6 million electricity customers without power at some point. Coastal areas suffered from waves and its powerful storm surge, with areas in eastern North Carolina and southeast Virginia reporting severe damage from both winds and the storm surge. Throughout its path, Isabel resulted in $3.6 billion in damage (2003 USD, $4.04 billion 2007 USD) and 47 deaths, of which 16 were directly related to the storm's effects.[56]

The governors of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware declared states of emergencies.[57] Isabel was the first major hurricane to threaten the Mid-Atlantic States and the South since Hurricane Floyd in September 1999. Isabel's greatest impact was due to flood damage, the worst in some areas of Virginia since 1972's Hurricane Agnes. More than 60 million people were affected to some degree — a similar number to Floyd but more than any other hurricane in recent memory.[58]

Hurricane Juan Category 2 hurricane (SSHS) Duration September 24 – September 29 Intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min), 969 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Juan

A large tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 14,[65] and due to unfavorable wind shear it initially remained disorganized.[66] An area of convection increased in association with an upper-level low, and it developed into Tropical Depression Fifteen on September 24 to the southeast of Bermuda. It steadily organized as it tracked northward, intensifying into Tropical Storm Juan on September 25 and attaining hurricane status on September 26.[65] With warm waters and light wind shear, Juan reached peak winds of 105 mph (165 km/h) on September 27 about 635 miles (1020 km) south of Halifax, Nova Scotia.[67] It accelerated northward, weakening only slightly before moving ashore near Halifax on September 29 with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h). It quickly weakened while crossing the southern Canadian Maritimes before being absorbed by a large extratropical cyclone over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.[65]

The eyewall of Hurricane Juan was the first to directly cross over Halifax since a hurricane in August of 1893; the cyclone became one of the most damaging tropical cyclones in modern history for the city. The hurricane produced a record storm surge of 4.9 feet (1.5 m), which resulted in extensive flooding of the Halifax and Dartmouth waterfront properties. Strong winds caused widespread occurrences of falling trees, downed power lines, and damaged houses, and the hurricane was responsible for four direct deaths and four indirect deaths.[65] More than 800,000 people were left without power. Nearly all wind-related damage occurred to the east of the storm track, and damage amounted to about $200 million (2003 CAD ($150 million 2003 USD).[68]

Tropical Storm Larry Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration October 1 – October 6 Intensity 65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min), 993 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Larry (2003)

A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 17, which developed a low pressure area on September 27 in the western Caribbean Sea. It moved ashore along the Yucatán Peninsula on September 29 and developed into an extratropical cyclone as it interacted with a stationary cold front. Deep convection increased, and it transitioned into Tropical Storm Larry by October 1. The storm drifted generally southward, and after reaching peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) it made landfall in the Mexican state of Tabasco on October 5,[73] the first landfall in the state since Tropical Storm Brenda in 1973.[74] The remnants of Larry crossed the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, degenerating into a remnant low pressure area before dissipating on October 7 in the eastern Pacific Ocean.[73]

The storm dropped heavy rainfall, peaking at 24.77 inches (629.2 mm) in Upper Juarez in southeastern Mexico.[75] The rainfall caused mudslides and damage, which coincided with the presence of two other tropical cyclones – Eastern Pacific tropical storm Nora and Olaf.[76] Overall, the storm resulted in five deaths and $53.4 million in damage (2003 USD).[73][77]


2004

The season was notable as one of the deadliest and most costly Atlantic hurricane seasons on record in the last decade, with at least 3,132 deaths and roughly $50 billion (2004 US dollars) in damage. The most notable storms for the season were the five named storms that made landfall in the U.S. state of Florida, three of them with at least 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds: Tropical Storm Bonnie, Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne. This is the only time in recorded history that four hurricanes affected Florida. Jeanne wreaked havoc in Haiti, killing more than 3,000 people, and was the deadliest tropical cyclone since Mitch in 1998. Ivan raged through Grenada, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands, while Frances and Jeanne both hit the Bahamas at full force. Charley, a small hurricane, caused significant damage in Cuba. Floodwaters in the southeastern United States were brought to near-record levels.

Hurricane Alex was the first named storm, the first hurricane, and the first major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. The first storm of the season, Alex formed unusually late in the season; the fifth latest since 1954. It developed from the interaction between an upper-level low and a weak surface trough on July 31 to the east of Jacksonville, Florida. It moved northeastward, and strengthened to attain winds of 100 mph (160 km/h) before passing within 10 miles (16 km) of the Outer Banks coast. Alex strengthened further and reached a peak of 120 mph (190 km/h) winds while off the coast of New England, one of only two hurricanes to reach Category 3 status north of 38° N. Alex caused a scare of a hurricane-force direct hit in the Outer Banks of North Carolina, which had been devastated by Hurricane Isabel less than a year earlier.

The hurricane produced light damage in the Outer Banks, primarily from flooding and high winds. Over 100 houses were damaged, while numerous cars were disabled from the flooding. Damage totaled about $7.5 million (2004 USD). Alex produced strong waves and rip tides along the East Coast of the United States, causing one death and several injuries.

[Affects Outer Banks and Delmarva. To some extent New England]

Tropical storm Bonnie. Mostly just rain in SE USA. Landfall Apalachicola, FL; significant rain near Darien, Ga; most rain, near Georgetown, SC. In path, Outer Banks, New England, Maine.

In Florida, Bonnie produced up to 4.1 inches (104 mm) of rainfall in Pace, with peak wind gusts of 42 mph (68 km/h). Bonnie was accompanied by a 4 ft (1.2 m) storm surge; moderate wave action caused slight beach erosion. Rainfall and storm surge flooded roads, forcing the evacuation of 2,000 residents in Taylor County. The winds downed trees and caused scattered power outages.[13] A tornado in Jacksonville damaged several businesses and houses.[14]

Bonnie triggered a tornado outbreak throughout portions of the Mid-Atlantic states. One tornado in Pender County, North Carolina destroyed 17 homes and damaged 59 houses, causing three deaths and $1.27 million in damage (2004 USD).[15] In Stella, Bonnie generated a waterspout that struck a campground, damaged nine trailers, and wrecked small boats.[16] A tornado in Richlands damaged several houses as well.[17] In South Carolina, tornadoes across the state damaged nine homes. A suspected tornado in Danville, Virginia destroyed the rooves of several businesses.[14] In South Carolina, rainfall peaking at 6.07 inches (154 mm) in Loris[5] caused flooding across the state. The flooding, including a one foot depth along U.S. Route 501, washed away a road and a bridge in Greenville County. In addition, 600 people across the state were left without electricity.[18]

In Pennsylvania, the remnants of the storm dropped up to 8 inches (200 mm) of rain in Tannersville. The rainfall caused the Schuylkill River to reach a crest peak of 12.89 ft (4 m) at Berne. The flooding blocked several roads across eastern Pennsylvania. In addition, Bonnie produced gusty winds, leaving thousands without power.[19] In Delaware, the storm dropped up to 4 inches (100 mm) of rain, forcing 100 to evacuate from the floodwaters. The flooding closed part of U.S. Route 13, and an overflown creek in New Castle County caused moderate flooding damage to stores.[13] In Maine, moisture from the remnants of Bonnie produced heavy rainfall, with localized totals of up to 10 inches (250 mm). The rainfall flooded or washed out roads across the eastern portion of the state. In Aroostook County, near the town of St. Francis, the rainfall caused a mudslide which narrowed a county road to one lane.[20]

As an extratropical low combined with a frontal system, Bonnie continued to produce moderate rainfall in Canada, peaking at 3.5 inches (90 mm) in Edmundston, New Brunswick. The rainfall caused basement flooding and road washouts; slick roads caused a traffic fatality in Edmundston.[21]

guation). Hurricane Charley Category 4 hurricane (SSHS)

Hurricane Charley before landfall in Florida Formed August 9, 2004 Dissipated August 15, 2004 Highest winds 150 mph (240 km/h) (1-minute sustained) Lowest pressure 941 mbar (hPa; 27.79 inHg) Fatalities 15 direct, 20 indirect Damage $16.3 billion (2004 USD) $18.9 billion (2009 USD) Areas affected Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina Part of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Charley was the third named storm, the second hurricane, and the second major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Charley lasted from August 9 to August 15, and at its peak intensity it attained 150 mph (240 km/h) winds, making it a strong Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The storm made landfall in southwestern Florida at maximum strength, thus making it the strongest hurricane to hit the United States since Hurricane Andrew struck Florida twelve years before, in 1992.

After moving briskly through the Caribbean Sea, Charley crossed Cuba on Friday, August 13 as a Category 3 hurricane, causing heavy damage and four deaths. That same day, the hurricane crossed over the Dry Tortugas, just 22 hours after Tropical Storm Bonnie struck northwestern Florida. This was the first time in history that two tropical cyclones struck the same state in a 24-hour time period. Charley was one of two major hurricanes to hit Florida in 2004, and one of four hurricanes to directly affect the state.

At its peak intensity of 150 mph (240 km/h), Hurricane Charley struck the northern tip of Captiva Island and the southern tip of North Captiva Island, causing severe damage in both areas. Charley, the strongest hurricane to hit southwest Florida since Hurricane Donna in 1960, then continued to produce severe damage as it made landfall on the peninsula near Port Charlotte. The hurricane continued to the north by northeast along the Peace River corridor, devastating the small cities of Punta Gorda, Cleveland, Fort Ogden, Nocatee, Arcadia, Zolfo Springs,Sebring, and Wauchula. Zolfo Springs was isolated for nearly two days as masses of large trees, power pole, power lines, transformers, and debris filled the streets. Wauchula sustained gusts to 147 mph, buildings in the downtown areas caved in onto Main Street. Ultimately, the storm passing through East Orlando still carrying winds gusting up to 106 mph (171 km/h). Interestingly, the city of Winter Park, north of Orlando, also sustained considerable damage since its many old, large oak trees had not experienced high winds. Falling trees tore down power utilities, smashed cars, and their huge roots lifted underground water and sewer utilities.

Damage in the state totaled to over $13 billion (2004 USD). Charley, initially expected to hit further north in Tampa, caught many Floridians off-guard due to a sudden change in the storm's track as it approached the state. Throughout the United States, Charley caused 10 deaths and $15.4 billion in damage (2004 USD), making Charley the second costliest hurricane in United States history at the time (it has since dropped to 5th). Charley was a very small, very fast moving storm, otherwise damage would have been much more severe. Although mitigation and restoration was promised by FEMA to the poor communities of Hardee and DeSoto counties during town meetings, the agency did not pass the cursory planning stages, and the promised reconstruction/compensation was never implemented/provided.

The first storm to make landfall in the state at hurricane intensity since Hurricane Hugo in 1989,[7] Hurricane Charley struck near Cape Romain, South Carolina as an 80 mph (130 km/h) hurricane, moved offshore briefly, and made its final landfall near North Myrtle Beach as a minimal hurricane with winds of 75 mph (120 km/h).[8] With the landfalling system, five tornadoes were reported in the state.[9] However, only two were confirmed; one moved through the Francis Marion National Forest, downing trees along its path.[10] Storm surge ranged from 4 ft (1.2 m)–6 ft (1.8 m),[11] although only minor beach erosion occurred.[3] A buoy situated 41 nmi (47 mi) southeast of Charleston recorded 16 ft (4.9 m) seas and 74 mph (119 km/h) winds.[12]

Peak winds in the state were clocked at 63 mph (101 km/h) at the Isle of Palms. The storm also spawned winds of 58 mph (93 km/h) at Folly Beach and 51 mph (82 km/h) in downtown Charleston. Numerous trees, tree limbs and electrical poles were knocked down in those regions.[11] Trees were blown onto U.S. Route 17 in Mount Pleasant, and awnings were torn off of a few structures.[13] A total of 2,231 houses were damaged; 2317 of these were severely damaged and 40 were destroyed. Two-hundred and twenty-one of those damaged were beach front structures on Sunset Beach.[5] Several businesses suffered broken windows, while about six hotels reported roof and outer wall damage.[14] This led to $30 million (2004 USD) in hotel profit loss in Myrtle Beach, primarily along U.S. Route 17.[15]

[Over seven inches of rain near Georgetown, near one of its landfalls. Elizabethtown, NC, and Delmarva in its path]

Hurricane Frances was the sixth named storm, the fourth hurricane, and the third major hurricane of the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. The system crossing the open Atlantic during mid to late August, moving to the north of the Lesser Antilles while strengthening. Its outer bands affected Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands while passing north of the Caribbean sea. The storm's maximum sustained wind speeds peaked at 145 miles per hour (233 km/h), achieving Category 4 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. As the system slowed down its forward motion, the eye passed over San Salvador Island and very close to Cat Island in the Bahamas. Frances was the first hurricane to impact the entrie Bahamian archipelago since 1866, and led to the nearly complete destruction of their agricultural economy.

Frances then passed over the central sections of the state of Florida in the U.S. only three weeks after Hurricane Charley, causing significant damage to the state's citrus crop, closing schools and canceling a football game. The storm then moved briefly offshore Florida into the northeast Gulf of Mexico and made a second U.S. landfall at the Florida Panhandle before accelerating northeast through the eastern United States near the Appalachians into Atlantic Canada while weakening. A significant tornado outbreak accompanied the storm across the eastern United States, nearly equaling the outbreak from Hurricane Beulah. Very heavy rains fell in association with this slow moving and relatively large hurricane, which led to floods in Florida and North Carolina. A total of 49 lives were lost from the cyclone. Damages totaled US$12 billion (2004 dollars).

Georgia

Frances dropped significant rain on Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and North and South Carolina. The passage of tropical depression Frances into Georgia dumped up to 5 inches (130 mm) of rain onto the state and caused the closings of schools in 56 counties. Across Georgia, winds of 30 miles per hour (48 km/h) to 40 miles per hour (64 km/h), with gusts to 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) led to the downing of tree branches and power lines.[37] At one point on September 7, a total of 380,000 residences were without power.[38] Significant crop damage was seen, particularly to the cotton and the peanut crops. On average, 30 percent of the crops were lost during Frances.[39] [edit] Carolinas

Flooding was reported even in the mid-Atlantic and Northeast states, particularly along the Appalachian Mountains. A strip of upslope-induced rainfall along the Blue Ridge escarpment produced as much as 23 inches (580 mm) of rain in some areas of western North Carolina as the warm tropical air surged up and over the mountains.[32] The flooding from this along the Swannanoa River near Asheville, North Carolina caused a major break in the Asheville's water distribution system, leaving the city without water for several days. Significant crop damage was seen into North Carolina, which reported $55 million in crop damage.[40] Frances also spawned 101 tornadoes from Florida to as far north as Virginia, shy of the single storm tornado record set during Hurricane Beulah.[12] Power outages affected up to six million people. Over 20 airports closed during the storm. [edit] Canada

As an extratropical cyclone, Frances passed through southern Ontario. The storm dropped up to 5.39 inches (137 mm),[41] washing out roads and causing localized flooding in Quebec, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland. This rainfall smashed all-time rainfall records in a 24-hour period (most of the rain fell in a 6 to 8 hour-period. Ottawa's O-Train transit rail was halted because of a landslide that obstructed the railroad corridor. Several major roads in Gatineau and Ottawa were under several inches of water, locally chest-high. More than $45 million Canadian/US$41 million in insured damage was reported in Ontario.[42]

[Maximum rain 23.57 inches, Mt. Mitchell, NC. 10+ inches in SE Ga.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Frances2004rain.gif

Major weather - Toccoa, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Virginia Republic]

Hurricane Gaston was a minimal hurricane that made landfall in South Carolina on August 29, 2004. It then crossed North Carolina and Virginia before exiting to the northeast and dissipating. The storm killed nine people — eight of them directly — and caused $130 million (2004 USD) in damage. Gaston produced torrential downpours that inundated Richmond, Virginia. Although originally designated a tropical storm, Gaston was reclassified as a hurricane when post-storm analysis revealed it had maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (Category 1 hurricane strength).[1]

South Carolina Storm total Rainfall from Gaston

On August 29, Gaston made landfall near Bulls Bay with maximum sustained winds of 70 mph (110 km/h). At the Isle of Palms, a gust of 81 mph (130 km/h) was reported by a storm chaser.[2] Widespread wind damage occurred in northern Charleston County and in Berkeley County. The high winds blew down numerous trees and branches, destroying eight homes. In total over 3,000 structures sustained minor to significant damage, and trees fell on several vehicles. Several lamp posts, power lines, mailboxes, signs and fences were damaged or destroyed by fallen debris. The heaviest rain fell from Williamsburg County, through Florence and Darlington counties,[15] where rainfall amounts ranged from 5 in (130 mm) to over 10 in (250 mm).[2] This resulted in flash flooding, up to 5 ft (1.5 m) deep in some cases, which overwashed and closed several roads. The Lumber River crested at a record high of nearly 8 feet above flood stage, forcing the evacuation of many homes and flooding farmlands.[15] In Berkeley County, 20 structures were severely damaged or destroyed, and dozens of other structures suffered minor flooding damage.[2]

One F1 tornado was reported in Marlboro County, although damage was unknown.[2] Storm surge ranged from 4 ft (1.2 m) to 4.5 ft (1.4 m) feet in Bulls Bay. There was also minor beach erosion at Bald Head Island and on the east side of Ocean Isle Beach. In all, damage rose to over $16 million (2004 USD).[16][15] During the height of the storm over 150,000 costumers were without power.[16] [edit] North Carolina

Gaston tracked into North Carolina as a tropical depression early on August 30, producing up to 6.10 in (155 mm) of rain near Red Springs.[2] Wind gusts peaked at 45 mph (72 km/h) at the Laurinburg-Maxton Airport. Also, the Elizabeth City Coast Guard Air Station reported gusts of 39 mph (63 km/h).[17] These winds knocked out power to 6,500 customers.[18] In Chatham County and Johnston County, numerous trees were blown down. A fallen tree landed on a post office, inflicting damage to the roof and back porch.[19] Windspread flooding occurred as a result of the heavy rainfall. In Raleigh, the Marsh Creek overflowed its banks, flooding several trucks and closing numerous onramps to Interstate 40.[20] Persistent rainfall on the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge caused the Linville River near Linville to rapidly rise, flooding a bridge. Many other small creeks and rivers overflowed which forced some evacuations in the early hours of the morning.[21] In Selma, 6 in (150 mm) to 12 in (300 mm) of water was reported on Interstate 95.[22] Additionally, a tornado spawned by the storm damaged several homes in Hoke County.[17] [edit] Virginia This section of E. Grace Street in Richmond washed out as a result of the heavy rainfall.

As the storm tracked northward through Virginia as a tropical depression, it produced torrential rainfall, peaking at 12.60 in (320 mm) in Richmond.[23] The storm strengthened over Virginia, as it pivoted from a northerly track to a northeasterly track nearly over the Richmond area, which lead to the afternoon of exceptional rainfall, with the epicenter over Richmond. There were also numerous reports of rainfall over 10 in (250 mm), primarily in the central portions of the state.[2] The heavy precipitation caused moderate to severe damage in Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Hanover, Henrico, and Prince George counties, where 350 homes and 230 businesses were damaged or destroyed, and many roads were closed due to high water. The town of Hanover, Virginia reported almost a foot of rain, 11.7 inches to be exact.[2] The heaviest-hit location was downtown Richmond, where 20 blocks of the city were under water. In the historic district, a brick building collapsed[18] and dozens of other structures received flood damage as water reached 10 ft (3.0 m) in some places.[24] It is estimated that 29 homes were declared uninhabitable.[25] At the Richmond battlefield, a foot of standing water left $32,500 (2004 USD) in damage.[26] Rushing water floated automobiles and crashed them into buildings in some parts of the city.[27] Also, over 120 roads were closed within Richmond, with several more in other areas.[18] The stretch of Interstate 95 in the city was closed as flash flooding caused 20 traffic accidents.[28] An intersection was closed due to a 30 ft (9.1 m) crest as a result of flowing underground water.[29] Along the James River, swift–water rescues were required to bring people who were stranded in their cars to safety. Additionally, at least 1,000 people were forced from their homes.[28] In total, damage from flooding in the city totaled to over $20 million (2004 USD)[24] and nine people were killed, eight directly.[2] Fujita scale F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5

Gaston touched off numerous tornadoes in the state. In all, 19 tornadoes were confirmed in Virginia.[30] These were mostly weak, commonly ranking F0 or F1 on the Fujita Scale. Damage from the tornadoes was mostly minor, and typically limited to fallen trees and light structural damage.[30] A tornado in Hopewell downed 25–30 trees and damaged a shed.[31] Also, an F0 tornado in Nottoway County tore metal roofing off the roof of a church.[32]

Hurricane Ivan was the 10th most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded. The cyclone formed as a Cape Verde-type hurricane in early September and became the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane, and the fourth major hurricane of the year. Ivan reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, the strongest possible category. At its peak in the Gulf of Mexico, Ivan was the size of the state of Texas. It also spawned 117 tornadoes across the eastern United States.

Ivan caused catastrophic damage to Grenada and heavy damage to Jamaica, Grand Cayman, and the western tip of Cuba. After peaking in strength, the hurricane moved north-northwest across the Gulf of Mexico to strike Gulf Shores, Alabama as a strong Category 3 storm, causing significant damage. Ivan dropped heavy rains on the Southeastern United States as it progressed northeast and east through the eastern United States, becoming an extratropical cyclone. The remnant low from the storm moved into the western subtropical Atlantic and regenerated into a tropical cyclone, which then moved across Florida and the Gulf of Mexico into Louisiana and Texas, causing minimal damage. Ivan caused an estimated US$13 billion (2004 USD) in damages to the United States, making it the sixth costliest hurricane ever to strike that country.

[Major weather system in SW Alabama near New Montgomery, CSA; NE Georgia near Toccoa, CSA; and also maximum rainfall (17 inches) at Crusco, Blue Ridge. Storm hits AL, KY, NC, Virginian Republic, Delmarva, FL, LA. Affects even Vermont]

Hurricane Jeanne was the deadliest hurricane in the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the tenth named storm, the seventh hurricane, and the fifth major hurricane of the season, as well as the third hurricane and fourth named storm of the season to make landfall in Florida. Jeanne formed as a tropical depression near Guadeloupe on the evening of September 13. Having strengthened to a tropical storm, Jeanne crossed Puerto Rico on September 15. It then moved toward Hispaniola, barely reaching hurricane strength before making landfall on September 16. It tracked slowly across the northern coast of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, with its heavy rains bringing mudslides and flooding.

After wreaking havoc on Hispaniola, Jeanne struggled to reorganize, eventually strengthening and performing a complete loop over the open Atlantic. It headed westwards, strengthening into a Category 3 hurricane and passing over the islands of Great Abaco and Grand Bahama in the Bahamas on September 25. Jeanne made landfall later in the day in Florida just two mi (three km) from where Frances had struck three weeks earlier. Building on the rainfall of Frances and Ivan, Jeanne brought near-record flood levels as far north as West Virginia and New Jersey before its remnants turned east into the open Atlantic. Jeanne is blamed for at least 3006 deaths in Haiti with about 2800 in Gonaïves alone, which was nearly washed away by floods and mudslides. The storm also caused seven deaths in Puerto Rico, 18 in the Dominican Republic and at least four in Florida, bringing the total number of deaths to at least 3025. Final property damage in the United States was $6.8 billion, making this the 13th costliest hurricane in U.S. history.

Impact Hurricane Jeanne making landfall on the east coast of Hispaniola, Sept. 16. [edit] Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico was impacted by tropical storm force winds and heavy rain, with flooding on a historic scale.[24] The storm made landfall near Maunabo midday on September 15.[25] The storm generally moved northwest through the island, exiting on the northwest coast near the town of Mayagüez around 11 p.m.[25] Jeanne passed directly over the towns of Arroyo, Patillas, Guayama and Salinas on its trip over the Commonwealth.[25] San Juan reported a wind gust of 73 mph (117 km/h),[9] Carolina reported gusts to 71 mph (114 km/h),[25] and rainfall ranged from 5.98 inches (152 mm) in the city to over 24 inches (610 mm) in Vieques.[26] This excessive rainfall resulted in damage to roads, landslides, and collapsed bridges.[26] This resulted in one death and the evacuation of 400 people near the Río Grande de Añasco.[26] A total of eight people were reported dead in Puerto Rico as a result of Jeanne. Damages from the storm were estimated at $169.5 million (2004 USD).[27] [edit] Hispaniola Flooding in Haiti

By September 17, heavy rains totaling about 13 inches (330 mm) in the northern mountains of Haiti caused severe flooding and mudslides in the Artibonite region of the country, causing particular damage in the coastal city of Gonaïves, where it affected about 80,000 of the city's 100,000 residents. As of October 6, 2004 the official report counted 3,006 people dead, with 2,826 of those in Gonaïves alone.[28] Another 2,601 people were injured,and 7 people died Flooding in Haiti

In the Dominican Republic, the storm dumped torrential flooding rains and killing over two dozen.[29] Damage totaled $270 million (2004 USD).[30] [edit] United States Storm total Rainfall from Jeanne

Millions in Florida were left without electricity, some for the third time in a month. There were only five direct deaths in the mainland United States, three in Florida, one in South Carolina and one in Virginia. The final US damage was determined to be around $6,900,000,000, making it the 13th costliest hurricane in United States history. It was difficult to isolate this from damage caused by Hurricane Frances (and, around Polk County, and Highlands County, and from Hurricane Charley as well). While Jeanne was highly destructive, it was less so than either Frances or Charley, partly because much of the damage possible had already been done by those storms.

As the storm moved northward east of the Appalachian Mountains, it continued producing heavy rains and flash flooding. Rainfall exceeded 6.00 inches (150 mm) as far north as Trenton, New Jersey, resulting in severe flash flooding in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and its Pennsylvania and New Jersey suburbs on September 28. Tornadoes also touched down in Wilmington, Delaware and Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Damaged signs in Orlando, Florida caused by Jeanne. [edit] Delaware and Maryland

Throughout Delaware, the remnants of Jeanne produced between 4 and 8 in (100 and 200 mm) of rain,[31] peaking at 7.1 in (180 mm) at the University of Delaware.[32] This led to widespread street flooding and several rivers overflowed their banks. Forty people had to be rescue from a bus along the White Clay Creek after the creek crested at .59 ft (0.18 m) above flood-stage.[31] A strong F2 tornado touched down in the state, injuring five people and leaving $1 million in damages. The tornado touched down in northern New Castle County and tracked for 5 mi (8.0 km) and generated winds up to 130 mph (210 km/h). The county airport sustained significant damage, five C-130 cargo planes were damaged, thousands of pounds of jet fuel spilled, and damaged hangers. At a nearby industrial park, metal siding was torn off buildings, windows were shattered and power lines were downed. A self-storage facility sustained substantial damage.[33]

In Maryland, Jeanne produced up to 4 in (100 mm) of rain,[32] triggering flash flooding throughout the state.[34] Numerous roads were flooded,[35] including parts of U.S. Route 17.[36] Several rivers rose above their flood-stage, with the Big Elk Creek cresting at 9.3 ft (2.8 m), 0.3 ft (0.091 m) above food-stage.[37] A total of 50 roads were closed due to high water throughout the state. Numerous reports of stranded vehicles were sent to the Emergency Operations Center. In Carroll County, a group of inmates required rescue after the jail they were in flooded.[38] One brief F0 tornado touched down in the state near Solomons, causing minor damage.[39]


2005

Tropical Storm Arlene.

Landfall in the Florida panhandle. Affects, New Montgomery, CSA, and Lake Toxaway, Blue Ridge (maximum rainfall 9.84")

Hurricane Cindy

Hurricane Cindy was a tropical cyclone that briefly reached minimal hurricane strength in the Gulf of Mexico during July in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and made landfall in Louisiana. It was the third named storm and first hurricane of the season. Cindy was originally thought to have been a tropical storm at peak strength, but was upgraded to a Category 1 hurricane in the post-storm analysis.

Hurricane Cindy initially formed on July 3 just east of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The depression soon made landfall on the peninsula and weakened before reemerging in the Gulf of Mexico on July 4. The storm strengthened as it moved north becoming a hurricane just before making landfall near Grand Isle, Louisiana, on July 5. The storm weakened as it moved overland and became extratropical on July 7.

Five deaths were attributed to Cindy, none of them near the storm's landfall. Two people were killed in Georgia, one in Alabama,[1] and two in Maryland.[10] Approximately 300,000 homes and businesses in southeast Louisiana and the Mississippi Gulf Coast lost electrical power and a storm surge of 4–6 feet (1.2-1.8 m) affected the same area, causing some beach erosion near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Hurricane Cindy's total damage was estimated to be US$320 million.[1]

In New Orleans, Louisiana, wind gusts reached 70 mph (110 km/h), many trees were damaged or uprooted[7] and scattered street flooding was reported. As thousands lost electrical power, the city experienced its worst blackout since Hurricane Betsy 40 years earlier. Although still listed as a "Tropical Storm" by the weather service at the time, many laypeople in New Orleans were under the impression that Cindy was a hurricane, and referred to it as "Hurricane Cindy" before it was officially upgraded.[11][12] Many people in the New Orleans metropolitan area expected minimal effects from the storm, but were cleaning up debris and were without power for days after Cindy's passage.[13][14] In Louisiana, 260,000 residences were left without power.[15] Rainfall from Hurricane Cindy

Even though it had weakened to a depression when it moved inland, Cindy's effects were still significant across the final portion of its track. The day after its landfall in southeastern Louisiana, Tropical Depression Cindy reached central Alabama. There its rainbands produced heavy rainfall and eight tornadoes.[16] Damage was mostly limitted to trees and powerlines, but an F1 tornado in Macon county injured one man, destroyed an auto-repair shop, and damaged several nearby cars.[17] About 35,000 residences in Alabama and 7,000 in both Florida and Mississippi were left without power following the storm.[15]

In Georgia, some parts of Atlanta Motor Speedway and Tara Field airport in Hampton county suffered US$40 million damage from an F2 tornado spawned by the storm.[18] An F1 tornado in Fayette county damaged three homes and caused an estimated US$3 million of damage.[19] Four other tornadoes were confirmed across the state, although none of them caused significant damage.[20] Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta recorded over 5 inches (130 mm) of rain on July 6, its sixth-highest one-day rainfall since records began in 1878;[21] most of the rain fell during just two hours (8–10 p.m. EDT). This is more rain than the area normally gets in all of July.[22]

Cindy's remnant low moving across western and northern North Carolina combined with a frontal boundary to produce several supercell thunderstorms. These supercells spawned a number of tornadoes in western North Carolina, at the foothills of the Appalachian mountains, but their effects were minimal.[23] Continuing north, Cindy brough over 5 in (125 mm) of rain to areas as distant as Salisbury, Maryland.[24]

[Notable rainfall: Hattisburg, New Mongomery, Toccoa, Piedmont, Virginian Republic, Delmarva]

Hurricane Dennis

Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the very active 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season. In July, the hurricane set several records for early season hurricane activity, becoming both the earliest formation of a fourth tropical cyclone and the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever to form before August; the lastly mentioned was a title it held for only six days before being surpassed by Hurricane Emily.

Dennis hit Cuba twice as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, and made landfall on the Florida Panhandle in the United States as a Category 3 storm less than a year after Hurricane Ivan did so. Dennis caused at least 89 deaths (42 direct) in the U.S. and Caribbean and caused $2.23 billion (2005 US dollars) in damages to the United States, as well as an approximately equal amount of damage in the Caribbean, primarily on Cuba.

Impact Deaths from Hurricane Dennis Country Total State State total County County total Direct deaths Cuba 16 16 Haiti 56 22 Jamaica 1 0 USA 15 Florida 14 Broward 3 1 Charlotte 3 0 Escambia 1 0 Monroe 1 1 Nassau 1 1 Walton 1 0 Unknown 4 0 Georgia 1 DeKalb 1 1 Totals 89 42 Because of differing sources, totals may not match.

Hurricane Dennis caused $4 – 6 billion (2005 US dollars) and at least 89 deaths in its path past Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the United States. [edit] Caribbean

Dennis first affected Jamaica while still a weak storm. One person was killed there and damage was estimated at $32 million USD.[1]

In Haiti, the Pan American Health Organization reports that 56 deaths and 36 injuries occurred; the storm also destroyed 929 homes and damaged another 3,000, leaving 1,500 families homeless.[21] Among the dead were 16 who were killed when a bridge collapsed during the hurricane.[10] Furthermore, 24 persons are still listed as missing.

From there the storm moved to Cuba, leaving 16 people dead and $1.4 billion in damages as it roared through the island, flattening houses and downing trees and power lines. Heavy rainfall fell across the country, with amounts reaching up to 1092 mm/42.99 inches, making Dennis the wettest storm for the island since Hurricane Flora of 1963.[22] According to reports from the Cuban government, 120,000 homes were damaged, 15,000 of which were destroyed. The citrus and vegetable industries were also devastated as Cuba's primary agricultural regions were the hardest hit. Nonetheless, Fidel Castro publicly refused US aid after the storm in protest of the ongoing US trade embargo against Cuba, stating that, "If they offered $1 billion we would say no."[23] Relayed reports from Cuban meteorologists stated that a gust up to 149 mph (239 km/h) was detected at Cienfuegos, 85% of the power lines were down, and extensive damage to the communications infrastructure had occurred. Dennis was more destructive than the previous year's Hurricane Charley and was widely regarded as the worst hurricane to strike Cuba since Hurricane Flora in the 1963 season. [edit] United States A beachfront home in Navarre Beach, Florida largely destroyed by Hurricane Dennis. Main articles: Effects of Hurricane Dennis in Florida, Effects of Hurricane Dennis in Alabama, Effects of Hurricane Dennis in Georgia, and Effects of Hurricane Dennis in Mississippi

In the United States, damage was not as high as originally expected, mainly because Dennis was more compact and moved more quickly than initially forecast. Dennis made landfall approximately 30 miles (48 km) to the east of where Hurricane Ivan had made landfall 10 months before, but did not cause as much damage as Ivan, due to its quicker speed, compact size, and because the area was not fully rebuilt. Dennis moved about 7 mph (11 km/h) faster than Ivan at landfall, and had hurricane-force winds that only extended 40 miles (65 km) from its center, compared to Ivan's 105 miles (170 km/h).[10][24] During the height of the storm, Dennis produced storm surges as high as 9 ft (3 m) in the Apalachee Bay region, and as high as 7 ft (2 m) on the Florida Panhandle,[25] and left 680,000 customers without electricity in four southern states.

In southern Florida, damage was mostly limited to moderate wind gusts; in Miami-Dade County, gusty winds knocked out several traffic lights along U.S. 1, the only route to and from the Florida Keys.[26] A man died in Ft. Lauderdale when he stepped on a downed electrical wire and was electrocuted.[27] Damage was mostly minor and limited to outer rainbands and tornadoes in Central Florida. In the Tampa Bay area, several tornadoes were reported to have touched down causing minor damage such as downed trees and power lines.[28] The most severe damage occurred on the Florida Panhandle. At Navarre Beach, sustained winds of 98 miles per hour (158 km/h) were reported with a peak gust of 121 miles per hour (195 km/h), while a tower at the Pensacola Airport reported sustained winds of 82 miles per hour (132 km/h) and a peak gust of 96 miles per hour (154 km/h).[1] Milton received 7.08 inches (180 mm) of rain, the highest reported rainfall total in Florida caused by Dennis.[29] No significant damage was reported to most structures; however, insurers initially estimated that Dennis caused $3–$5 billion in insured damage,[30] or approximately $6–$10 billion total (insured damage estimates are generally held to be approximately one-half of total damages). However, the NHC's Tropical Cyclone Report reported total damage in the United States as only $2.23 billion with $1.115 billion of insured damage.[1]

In Alabama, sustained winds reached minimal hurricane force in the interior of the state.[31] In total, 280,000 people in Alabama experienced power outages during the storm.[32] No deaths occurred, although Dennis caused three injuries[33] and total damage amounted to $127 million dollars (2005 USD),[33] mostly due to structural damage. There was also severe damage to cotton crops.[34] In Mississippi, damage was not as severe as previously anticipated.[35] As Dennis impacted the state, a storm tide of 2 ft (0.61 m)–4 ft (1.2 m) above normal was reported.[1] Rainfall from the hurricane averaged between 1–5 inches (25–125 mm),[36][37] and minimum barometric pressure of 994.2 mb was reported near Pascagoula.[1] Wind gusts peaked at 59 mph (95 km/h) causing several hundred trees to uproot or snap, damaging a total of 21 homes and businesses.[37] Flooding caused by Dennis on Sweetwater Creek in Lithia Springs, Georgia

Dennis caused at least 10 tornadoes in the U.S., although only one of them reached F1 status on the Fujita scale.[1] The storm dropped over 10 inches (250 mm) of rain in some areas of Alabama and Georgia (see the rainfall graphic). Parts of Georgia, which had received heavy rain just days earlier from Hurricane Cindy, suffered heavy flooding, and flash-floods were reported on the outskirts of the Atlanta metropolitan area.[38][39]

In the United States, 15 storm-related deaths (14 in Florida) were reported, including one in Walton County,[40] three in Broward County,[1][41] three in Charlotte County, one each in Nassau and Escambia Counties[41] and one in Decatur, Georgia.[42] In the Gulf of Mexico, the storm heavily damaged the Thunder Horse, a BP oil rig about 150 miles (240 km) southeast of New Orleans, Louisiana, causing it to list badly.[43]

Alamba --

As Hurricane Dennis moved through the state, sustained winds reached minimal hurricane force in the interior of the state.[9] In total, 280,000 people in Alabama experienced power outages during the storm.[10] No deaths occurred, although Dennis caused three injuries[11] and total damage amounted to $127 million dollars (2005 USD),[11] mostly due to structural damage. There was also severe damage to cotton crops.[12]

Rainfall typically ranged from 2–4 inches (50–100 mm),[13] although rainfall in localized areas reached 12.80 in (325 mm).[14] This caused numerous rivers to overflow causing widespread, locally major, flash flooding.[15] The rainfall flooded numerous state and county roads, some with water up to 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. Parts of Interstate 20 were overwashed with water, temporarily closing the highway. In Dallas County, a mudslide closed a section of State Highway 5.[15] In Greene County, the minor flooding was reported along the Tombigbee River. Throughout the region, numerous bridges were washed away several homes were flooded, sustaining major damage in some cases.[15]

Storm surge generally ranged from 3 ft (0.91 m)–6.5 ft (2.0 m), with the highest surge reported in Mobile Bay as winds became onshore during Dennis' landfall.[16]

A wind gust of 51 mph (82 km/h) was reported at Dothan, with minimum barometric pressure reaching 999.2 mb.[12] It is reported that the worst damage occurred in Escambia and Monroe counties. In the Escambia County city of Atmore, 100 percent of the city's residents lost electric power for some a period of time during the hurricane.[17] The strongest winds occurred in Escambia County, where gusts surpassed 70 mph (110 km/h), leaving numerous structures damaged or destroyed as Dennis tracked through the western half of the county.[18] One man in the county was injured by a fallen tree branch. Also, an unconfirmed tornado tore the roof off a home, forcing emergency workers to evacuate a man inside.[19] In Coffee County, local officials reported wind gusts had blown a carport into a wall of a house.[13] Marengo County received moderate damage, mostly limited to power outages and minor roof and structural damage caused by fallen trees and powerlines. Many customers were without electric power for at least a day, and numerous county roads were covered with debris.[20] A person was injured in Dallas County when a tree landed on their car. Five homes and one business were damaged due to high winds, and thousands of people county-wide experienced power outages.[21]Greene County reported hundreds of downed trees and powerlines causing County Roads 148 and 20 and State Highways 11, 43 and 14 to be temporarily closed. In Forkland, a mobile home caught fire when a powerline fell on the home. A motorist ran into a fallen tree in Boligee although did not sustain injuries.[22] In Perry County, 2,200 homes were without electric power for several hours, and several vehicles and homes were damaged.[23] A structural fire occurred in Russell County and was believed to be ignited by downed powerlines.[24] Homes damaged by fallen trees due to high wind gusts.

Wind gusts in Autauga County surpassed 50 miles per hour (80 km/h), causing $180,000 dollars (2005 USD) in damage.[25] The Robinson Springs United Methodist Church had part of its roof torn off in Elmore County, while numerous other homes sustained roof damage.[26] One person was injured in Montgomery County when a tree fell on their vehicle.[27] Another person was injured in Clay County when he ran his vehicle into a downed tree.[28] A structural fire occurred in Randolph County as a result of fallen powerlines.[29]

--Georgia --The effects of Hurricane Dennis in Georgia included two deaths and $24 million dollars (2005 USD) in damage. On June 29, 2005, a tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa. Gradually, the system organized on July 2 and formed a broad low pressure area. The system continued to organize, and it became a tropical depression on July 4. Tracking westward, it became a tropical storm on July 5 and a hurricane on July 7. Dennis rapidly intensified to attain Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale before making landfall on Cuba. The storm weakened to Category 1 status before re-emerging in the Gulf of Mexico and intensifying. Dennis made landfall on the Florida Panhandle on July 10, then tracked over southeast Alabama.

Dennis had moderate effects in the state, primarily from flooding. One rainband in particular stalled in southwest portions of the state and produced 4–8 inches (100–200 mm) of rain, with isolated reports of up to 12 inches (300 mm). Flash flooding occurred in several areas, damaging hundreds of homes and businesses. Light to moderate wind gusts of 42 miles per hour (68 km/h) combined with saturated ground downed several trees, one of which fell into a house, killing a man near Atlanta. A man also died while working with utility crews to restore power. One tornado was reported, downing 200 trees.

Hurricane Emily

Category 5 hurricane (SSHS) Duration July 11 – July 21 Intensity 160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min), 929 mbar (hPa)


Emily formed from Tropical Depression Five east of the Lesser Antilles on July 11. It moved westward and hit Grenada on July 14 as a Category 1 storm. It entered the Caribbean Sea and began intensifying rapidly. It reached Category 4 intensity on July 15. Emily broke Hurricane Dennis's eight-day-old record for the most intense storm to form prior to August when it reached a minimum pressure of 929 mbar, along with 160 mph (260 km/h) winds on July 16. It was originally believed that Emily peaked at Category 4. However, some readings indicated that Emily briefly reached Category 5 strength around this time,[7] and Emily was upgraded to Category 5 status in the post-storm analysis.[8] The storm weakened slightly, however, and after passing south of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands, Emily made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula near Tulum on the morning of July 18 as a Category 4 hurricane. Emily emerged over the Bay of Campeche and made its second landfall in rural northeast Mexico near Boca Madre, Tamaulipas as a Category 3 storm.[8]

Emily is blamed for at least fourteen deaths; one in Grenada, four in Jamaica, seven in the Caribbean and two in Mexico. The storms also caused an estimated $550 million (2005 USD) in damages, almost entirely in Grenada and the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Some minor flooding occurred in northeastern Mexico and extreme southern Texas as a result of Emily's final landfall, but damages were light.[8]

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane,[3][4] as well as one of the five deadliest, in the history of the United States.[5] Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall.

Hurricane Katrina formed over the Bahamas on August 23, 2005 and crossed southern Florida as a moderate Category 1 hurricane, causing some deaths and flooding there before strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico. The storm weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 storm on the morning of Monday, August 29 in southeast Louisiana. It caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge. The most severe loss of life and property damage occurred in New Orleans, Louisiana, which flooded as the levee system catastrophically failed, in many cases hours after the storm had moved inland.[6] Eventually 80% of the city and large tracks of neighboring parishes became flooded, and the floodwaters lingered for weeks.[6]

At least 1,836 people lost their lives in the actual hurricane and in the subsequent floods, making it the deadliest U.S. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Economist and crisis consultant Randall Bell wrote: "Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was the largest natural disaster in the history of the United States. Preliminary damage estimates were well in excess of $100 billion, eclipsing many times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992."[7]

The levee failures prompted investigations of their design and construction which belongs to the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as mandated in the Flood Control Act of 1965 and into their maintenance by the local Levee Boards. There was also an investigation of the responses from federal, state and local governments, resulting in the resignation of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) director Michael D. Brown, and of New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) Superintendent Eddie Compass. Conversely, the United States Coast Guard (USCG), National Hurricane Center (NHC) and National Weather Service (NWS) were widely commended for their actions, accurate forecasts and abundant lead time.[8]

Four years later, thousands of displaced residents in Mississippi and Louisiana were still living in trailers. Reconstruction of each section of the southern portion of Louisiana has been addressed in the Army Corps LACPR Final Technical Report which identifies areas not to be rebuilt and areas buildings need to be elevated.[9]

-- Mississippi --Hurricane Katrina's winds and storm surge reached the Mississippi coastline on the afternoon of August 28, 2005,[1][2] beginning a two-day path of destruction through central Mississippi; by 10 a.m. CDT on August 29, 2005, the eye of Katrina began travelling up the entire state, only slowing from hurricane-force winds at Meridian near 7 p.m. and entering Tennessee as a tropical storm.[3] Many coastal towns of Mississippi (and Louisiana) had already been obliterated, in a single night.[4] Hurricane-force winds reached coastal Mississippi by 2 a.m.[1] and lasted over 17 hours, spawning 11 tornadoes (51 in other states[2]) and a 28-foot (9 m) storm surge[2] flooding 6-12 miles (10-19 km) inland. Many, unable to evacuate,[5] survived by climbing to attics or rooftops, or swimming to higher buildings and trees. Afterward, over 235 people died in Mississippi, and all counties in Mississippi were declared disaster areas, 49 for full federal assistance.[6][7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mississippi_counties_map_Katrina_disaster_areas.jpg

--Other states --Southeast United States Flood waters come up the steps of Mobile's federal courthouse.

Although Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds and a storm surge varying from 12 to 16 feet (3–5 m) around Mobile Bay,[5] with higher waves on top. Sustained winds of 67 mph (107 km/h) were recorded in Mobile, Alabama, and the storm surge there was approximately 12 feet (3.7 m).[5] The surge caused significant flooding several miles inland along Mobile Bay. Four tornadoes were also reported in Alabama.[5] Ships, oil rigs, boats and fishing piers were washed ashore along Mobile Bay: the cargo ship M/V Caribbean Clipper and many fishing boats were grounded at Bayou La Batre.

An oil rig under construction along the Mobile River broke its moorings and floated 1.5 miles (2 km) northwards before striking the Cochrane Bridge just outside Mobile. No significant damage resulted to the bridge and it was soon reopened. The damage on Dauphin Island was severe, with the surge destroying many houses and cutting a new canal through the western portion of the island. An offshore oil rig also became grounded on the island. As in Mississippi, the storm surge caused significant beach erosion along the Alabama coastline.[5] More than 600,000 people lost power in Alabama as a result of Hurricane Katrina and two people died in a traffic accident in the state. Residents in some areas, such as Selma, were without power for several days.[40]

Along the Florida Panhandle the storm surge was typically about five feet (1.5 m) and along the west-central Florida coast there was a minor surge of 1 – 2 feet (0.3 – 0.6 m). In Pensacola, Florida 56 mph (90 km/h) winds were recorded on August 29. The winds caused damage to some trees and structures and there was some minor flooding in the Panhandle. There were two indirect fatalities from Katrina in Walton County as a result of a traffic accident.[5] In the Florida Panhandle, 77,000 customers lost power.[55] Bayou La Batre: cargo ship and fishing boats were grounded

Northern and central Georgia were affected by heavy rains and strong winds from Hurricane Katrina as the storm moved inland, with more than 3 inches (75 mm) of rain falling in several areas. At least 18 tornadoes formed in Georgia on August 29, the most on record in that state for one day in August. The most serious of these tornadoes was an F2 tornado which affected Heard County and Carroll County. This tornado caused 3 injuries and one fatality and damaged several houses. In addition this tornado destroyed several poultry barns, killing over 140,000 chicks. The other tornadoes caused significant damages to buildings and agricultural facilities. In addition to the fatality caused by the F2 tornado, there was another fatality in a traffic accident.[56] Other U.S. States and Canada Total rainfall from Katrina in the United States. Data for the New Orleans area are not available.

Hurricane Katrina weakened as it moved inland, but tropical-storm force gusts were recorded as far north as Fort Campbell, Kentucky on August 30, and the winds damaged trees in New York. The remnants of the storm brought high levels of rainfall to a wide swath of the eastern United States, and rain in excess of 2 inches (50 mm) fell in parts of 20 states.[57] A number of tornadoes associated with Katrina formed on August 30 and August 31, which caused minor damages in several regions. In total, 62 tornadoes formed in eight states as a result of Katrina.[34]

Eastern Arkansas received light rain from the passage of Katrina.[58] Gusty winds downed some trees and power lines, though damage was minimal.[59] In Kentucky, a storm that had moved through the weekend before had already produced flooding and the rainfall from Katrina added to this. As a result of the flooding, Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcher declared three counties disaster areas and a statewide state of emergency.[60][61] One person was killed in Hopkinsville, Kentucky and part of a high school collapsed.[62] Flooding also prompted a number of evacuations in West Virginia and Ohio, the rainfall in Ohio leading to two indirect deaths. Katrina also caused a number of power outages in many areas, with over 100,000 customers affected in Tennessee, primarily in the Memphis and Nashville areas.[63]

The remnants of Katrina were absorbed by a new cyclone to its east across Pennsylvania. This second cyclone continued north and affected Canada on August 31. In Ontario there were a few isolated reports of rain in excess of 100 mm (4 inches) and there were a few reports of damage from fallen trees.[64] Flooding also occurred in both Ontario and Quebec, cutting off a number of isolated villages in Quebec, particularly in the Côte-Nord region.[65]

[ATL - Mississippi, Kentucky, Virginia, Blue Ridge]

Hurricane Rita

Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico. Rita caused $11.3 billion in damage on the U.S. Gulf Coast in September 2005.[1] Rita was the seventeenth named storm, tenth hurricane, fifth major hurricane, and third Category 5 hurricane of the historic 2005 Atlantic hurricane season.

Rita made landfall on September 23 between Sabine Pass, Texas, and Johnsons Bayou, Louisiana, as a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. It continued on through parts of southeast Texas. The storm surge caused extensive damage along the Louisiana and extreme southeastern Texas coasts and destroyed some coastal communities. The storm killed seven people directly; many others died in evacuations and from indirect effects.[2]

Louisiana Storm surge damage from Rita

New Orleans's levee system had already sustained heavy damage from Hurricane Katrina before Rita's outer bands of rain fell on the city. On Friday, September 23, the day before landfall, rising water due to Hurricane Rita poured through breaches in the patched Industrial Canal levee in New Orleans' devastated Ninth Ward, as reported by the Army Corps of Engineers. Water entered the Ninth Ward over two 32-foot (10 m) wide patches in the levee as of about 9 a.m. CDT on Friday, September 23. Water in the Ninth Ward was reported to be waist-deep at 11 a.m. CDT on Friday. By approximately 5 p.m. CDT, water had begun gushing through another patch in the London Avenue Canal into the surrounding Gentilly neighborhood. Some pumping stations were abandoned. By Saturday night, September 24, water from a 150-foot gap in the Industrial Canal levee flooded some areas of the Ninth Ward to eight feet deep. [55] Damaged homes at the Texas-Louisiana border

Damage in southwestern Louisiana was extensive. In Cameron Parish, the communities of Hackberry [56], Cameron, Creole, Grand Chenier, Holly Beach, and Johnson Bayou were heavily damaged or entirely destroyed. A casino boat and several barges were floating loose in Lake Charles and damaged a bridge spanning Interstate 10 across the Calcasieu River. Lake Charles experienced severe flooding, with reports of water rising 6-8 feet in areas around Lake Calcasieu. At a hotel on the Contraband Bayou, water was reportedly up to the second floor. There was also extensive damage to its regional airport. [55] Damage to the city's electrical system was so severe that authorities warned that power would not return for two weeks, if not longer.

In Vinton, several fires burned, the roof was torn off the town's recreation center and many homes were damaged by fallen trees. Widespread flooding was reported in coastal parishes. In Terrebonne Parish, virtually every levee was breached. [57] Some people were stranded in flooded communities and had to be rescued by boat. At least 100 people were reported rescued from rooftops, as at least 25 more remained stranded. [58]

Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco reported that 700,000 homes lost power in 41 of the state's 64 parishes. [59] Damage from Rita in Shreveport, Louisiana, by then a tropical storm

In Vermilion Parish south of Abbeville, rescue efforts were undertaken for up to 1,000 people stranded by local flooding. On Saturday, September 24, 250 people were rescued. [59]

After being reduced to a tropical storm, Rita entered DeSoto and Caddo Parishes, the eye passed just west of Downtown Shreveport before crossing the Arkansas border. At the height of the storm over 175,000 people had lost power in the National Weather Service Shreveport's forecast area, mainly across Deep East Texas into northwest Louisiana. Two fatalities occurred in the Ark-La-Tex. A tree fell on a person and the other fatality occurred when a teenager was electrocuted when picking up a "hot" power line. Shreveport recorded its 2nd lowest pressure ever recorded as the center of Rita moved through Shreveport around 6 pm Saturday evening. The pressure recorded was 29.05 inches (983.7 mb) which was only .01 inch higher than the lowest pressure on record of 29.04 inches back on February 27, 1902.[60] [edit] Mississippi

Several tornadoes from Rita's outer bands affected the state. At least 40 homes and an industrial plant were damaged and one person killed by a tornado in Humphreys County in central Mississippi. Another tornado (unconfirmed) was reported in Bolivar County.

One death was reported in Wilkinson County, although it has not been confirmed if it was storm-related. [41]

A tornado touched down on Mississippi State University's campus. MSU officials reported significant damage to some buildings. There were also numerous mobile homes damaged at the University Hills trailer park just off the campus. There were several non-life threatening injuries.

Lauderdale County in east central Mississippi reported several confirmed and unconfirmed tornado touch downs in and near the cities of Marion and Meridian, an area recovering from damage from Category 2 winds in Hurricane Katrina. [edit] Texas Two satellite images showing the extent of flooding caused by Rita in Louisiana and Texas. Floodwaters and destruction left in the aftermath of Hurricane Rita, in an area located near Galveston Bay, Texas.

On the morning of September 23, 23 people were killed when a bus carrying 45 nursing home evacuees from Brighton Gardens in Bellaire, Texas erupted into flames and exploded on Interstate 45 in Wilmer, southeast of Dallas. The fire started in the brake system, and the passengers' therapeutic oxygen tanks may have caused the bus to explode. [61][62] Many of the passengers were mobility-impaired making escape difficult or impossible. [63]

In the late evening, a fire broke out in the Strand District of Galveston, Texas, gutting several homes. However, the fire department was able to fight the wind-whipped blaze and prevent it from spreading through the city. No serious injuries were reported in the fire. Around midnight, a vacant restaurant collapsed nearby, which was reportedly as a result of the fire that weakened the walls. [64] Church in Beaumont with roof ripped off by Hurricane Rita.

Communities in the "Golden Triangle" formed by Beaumont, Port Arthur, and Orange sustained enormous wind damage. Texas Governor Rick Perry declared a nine-county disaster area. In Beaumont an estimated 25% of the trees in the heavily wooded neighborhoods were uprooted. In Groves, the home of Texas's Pecan Festival, an equal number of the pecan trees were leveled. An enormous number of houses and businesses suffered extensive damage from wind and falling trees. The water treatment plant in Port Neches was heavily damaged. Some areas did not have power for more than six weeks.

A mandatory evacuation had been issued before Rita's landfall. Those displaced by Rita were offered up to 60 days of hotel rooms, generators, chainsaws, and monetary assistance by FEMA. The "Golden Triangle" area was spared a more devastating storm surge by Rita's slight eastward turn just before landfall, which placed most of the coastal community to the left of the eye and in the storm's least-damaging quadrant. Rita's surge was contained by Port Arthur's extensive levee system. Bolivar Peninsula between Galveston and Sabine Pass experienced only a small storm surge, in contrast to areas east of Rita's center where a 20-foot surge struck Louisiana's unprotected towns.

The county of Jasper, Texas was also greatly affected. It is located near the Sabine River, near the Louisiana and Texas border. Jasper, known as the "Jewel of the Forest" lost many of its pine trees when Rita came through, leveling most of them down to the stump. Jasper county residents were running out of gas and many relied on the only news available at the time from Mike Lout, local radio station owner, who stayed on the air during the entire time of the storm. Many families lost their homes of many years, returning to see that they were crushed by one or more trees.

For the most part, Houston escaped major damage, apart from extensive loss of power. Some windows blew out of some downtown skyscrapers, and some trees and signals were down. [65] Thirty one deaths have been reported in Harris County, of which all of them were indirect (mostly related to the evacuation and cleanup). [66]

North of Houston, the 2.5-mile-wide Lake Livingston dam sustained substantial damage from powerful waves driven by 117 mph winds [67] and officials started an emergency release of water to lessen pressure on the dam. A number of news outlets reported on Sunday, September 25, 2005, that the discharge put lives at risk downstream and threatened a major bridge as well due to a sizable barge coming adrift. Repairs to the dam were expected to take months to complete. [68] After water levels were lowered and an inspection was conducted by national and local experts, the dam was declared stable late on Monday, September 26, 2005. [69]

Hurricane Stan

Hurricane Stan Category 1 hurricane (SSHS) Duration October 1 – October 5 Intensity 80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min), 977 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Stan

A tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea organized into Tropical Depression Twenty on October 1. Off the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Stan on October 2. Stan made landfall on the Yucatán and weakened to a tropical depression, but upon reemerging into the Bay of Campeche it quickly strengthened into a hurricane on October 4. Stan made landfall later that morning on the east-central coast of Mexico, south of Veracruz, as a Category 1 hurricane.[29]

Stan was associated with a large area of loosely-organized but very heavy shower activity existing over Mexico and Central America during this time. Torrential rainfall in this area caused catastrophic flooding and mudslides which were responsible for at least 1,662 deaths in six countries; 1,500 of these casualties occurred in Guatemala alone. Initially, more than a thousand deaths were attributed to Hurricane Stan, but the National Hurricane Center postulates that all but less than 100 of the deaths were more related to the larger weather event. This was not definitively confirmed in the Tropical Cyclone Report for Hurricane Stan, though it is certain that only 80-100 deaths resulted from the direct effects of the hurricane.[29]

In addition to the large number of people killed during this time, over 100,000 people were forced to evacuate. The eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano on October 1 contributed to the destruction in Central America as a result of the floods and mudslides caused.[2]

Tropical Storm Tammy was a short lived tropical storm during October in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season which caused minor damage to the southeastern United States. More significant, however were its remnants which contributed to the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005.

Tropical Storm Tammy formed from a non-tropical system off the Florida coast on October 5. It moved north just offshore before making landfall later that day. The tropical storm rapidly weakened as it moved overland and dissipated the next day. Its remnant circulation moved south towards the Gulf of Mexico, while the moisture was absorbed by a northeasterly moving cold front. There were no fatalities directly related to Tammy; however, ten people were killed by the remnants of the storm in combination with the remnants of Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two. Total damages from the storm were $30 million.

[A blessing to Piedmont - needed rain. Heavy rain near Georgetown, SC, and Darien, GA]

Tropical Storm Tammy

In October of 2005, remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two merged with incoming continental cold fronts to produce torrential rains over interior New England, as well as over parts of New Jersey and New York. Particularly hard hit was the state of New Hampshire, which saw roads and bridges wiped out, several reported deaths, and whole buildings destroyed. Rain lingered over some areas for several weeks. Rainfall from both rain events totaled well over 20 inches (500 mm) in some areas.

-- New Hampshire

The state of New Hampshire was one of the hardest hit from flooding and mudslides, particularly in the southwestern part. The town of Alstead was especially hard hit, as the Cold River and its tributaries substantially overflowed due to the heavy rain and water flowing downstream, inundating the community. The city of Keene received over 14 inches (360 mm) of rain, flooding communities near Beaver Brook and the lower Ashuelot River. More than 1,000 people were forced to evacuate their homes in the region. Seven deaths were confirmed in the state. In some areas, entire houses were washed off of their foundations.[7] Damages totaled $15.8 million (2005 USD), primarily in Cheshire County.[8][9] The storm dropped nearly 18 inches (460 mm) of liquid precipitation, including nearly 3 feet (910 mm) of snow on the summit of Mount Washington, as recorded by the Mount Washington Observatory. This contributed to a record-setting month on the peak with "the world's worst weather," which recorded 28.7 inches (730 mm) of rain, a record for any month since 1934, and 78.9 inches (2,000 mm) of snow, a record for the month of October.[10]

--Maine

Minor to moderate flooding occurred across the southern half of the state, in such cities as Portland, Bar Harbor, and Bangor. In Bangor, a total of 13.32 inches (338 mm) of rain was measured during the month, making it the rainiest month in history.

Hurricane Wilma

Hurricane Wilma was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. Wilma was the twenty-second storm (including the subtropical storm discovered in reanalysis), thirteenth hurricane, sixth major hurricane, and fourth Category 5 hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 season.

Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Cuba, and the U.S. state of Florida. At least 63 deaths were reported, and damage is estimated at over $29.1 billion ($20.6 billion in the US; 2005 US dollars),[1] ranking Wilma among the top 5 costliest hurricanes ever recorded in the Atlantic and the fourth costliest storm in U.S. history.

Impact Impact by country Region Deaths Damage (2005 USD) Direct (Indirect) The Bahamas 1 $100 million Cuba 0 (4) $700 million Haiti 12 $500,000 Jamaica 1 $93.5 million Mexico 4 (4) $7.5 billion United States 5 (31) $20.6 billion Total 23 (39) $29 billion

Wilma was responsible for at least 63 total deaths and over $29 billion (2005 USD) in damages. [edit] Caribbean

In Haiti, the outer bands of Wilma triggered mudslides, killing at least 12 people.[11] Damage in the country totaled around $500,000 (2005 USD).[12]

Wilma claimed one death in Jamaica as a tropical depression on October 16. It pounded the island for three days ending on October 18, flooding several low-lying communities and triggering mudslides that blocked roads and damaged several homes. Almost 250 people were in emergency shelters on the island.[13] Damage on the island totaled $93.5 million (2005 USD).[14] [edit] Mexico

At least eight deaths were reported in Mexico. Five were in the Playa del Carmen area due to a gas explosion caused by the strong winds. Four deaths also were reported in Cozumel and another in Cancún due to wind blowing a window out. Another death was reported in the state of Yucatán due to a falling tree.[15] The island of Cozumel is shown through the eye of Hurricane Wilma in this composite image. NOAA

Pictures and television reports indicated extensive structural damage throughout the Cancún area, as well as significant flooding and many downed trees, power lines and scattered debris. Several homes had also collapsed. Rainfall amounts in excess of 23 inches (590 mm) were reported in several areas, with Isla Mujeres reporting 64 inches (1637 mm)—five times what Hurricane Gilbert dropped.[16] One gymnasium used as a shelter lost its roof, which forced the evacuation of more than 1,000 people staying there.[15] During the storm, waves five to eight meters high (enough to reach the third floor of many hotels) slammed against the coast line.[17] In addition, damage was extensive as well on Cozumel, with many broken windows, fallen trees and power lines, but with less in the way of structural damage. It was comparable to the scene after Hurricane Emily back in July 2005, a storm of similar intensity at landfall, but faster moving.

The Governor of Quintana Roo, Félix González Canto, said in an interview: "Never in the history of Quintana Roo have we seen a storm like this."[18]

Communication was initially limited, as telephone and electric services were completely out in the affected areas; however, in downtown Cancún, some telephone communications remained intact, and tourists went out and risked their lives to contact home. There were also extensive reports of looting of many businesses in Quintana Roo, particularly in Cancún.[15] Damage to a McDonald's in Cancun

After Wilma passed, there was a sense of desperation that developed in the region, due to the fact that people were being held in shelters due to the extensive damage. Thousands of tourists remained stranded in shelters, and the priority was to send them home immediately, according to President Vicente Fox. Buses came into Cancún from Mérida, where tourists were hoping to find flights home. The United States embassy told tourists to go to Mérida, although the next day they had to change their announcements because Mérida had become so packed with people. The road to Mérida was very dangerous and practically impassable for taxis, yet people dealt with the exorbitant fees being charged for passage.[19]

The destruction left behind by Wilma in the Yucatán severely damaged the tourist industry there, as the storm affected some of the tourist hot spots of Mexico. Damage in Mexico totalled $7.5 billion (2005 USD, $80 billion 2005 MXN), of which $4.6 billion (2005 USD, $50 billion 2005 MXN) was from agricultural damage.[20] [edit] Cuba Hurricane Wilma on October 23

In Cuba, a bus carrying evacuees crashed, killing four people, including three foreign tourists.[21]

Coastal flooding was reported in many areas due to Wilma's storm surge and flooding from the outer bands, particularly around Havana. Over 250 homes were heavily flooded and rescuers required scuba gear, inflatable rafts and amphibious vehicles to reach the most severely flooded areas.[22] The city of Havana was also without power and wind damage was reported as a result of winds up to 85 mph (140 km/h).[23]Officials in Cuba estimated total damage to be about $700 million dollars.[24] [edit] United States See also: Effects of Hurricane Wilma in Florida Storm surge from Wilma on Key Haven, island suburb of Key West, Florida.

At least 5 hurricane-related deaths were reported in the United States, all in Florida, and there were at least 26 deaths indirectly related to Wilma.[25][26] Damage from Wilma was extensive and widespread over South Florida due to winds and flooding. After the hurricane had passed, a storm surge from the backwash of up to 8 ft (2.4 m) from the Gulf of Mexico completely inundated a large portion of the lower Keys.[27] The peak of the storm surge occurred when the eye of Wilma had already passed over the Naples area, and the sustained winds during the surge were less than 40 mph (64 km/h).[28]

Hurricane Wilma caused widespread destruction of critical infrastructure, including power, water and sewer systems. Florida Power and Light, the largest electricity utility in the state, reported more than 3,241,000 customers had lost power,[29] equivalent to approximately 6,000,000 people, with most residents getting power restored in 8–15 days. Running water was restored for most residents within two days. Broward and Palm Beach counties were hit particularly hard by the many tornadoes in the western portion of the hurricane.[30] Most notably in downtown Fort Lauderdale, there was significant damage to older buildings built before the implementation of stricter building codes after Hurricane Andrew. The glass façades in a number of downtown buildings, notably One Financial Plaza were sheared off by the high winds. Damage in Florida totaled $20.6 billion (2005 USD).[31] As of 2009, there are still people waiting for insurance settlements and repairs on their homes in Dade and Broward County. [edit] Bahamas Main article: Effects of Hurricane Wilma in The Bahamas

While passing the Bahamas, the hurricane produced hurricane force winds[32] and a powerful storm surge, flooding southwestern coastal areas of Grand Bahama and destroying hundreds of buildings. In western settlements on the island of Grand Bahama, graves were washed up with skeletal remains lying in the streets. Damage totaled about $100 million (2005 USD, $105 million 2007 USD), almost entirely on the western half of the island. The central portion of Grand Bahama, including in and around Freeport, reported minor to moderate damage, while the eastern end received little to no damage.[33] One child died on the island from the flooding. Elsewhere in the Bahamas, moderate damage occurred on Bimini[34] and Abaco,[35] while islands further to the south reported minimal wind damage.[34]

Wilma struck the Bahamas during the filming of Disney's Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. The service roads were destroyed and several trailers turned over. The two principal ships, the Black Pearl and The Flying Dutchman, were relatively undamaged and the cast and crew were evacuated on the Friday before the hurricane hit. [36] [edit] Aftermath Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Disaster Medical Assistance Team checks a patient outside of the JFK Medical Center (Boynton Beach). The DMAT is set up in the entry way of the hospital to assist in seeing the increase flow of patients due to Hurricane Wilma. [edit] United States

Florida's sugar industry was hard hit; the cropping season had already started and had to be halted indefinitely. Damage to sugarcane crops was critical and widespread. Citrus canker spread rapidly throughout southern Florida following Hurricane Wilma, creating further hardships on an already stressed citrus economy due to damage from Wilma and previous years' hurricanes. Citrus production estimates fell to a low of 158 million boxes for the 2005-2006 production season from a high of 240 million for 2003-2004.[37]

In March 2006, the National Weather Service opened their new hurricane and weather forecasting center at 1315 White Street in Key West.[which?] The center is designed to withstand a Category Five hurricane and associated storm surge. It had been under construction during the 2005 hurricane season. In January 2006 artists were invited to exhibit sculptures inspired by the storm in an outdoor exhibit at Fort Zachary Taylor in Key West. [edit] Mexico

The popular Mexican resort towns of Playa del Carmen, Cozumel, and Cancún all suffered significant damage from Wilma, causing major loss of tourism income. The MTV Video Music Awards Latin America 2005 were to be held Wednesday, October 19, 2005 at the Xcaret Eco Park (close to Cancún) in Quintana Roo, Mexico. The 2005 edition of these awards was postponed, however, due to the approach of Hurricane Wilma toward the Mexican Riviera Maya. MTV had moved the date from October 20 to October 19 in an attempt to avoid Hurricane Wilma, but eventually decided to cancel the show. [edit] Cuba

The United States offered emergency aid to Cuba, and to the surprise of the State Department, the Cuban government accepted. Many times in the past, including during Hurricane Dennis, the U.S. offered aid, but the Cuban government declined. The State Department sent three damage assessors to Havana to determine their needs.[38]

Tropical Storm Alpha

Tropical Storm Alpha Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration October 22 – October 24 Intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min), 998 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Alpha (2005)

A tropical wave organized into Tropical Depression Twenty-five in the eastern Caribbean Sea on October 22. Later that day, it strengthened into a tropical storm as it moved west-northwestward.[39] On the morning of October 23, it made landfall with 50 mph (85 km/h) winds near the city of Barahona in the Dominican Republic, then moved over Haiti. Alpha weakened to a tropical depression over Hispaniola's steep mountains. Alpha reentered the Atlantic Ocean where it was absorbed by Hurricane Wilma.[39]

Tropical Storm Alpha was the 22nd named system in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, breaking the 1933 season's record and becoming the first tropical storm to be named using the Greek Alphabet.[39] A total of 43 people have been reported dead because of Tropical Storm Alpha, mostly in Haiti.[39]

  • The NHC's archive on Tropical Storm Alpha

[edit] Hurricane Beta Category 3 hurricane (SSHS) Duration October 26 – October 31 Intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min), 962 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Beta (2005)

Late on October 26, a broad area of low pressure in the southwestern Caribbean Sea developed and became Tropical Depression Twenty-six. Six hours later, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Beta. Beta strengthened into a hurricane on October 29. On October 30, Hurricane Beta became a major hurricane with sustained winds around 115 mph (185 km/h). That brought the total amount of major hurricanes in the 2005 season to 7, one short of the record 8 set in the 1950 season.[40]

Beta extended the record for most tropical storms in a season to 23 and was the first use of the name Beta for a tropical system. At the time it formed, Beta was considered the 13th hurricane of 2005, breaking the 1969 record of 12 hurricanes; later analysis showed Tropical Storm Cindy was a hurricane, which means the record-breaking 13th hurricane was actually Hurricane Wilma. Additionally, it was both the first hurricane (as opposed to a tropical storm), and the first major hurricane, named with a Greek letter.[40]

The Colombian island of Providencia, about 140 miles off the coast of Nicaragua, was subjected to hurricane force winds for several hours as the center of the storm moved very slowly by the island. Reports indicate extensive damage to homes and a loss of communications with the islanders.[40]

  • The NHC's archive on Hurricane Beta

Tropical Storm Gamma

Tropical Storm Gamma Tropical storm (SSHS) Duration November 14 – November 22 Intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min), 1002 mbar (hPa) Main article: Tropical Storm Gamma (2005)

Late on November 13, after nearly two weeks of inactivity, Tropical Depression Twenty-Seven formed from a tropical wave about 115 miles west-southwest of St. Lucia. While passing through the Lesser Antilles, the heavy rainfall caused mudslides, killing two people. On later reanalysis,[41] it had briefly attained tropical storm status (without being named), but wind shear prevented further development of the system, and advisories were discontinued on November 16 as it lost its closed circulation about 305 miles southeast of Kingston, Jamaica.[41]

The remnants of the depression continued westward and moved along the northern shore of Honduras, merging with parts of a larger low pressure system. It is uncertain whether the remnants of Gamma absorbed the low pressure system or vice versa. The storm grew in strength, and a closed circulation formed on November 18, becoming a tropical storm for the second time (but named Gamma only starting here). After regeneration, floods from Gamma killed 34 people in Honduras. Gamma meandered in the Caribbean Sea for a short time, until slowly weakening. The storm eventually disintegrated into a remnant low late on November 20, after causing 37 direct and 4 indirect deaths in total.[41]

2006

Tropical storm Alberto, June 11-15. Affects Apalachicola, Darien, Florence. Somewhat affects Piedmont, Outer Banks.

Hurricane Ernesto was the costliest tropical cyclone of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season. The sixth tropical storm and first hurricane of the season, Ernesto developed from a tropical wave on August 24 in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Ernesto first affected the northern Caribbean, reaching minimal hurricane status near Haiti before weakening and moving across eastern Cuba as a tropical storm. Despite initial predictions for it to track through the eastern Gulf of Mexico as a major hurricane, Ernesto moved across eastern Florida as a weak tropical storm. After turning to the northeast, it re-intensified and made landfall on August 31 on the North Carolina coast just below hurricane status. The remnants spread moisture across the northeastern United States before dissipating over eastern Canada on September 14.

The deaths of at least eleven people were attributed to Ernesto, which dumped heavy rains throughout its path, especially in the mid-Atlantic states. Damage in Virginia was estimated to have been $118 million (2006 USD), and total damage in the United States was estimated at $500 million (2006 USD).

[Major weather affects Georgetown, Outer Banks, Delmarva. Minor weather affects Blue Ridge, Toccoa]

2007

Hurricane Florence was the first Atlantic hurricane to produce hurricane force winds on Bermuda since Hurricane Fabian hit the island in September 2003.[1] The seventh tropical storm and second hurricane of the 2006 Atlantic hurricane season, Florence developed from a tropical wave in the tropical Atlantic Ocean on September 3 and followed the track of a Cape Verde-type hurricane. Due to unfavorable conditions, the system failed to organize initially, and as a result the storm grew to an unusually large size. After several days, Florence encountered an area of lesser wind shear and intensified into a hurricane on September 10. It passed just west of Bermuda while recurving northeastward, and on September 13 it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.

Florence produced wind gusts of up to 115 mph (185 km/h) on Bermuda, which caused several power outages and minor damage. Florence then brought heavy rains across Newfoundland as an extratropical storm, destroying one house and causing minor damage to several others. There were no fatalities as a result of the hurricane.


Tropical Storm Barry was a rapidly forming tropical cyclone that made landfall on Florida in early June. The second Atlantic named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Barry developed from a trough of low pressure in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico on June 1. It tracked rapidly northeastward, reaching peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) before weakening and making landfall near Tampa Bay as a tropical depression. Barry quickly lost tropical characteristics after wind shear removed much of the convection, and early on June 3 it completed the transition into an extratropical cyclone. The extratropical remnants tracked up the East Coast of the United States, and was absorbed by a larger extratropical cyclone on June 5.

The precursor trough produced heavy rainfall across the western Caribbean Sea, which on Cuba unofficially reached over 7.8 inches (200 mm). Outer rainbands in Pinar del Río Province injured three and damaged 55 houses. In Florida, Barry dropped moderate precipitation across the drought-ridden state that peaked at 6.99 inches (178 mm). The rainfall caused some flooding and wet roads, which led to two indirect traffic fatalities. Rough seas killed one surfer in Pinellas County. In Florida and Georgia, the precipitation assisted firefighters in combating severe wildfires. Overall damage from the storm was minor.

[Affects Darien and Georgetown]

Hurricane Dean was the strongest tropical cyclone of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the most intense Atlantic hurricane since Hurricane Wilma of 2005, tying for seventh overall. Additionally, it made the third most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall. A Cape Verde-type hurricane that formed on August 13, 2007, Dean took a west-northwest path from the eastern Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lucia Channel and into the Caribbean Sea. It strengthened into a major hurricane, reaching Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale before passing just south of Jamaica on August 20. The storm made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula on August 21 as a powerful Category 5 storm. It crossed the peninsula and emerged into the Bay of Campeche weakened, but still a hurricane. It strengthened briefly before making a second landfall in Veracruz near Tecolutla, Mexico, on August 22. Dean drifted to the northwest, weakening into a remnant low which dissipated uneventfully over the southwestern United States.

The hurricane's intense winds, waves, rains and storm surge were responsible for at least 45 deaths across ten countries and caused estimated damages of US$1.5 billion.[1][2] First impacting the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Dean's path through the Caribbean devastated agricultural crops, particularly those of Martinique and Jamaica. Upon reaching Mexico, Hurricane Dean was a Category 5 storm, but it missed major population centers and its exceptional Category 5 strength landfall caused no deaths and less damage than in the Caribbean islands it passed as a Category 2 storm.

Through the affected regions, cleanup and repair took months to complete. Donations solicited by international aid organizations joined national funds in clearing roads, rebuilding houses, and replanting destroyed crops. In Jamaica, where the damage was worst, banana production did not return to pre-storm levels for over a year. Mexico's tourist industry, too, took almost a year to rebuild its damaged cruise ship infrastructure.

Dean was the first hurricane to make landfall in the Atlantic basin at Category 5 intensity in 15 years; the last storm to do so was Hurricane Andrew on August 24, 1992.[3] Dean's Category 5 landfall was in a sparsely populated area and thus far less damaging than Andrew's, but its long swath of damage earned its name retirement from the World Meteorological Organization's Atlantic hurricane naming lists.

Hispaniola

Hurricane Dean passed 270 km (435 mi) south of the Dominican Republic's capital, Santo Domingo, and although the island experienced relatively little wind,[33][34] heavy rain flooded the streets.[35] The moderate winds and heavy rains did not damage the agriculture sector as they did elsewhere in the Caribbean.[36] Six deaths were attributed to the effects of the hurricane. The strong wave activity on the southern coastline attracted a crowd of onlookers and a 16-year-old boy was swept out to sea and drowned as he watched 16-foot (4.8 m) swells break over a road in Santo Domingo.[37] Also, five fishermen drowned in the northern Santiago province after their boat capsized due to the effect of wind and torrential rain in the Tavera dam, near the town of Baitoa. The victims were fishing along with three others that managed to swim ashore, and were believed to have ignored warnings issued by civil defense authorities.[38] Rough surf destroyed at least 5 houses along the southern coast[39] and damaged 316.[5]

The outer fringes of Hurricane Dean swept over Haiti[33] bringing heavy squalls.[40] On Gonâve Island, thousands of people lost power and some took shelter in schools and churches.[14] The roof of the Hopital St. Michel in Jacmel, damaged before the storm, leaked significantly leading to water damage in the operating room.[41] Two people were killed in Tiburon and Moron, towns in the south and southeast of the island, respectively. Seven other storm-related deaths were confirmed but few details were given.[31] Another four were injured in a sailboat after disregarding warnings to stay in port.[5] Several hundred homes were destroyed due to the resulting landslides.[42] In the departments of South-East, Nippes, Centre, and Artibonite, 5,154 people retreated to temporary shelters.[43] Hurricanes typically pose significant hazards to potable water in Haiti,[31] but Hurricane Dean produced only a modest 2.06 inches (52 mm) of rainfall.[44] As such, the storm caused no major problems with water and sanitation,[41] except in the town of Bainet, where the temperamental water system was compromised.[31] [edit] Jamaica Hurricane Dean floods a road in Kingston, Jamaica.

In Jamaica, flooding was reported on the east of the island, and mudslides occurred on the northeast coast.[45] In Kingston, buildings collapsed[18] and houses had their roofing torn off by the strong winds, which felled trees and lampposts. A shoot-out between police and looters occurred in the parish of Clarendon.[45] Over 1,500 rooves were lost, primarily to the hurricane force winds.[46] 3,127 houses were heavily damaged, 1,582 of which were left totally uninhabitable.[47] Two-thirds of the homes in the southeastern parishes of Clarendon, St. Catherine, and Kingston/St. Andrew sustained significant damages.[30] One man was killed in Clarendon by a collapsing roof, and a 14-year-old girl in Whitehorses, St. Thomas was killed by rock damage to her home.[48] A third Jamaican was killed when he was struck by flying debris during the height of the storm.[49]

Hurricane Dean affected 248 roads: 10 were blocked in the Kingston metropolitan region,[50] 14 sections were blocked in St. Andrew, 43 were blocked in St. Catherine, 8 were blocked in the Western Region (Saint James, Hanover, Westmoreland, and Trelawny), and 110 were blocked in the Northeast region.[51] Furthermore, the road from Kingston to the airport was covered in sand, boulders, and downed power lines.[18] A concrete waterfront house destroyed by Hurricane Dean in Kingston, Jamaica

Agriculture damage was widespread. Across the country 40% of the sugarcane crop, 80–100% of the banana crop, 75% of the coffee trees under three years old, and 20% of the top layer of the cocoa crop were lost to the storm.[47] Insured damage in Jamaica was initially estimated at around US$1.5 billion,[52] but post-storm analysis showed that it was closer to US$310 million.[53][54] [edit] Elsewhere

Rain from Hurricane Dean closed several roads throughout Puerto Rico and there was heavy surf along the island's coast, but no deaths or injuries were reported.[55] The hurricane's outer bands swept over Cuba between August 19 and August 21, bringing heavy rain and high seas, but sparing the island its damaging winds. In the Cayman Islands, rain flooded roads and there were high waves along the coast, but no deaths or serious injuries were reported. There were localized power outages and the water supply was shut off briefly, but the rest of the island's infrastructure was unaffected. Approximately 2,000 people weathered the storm in temporary shelters.[56]

The effects of Hurricane Dean in Mexico were more severe than anywhere else in the storm's path. Hurricane Dean, the most intense storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, formed in the Atlantic Ocean west of Cape Verde on August 14 2007. The Cape Verde-type hurricane sped through the Caribbean Sea, rapidly intensifying before making landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. Accurate forecasts of the storm's location and intensity enabled thorough preparations; nevertheless when the massive storm made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula as a catastrophic Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale it damaged thousands of homes.

Weakening as it crossed the peninsula, Dean emerged into the Bay of Campeche and re-strengthened before making a second landfall in Veracruz. Although the second landfall did not bring winds as intense as the first, it brought more rainfall and caused devastating landslides in the Mexican states of Veracruz and Tabasco. Between the two landfalls, Dean caused Mex$2 billion (US$184 million; 2007 dollars) of damage and killed 13 people.

Tropical Storm Erin was the second tropical cyclone to make landfall in the United States in the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth named storm of the season, it formed in the Gulf of Mexico on August 14 from a persistent area of convection. It attained tropical storm status the next day, and on August 16 Erin made landfall near Lamar, Texas, and persisted over land across Texas before moving northward into Oklahoma. The storm resulted in at least 16 fatalities and worsened an already-severe flooding issue in Texas.

Impact [edit] Texas Erin Storm Total Rainfall

By midday on August 15, rainbands with gusty winds began affecting the Texas coastline.[9] As it moved ashore, the storm produced heavy rainfall near and to the or northeast of its path, reaching 11.02 inches (280 mm) at a station in Lockwood.[18] The storm caused several bayous in the Houston area to reach or exceed flood levels.[30] Across southeastern Texas, the cyclone spawned several funnel clouds,[31] and near Iah a EF0 tornado was reported. Wind gusts from Erin were minor across the state, peaking at 35 mph (55 km/h) at Palacios with an unofficial report of 39 mph (63 km/h) at Jamaica Beach. Upon moving ashore, the storm produced a minor storm surge peaking at 3.22 feet (0.98 m) at Pleasure Pier, which caused minor beach erosion.[32]

In Clear Lake City, heavy rainfall collapsed a portion of a grocery store roof, killing two workers. The precipitation caused moderate flooding across eastern portions of Harris County; over 400 homes and 40 businesses were flooded.[32] Flooding across the Greater Houston area briefly halted the METRORail and closed several state roads. One person drowned after driving into a retention pond.[33] Several people required rescue assistance,[30] and in Comal County a car accident caused three fatalities.[34] The passage of the storm temporarily left about 20,000 electrical customers without power, though most outages were quickly restored.[30] In San Antonio, one body was recovered from a creek and another died after driving into a flooded road and was swept into a drainage ditch in which four others survived. In Sisterdale, two people were killed when they were swept away stalled over Sister Creek.[35] In Taylor County, near Abilene, flooding killed one person and forced the evacuation of about 2,000 people.[36] Damage in Texas totaled over $45 million (2007 USD).[37][38][39] [edit] Oklahoma A car became stranded atop a lone piece of ground as the road beneath it washed away.

After its unexpected redevelopment over Oklahoma, widespread damage was also reported there. Several communities in central Oklahoma were flooded due to the heavy rainfall. Watonga, Kingfisher and Geary were the hardest-hit communities, where many houses and buildings were inundated. Winds in Watonga gusted as high as 82 mph (131 km/h), which damaged numerous trees and power lines and heavily damaged mobile homes. The entire community lost power, as did about 15,000 customers in total in the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. A section of Interstate 40 was also closed for a while.[40]

One person drowned in a cellar in Fort Cobb, and another drowned in Kingfisher.[41] Another storm-related death took place in Seminole.[42] Three others were found dead after a weather-related automobile accident also near Carnegie.[43] Another automobile accident fatality took place in Okmulgee County but it is unclear if the event was storm-related.[44] Damage amounted to over $2 million (2007 USD).[45][46] [edit] Missouri

Although its surface circulation had dissipated, its circulation aloft remained intact and led to a burst of rainfall early on August 20. The 11.94 inches/303.3 mm that fell at Miller[15] became the wettest Missouri rainfall total associated with a tropical cyclone, or its remains, since at least 1972.[47] One person died in Sleeper when he drove into flood waters which had swept away a bridge he was attempting to navigate onto.[48] Nine water rescues occurred along the I-44 corridor, mostly caused by Erin's rainfall.[49] Damage totaled about $19.8 million (2007 USD) in the state, primarily in Polk County.[50][51][52][53][54]

Hurricane Felix was a destructive Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, that struck Central America in 2007. It was the sixth named storm, second hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. Felix formed from a tropical wave on August 31, passing through the southern Windward Islands on September 1 before strengthening to attain hurricane status. A day later it rapidly strengthened into a major hurricane, and early on September 3 it was upgraded to Category 5 status; by 2100 UTC, the hurricane was downgraded to Category 4 status, but was upgraded to a Category 5 hurricane for a second time by the morning of September 4.

On September 4, Felix made landfall just south of the border between Nicaragua and Honduras, in a region historically known as the Mosquito Coast as a Category 5 hurricane with 160 mph (260 km/h) winds, exactly half a month after Dean hit Mexico at that strength. Hurricane Felix struck Nicaragua on the same day as Hurricane Henriette struck the Baja California Peninsula in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which marked the second recorded occurrence that an Atlantic hurricane and a Pacific hurricane made landfall on the same day;[1] the previous occurrence was on August 23, 1992, when Hurricane Andrew hit the Bahamas on the same day Hurricane Lester hit Mexico's Baja California Peninsula. At least 133 deaths are attributed to Felix.

Impact [edit] Caribbean Islands Felix passing Aruba

At around 1200 UTC on September 1 a wind gust of 46 mph (74 km/h) was recorded on Barbados, and around the same time a gust of 44 mph (71 km/h) was observed in Saint Vincent.[45] The storm produced heavy rainfall across the Windward Islands. On Trinidad, heavy precipitation caused mudslides and overflown rivers which destroyed some bridges; moderate winds damaged several buildings on the island. Damage on neighboring Tobago was concentrated on its northern portion, where several mudslides resulted from the rainfall;[46] monetary damage on Tobago was estimated at $250,000 (2007 TTD, $40,000 2007 USD).[47] Felix produced gusty winds on Grenada, which downed several power lines and destroyed the rooves of two houses; rough waves also broke several vessels from their anchors.[33] In St. Lucia, winds from the storm damaged the roof of a store in Castries, which collapsed and destroyed 12 vehicles.[46]

In the ABC islands, the hurricane resulted in gusty winds and heavy rainfall. However, little damage was reported in Bonaire; the precipitation left several homes submerged under water in Curaçao. In Aruba, the winds damaged one house and briefly left a northern village without power.[40] Hurricane Felix produced strong winds and 10 foot (3 m) waves along the north coast of Venezuela, which left one person missing in Puerto Cabello.[48] [edit] Central America

Early reports suggest severe damage in Honduras and Nicaragua after Felix made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane. In Puerto Cabezas, nearly every structure sustained at least roof damage, and many buildings were destroyed.[49] Along the Mosquito Coast, flooding and mudslides were reported, destroying many houses (mostly humble dwellings) and blocking highways. The government of Nicaragua declared the northern Caribbean coast a disaster area.[50] The Miskito Cays, located about 70 km (43 mi) from Bilwi off the northeast coast of Nicaragua, was among the strongest hit areas. Hurricane Felix had not yet made landfall but reached maximum force when it passed over the Miskito Cays. The winds of the hurricane, with speeds of up to 160 mph (260 kph), destroyed the Cays completely. Pillars that previously formed the base of the houses were the only remains on the Cays.[51]

At least 133 people were reported dead. At least 130 of them were in Nicaragua.[52] While few details have been disclosed, they include at least 25 dead Miskito fishermen swept away, a drowning death on a boat, impact from a fallen tree and at least one indirect death caused by medical complications after birth.[50] There were three deaths reported in Honduras, one of which was caused by a motor vehicle accident caused by heavy rain and landslides, [49] and two caused by flooding in the capital city of Tegucigalpa.[53] However, hundreds of others were missing (mostly at sea), and communication was difficult to impossible in many areas. Some survivors were also found on the Mosquito Coast that were initially reported missing.[54]

According to official information, at least 40,000 people were affected and 9,000 houses destroyed, most of them in the Nicaraguan city of Bilwi (Puerto Cabezas), where a "State of Disaster" was decreed by the government. A total lack of supplies and services were also reported in the area. The response was almost immediate. Help from Venezuela, Cuba, the US and Honduras were received, and a lot of organizations, such as the Nicaraguan Red Cross, the media and universities organized collections all over the country. Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega visited Bilwi on the day after the catastrophe and promised the reconstruction of houses to the people affected.[49][55] Damage in Nicaragua totaled C$869.3 million (2007 NIO, $46.7 million 2007 USD).[56]

Inland flooding was also reported in Honduras, particularly near Tegucigalpa and in the northwestern regions where the Ulua River and the Chamelecon River overflowed into an agricultural area. Coastal flooding also damage the town of Izabal in Guatemala where 850 people were evacuated.[53] Crop damage in Honduras amounted to L68.28 million (2007 HNL, $3.64 million 2007 USD).[57]

Tropical Storm Gabrielle was a short-lived tropical cyclone that passed over North Carolina before tracking out to sea. The seventh named storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, Gabrielle developed as a subtropical cyclone on September 8 about 385 miles (625 km) southeast of Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Unfavorable wind shear impacted the storm for much of its duration, although a temporary decrease in the shear allowed the cyclone to become a tropical storm. On September 9, Gabrielle made landfall at Cape Lookout National Seashore in the Outer Banks of North Carolina with winds of 60 mph (90 km/h). Turning to the northeast, the storm quickly weakened and dissipated on September 11.

In advance of the storm, tropical cyclone watches and warnings were issued for coastal areas, while rescue teams and the U.S. Coast Guard were put on standby. The storm dropped heavy rainfall near its immediate landfall location but little precipitation elsewhere. Along the coast of North Carolina, high waves, rip currents, and storm surge were reported. Slight localized flooding was reported. Gusty winds also occurred, though no wind damage was reported. Along the coast of Florida, rough surf drowned one person. Overall damage was minor.

[Affects Outer Banks, Elizabeth City]

Hurricane Humberto was a minimal hurricane that formed and intensified faster than any other tropical cyclone on record before landfall. Developing on September 12, 2007, in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, the cyclone rapidly strengthened and struck High Island, Texas, with winds of about 90 mph (150 km/h) early on September 13. It steadily weakened after moving ashore, and on September 14 it began dissipating over northwestern Georgia as it interacted with an approaching cold front.

Damage was fairly light, estimated at approximately $50 million (2007 USD). Precipitation peaked at 14.13 inches (358.9 mm), while wind gusts to 85 mph (137 km/h) were reported. The heavy rainfall caused widespread flooding, which damaged or destroyed dozens of homes, and closed several highways. Trees and power lines were downed, knocking out power to hundreds of thousands of customers. The hurricane caused one fatality in the State of Texas. Additionally, as the storm progressed inland, rainfall was reported throughout the Southeast United States.

Impact [edit] Texas Fallen trees caused many power outages in Southeast Texas

A few hours prior to its development, outer rainbands from the depression began moving over portions of the Texas coast.[6] Heavy rainfall from intense thunderstorms caused minor flooding as they crossed the coastline during the subsequent days;[22] precipitation in the state peaked at 14.13 inches (358.9 mm) at East Bay Bayou, the highest recorded rainfall total in association with the hurricane.[14] Sustained winds peaked at 69 mph (112 km/h) with gusts to 85 mph (137 km/h) at Sea Rim State Park; the National Weather Service estimates gusts exceeded 90 mph (145 km/h) in southwestern Jefferson County and extreme southeastern Chambers County.[23] Upon moving ashore, Humberto produced a minor storm surge in the state, peaking at 2.86 feet (0.87 m) at Rollover Pass; the combination of surge and waves resulted in light beach erosion.[22]

Hurricane Humberto left 10 homes completely destroyed in Galveston County, with an additional 19 severely damaged in the county; several homes received minor shingle damage, and road closures left about 5,000 houses isolated in the county. The combination of saturated grounds and strong winds uprooted many trees and downed power lines across the path of the hurricane,[22] with at least 50 high voltage transmission poles blown down or seriously damaged; over 120,000 power customers in Orange and Jefferson counties lost power,[19] with 118,000 Entergy customers in the state without electricity.[24] Widespread flooding occurred in Jefferson and Orange counties, and at least 20 homes in Beaumont were flooded. Additionally, several roadways were flooded. The passage of the hurricane caused one fatality in the state; a Bridge City man was killed when his carport crashed on him outside his house.[19] Overall damage estimates were about $50 million.[2]

Oil production was slowed as a result of Humberto, as at least four refineries—the Valero, ExxonMobil, Total SA and Motiva Enterprises LLC plants in Port Arthur—were halted due to the loss of power. Oil prices rose above $80 a barrel in intraday trading on September 12 as a result, ending the next day at a record high of $80.09 a barrel.[25][26] Natural gas futures rose 8 percent ahead of the storm, but lost most of those gains the next day.[26] Humberto's rainfall [edit] Louisiana and Southeast United States

Tracking through the state as a weakening tropical storm, Humberto produced light to moderate winds across southwestern Louisiana. Gusts officially peaked at 43 mph (69 km/h) in the state, although an unofficial reading of 55 mph (89 km/h) was reported in Vinton.[23] Heavy rainfall occurred across the area, reaching a peak of 8.25 inches (210 mm) in DeRidder.[27] The rainfall triggered minor river flooding, and the Vermilion River in Lafayette reached a crest of 0.94 feet (0.29 m) above flood stage. Storm surge was minor in the state, peaking at 2.13 feet (0.65 m) in Cypremont Point;[28] no beach erosion was reported.[19]

Widespread freshwater flooding occurred in Beauregard Parish, leaving homes in DeRidder flooded. High water across the southwestern portion of the state resulted in the closure of several roadways, including U.S. Route 171 and various state highways. Isolated wind damage was reported, particularly near the Texas border, with some trees and power lines blown down. A total of about 13,000 power customers lost electricity in southwestern Louisiana.[19] After the circulation dissipated, the remnants of Humberto spawned several tornadoes across portions of South Carolina and North Carolina and caused widespread damage in some locations. Numerous tornadoes were reported,[29] though none caused injuries or fatalities.[30]

[Affects LA, MS, Blue Ridge]

Significant damage was reported in east-central Mexico as Lorenzo hit the area. Shacks were severely damaged by the strong winds, widespread tree damage was reported and many areas lost electricity service. Flooding was also reported as rivers quickly rose due to the heavy rain and saturated ground. Scattered landslides were also reported. The area was already cleaning up after Hurricane Dean, which struck during late August.[15] Damage in Veracruz was estimated at $1 billion (2007 MXN, $92 million 2007 USD).[16]

The government of Mexico reports six deaths attributable to Lorenzo: one in the state of Veracruz, a senior citizen who fell into a hole near his home in Pánuco, and five in Puebla, including a woman and two children in Chiconcuautla in Puebla's Sierra Norte region.[10] At least four of the deaths were caused by flash floods or mud slides. Damage in the two states included downed trees and power lines, as well as washed out roads and flooded homes. Media reports indicate that high winds peeled the rooves off a number of homes in the seaside town of Nautla, to the south of where the center of Lorenzo made landfall. In Puebla, 169 homes were reported damaged and landslides made many roadways impassible. In the state of Hidalgo the San Lorenzo River overflowed its banks, forcing the evacuation of over 200 people.[10][17]

Hurricane Noel was the fourteenth named storm and sixth hurricane of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season. Noel formed on October 27 from the interaction between a tropical wave and an upper-level low in the north-central Caribbean Sea. It strengthened to winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) before making landfall on western Haiti and the north coast of eastern Cuba. It turned northward, and on November 1 it attained hurricane status. The hurricane accelerated northeastward after crossing the Bahamas, and on November 2 it became an extratropical cyclone. (The Canadian Hurricane Centre classified Noel as a post-tropical storm until 2200 UTC November 4 when it determined that it had lost all tropical characteristics.)

The storm caused at least 163 direct deaths along its path, primarily in Hispaniola, due to flooding and mudslides. It was the deadliest Atlantic hurricane of the 2007 season. After its transition to post-tropical, Noel became a very strong low pressure system causing flooding and wind damage over Maine and Eastern Canada. It even dropped snow over some areas of Eastern Quebec and Labrador.

Impact Rainfall Summary for precursor system of Noel in Puerto Rico Deaths by area Area Deaths Bahamas 1[48] Cuba 1[48] Dominican Republic 87[48] Haiti 73[48] Jamaica 1[48] Canada 1[49] Total 169 [edit] Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico

Heavy rainfall fell across the northern Lesser Antilles for several days in association with the precursor disturbance, unofficially reaching over 6 inches (150 mm) on Saint Croix[29] and Saint Thomas.[50]

The precursor disturbance also dropped heavy rainfall across Puerto Rico for several days, leaving grounds saturated and causing surface runoff.[28] Precipitation peaked at 17.23 inches (437.6 mm) at Carite Lake.[51] Flash flooding was reported in Carolina, and a mudslide occurred in Utuado. Flooding occurred along several rivers, including the Río de la Plata, with a reading of 8.9 feet (2.7 m) above flood stage at Toa Baja reported late on October 27.[28] In response to high water levels, officials opened dam gates along the Río de la Plata and the Río Carraízo.[52] There were no official reports of fatalities.[48] [edit] Dominican Republic Flooded plantain fields in the Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic, the highest rainfall amount reported was 21.65 in (550 mm) at Padre Las Casas.[53] People in the path of the flooding escaped to roof and tree tops;[40] more than 50,000 people left their homes. Additionally, about 1,000 prisoners were evacuated due to flooding. For about two hours, the entire island was without power. Two days later, one-third of the population was still without electricity.[40] The heavy rainfall caused extreme flooding throughout the island, which caused mudslides, as well. It is reported that buildings were swept down the sides of mountains.[37] The flooding damaged over 24,500 homes,[54] of which 6,000 were completely destroyed.[48] Many rivers topped their banks, causing flash flooding in valleys, which killed 10 people in the town of Piedra Blanca.[55] Many roads and bridges were destroyed, isolating some villages from outside civilization;[56] at least 21 bridges in the country were washed away or collapsed.[57] By just days after the storm, 1,522 people were rescued from flood waters.[58]

Severe crop losses were reported. The primary agricultural damages were to plantain, banana, tomato and red onion crops. In some locations, production of such fruits was completely lost.[59] Crop damage in the country totaled $77.7 million (2007 USD).[60] Livestock losses were also repoted.[61] There was severe damage to 40% of water distribution, and 60% of 122 aqueducts. Due to health concerns and the onslaught of disease, some medical centers reached maximum capacity.[62] In all, the storm caused at least 87 fatalities in the country, and 42 others were reported missing.[48] Over 65,000 people were left homeless,[58] and over 46 bridges were in some way affected by the floods.[63] However, because many villages were isolated, these totals may not reflect the actual damage.[58] [edit] Haiti

Noel is the third wettest tropical cyclone in Haiti, dropping 569.7 mm (22.43) at Camp Perrin.[64] Rainfall across the rest of the country was generally in the 25 mm to 225 mm (1 in–9 in) range.[65] Five days of rainfall caused severe flooding and mudslides,[66] affecting about 3,252 families.[67] Rivers and creeks swelled up, forcing communities to evacuate.[68] In the vulnerable country to flooding, about 500 houses were damaged by the floods' onslaught,[67] of which 400 were completely destroyed.[69] The cities that were the worst affected by the flooding were Cayes, Cantaloupe, Camp Perrin, Chantal, Maniche, Holy louis of the South and Torbeck.[70] The main road to the country's capital, Port-au-Prince, was blocked,[71] in addition to other roads throughout the country.[72] The Haitian Civil Protection Office initially attributed 18 deaths to Noel in the country; two additional deaths were reported, one due to flooding and another due to being crushed by a tree.[66] In total, 73 deaths were reported in the country, while 17 others remained missing as of December 17.[48] In addition, 7,500 in Haiti were displaced by the storm,[73] and 104 were injued.[70] [edit] Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas Tropical Storm Noel over the Bahamas

Heavy rainfall fell across portions of Jamaica; the rains triggered a mudslide that caused a house to collapse, killing one person.[66] The eastern end of the island was hit particularly hard.[74] Several communities were isolated, and roads and bridges were impassible in some areas.[75] The rainfall caused at least 20 mudslides across the island;[57] one of them caused a large pile-up that persisted for hours.[74]

In Cuba, the storm dropped about 6 inches (150 mm) of rainfall in six hours in the city of Baracoa, which overflowed reservoirs in the region. The highest 24 hour total noted was at Mangos de Baraguá, where 364 mm (14.3 in) fell between the mornings of October 29 and October 30.[76] Strong winds and rough waves were reported along the northern coastline.[66] The storm caused severe flooding and mudslides, which damaged over 21,000 homes in the province of Granma alone,[41][77] and destroyed about 120 homes in Camagüey.[78] Flooding isolated a few areas,[37] and destroyed more than 3.9 million lb (1.8 million kg) of crops in Ciego de Ávila Province.[39] The rainfall contributed to precipitation totals being 300% of the normal rainfall in Guantánamo Province, which caused a dam in the province to overflow.[57] In the province of Santiago, about 400 km (250 mi) of roads were damaged. At least 98,000 people throughout the country evacuated from the flooding; of which nearly 20,000 did so to escape the Cauto River which topped its banks, and 40,000 were in the province of Granma. Many stayed in shelters. Of Cuba's 239 rivers, at least 137 overflowed.[79] One fatality was reported in Cuba; total damage is estimated at $500 million (2007 USD).[48]

Tropical Storm Noel dropped heavy rainfall across portions of the Bahamas,[66] reaching a record total of 15 inches (380 mm) at one station.[39] Sustained winds were around 40 mph (64 km/h) throughout the central and northwestern regions of the island chain.[80] Extensive flooding was reported, especially on Abaco Island,[81] forcing the evacuation of over 700 people. Long Island was hit the worst, where flood waters reportedly reached 5 ft (1.5 m) deep.[82] Residents of the island deemed the damage "devastating", reporting that flood waters were the highest in 60 years.[83] In some locations, houses were under several feet of water, while roads throughout the Bahamas suffered damage.[84] The Deadman’s Cay Airport was also flooded, and on the island of Exuma, six of the nine schools received extensive damage.[85] About 16,000 people were affected by the floods, including 10,000 on Long Island.[86] The Nassau International Airport was closed due to the storm, and most cruise ships failed to arrive on schedule.[87] One fatality occurred when a man on the island of Exuma abandoned a stalled truck, and was subsequently swept away by flood waters into a nearby pond.[88] When Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham visited hard-hit areas to assess the damage, he stated that it would be possible for Public Works to "be able to get some pumps in to pump some of the water out." However, he also noted that, "In some areas that will be very difficult because you have ponds on both sides of the road."[85]

2008

Tropical Storm Arthur was the first Atlantic tropical storm that formed during the month of May since 1981.[1] The first tropical cyclone of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, the storm formed from two tropical waves and the remnants of the eastern Pacific Tropical Storm Alma which had crossed into the western Caribbean Sea. A surface trough developed across the region, which enhanced convection. The system quickly organized and was named Tropical Storm Arthur on May 31, while crossing the shore of Belize. Arthur's remnants triggered severe flooding which killed a reported nine people and affected 100,000 more in Belize. Damage was light to moderate, estimated at $78 million (2008 USD).[2]

In preparation for the storm, ports were closed in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo, while residents and tourists were encouraged to take precautions in coastal areas. Also, ports were closed on the islands of Cozumel, Isla Mujeres and in Chetumal.[15] Small boats were restricted from leaving some ports, but evacuations were deemed unnecessary.[16] Tropical storm warnings were issued at 1700z on the 31st May for the coast of Belize and the coast of Mexico south of Cabo Catoche. These warnings remained in effect until Arthur weakened to a tropical depression at 1500z on the 1st June.[8]

The storm produced rainfall as far south as Belize City and kicked up strong surf on the island of Ambergris Caye.[15] Winds from Arthur forced the closure of two of Mexico's three main oil exporting ports in the Gulf of Mexico due to rough seas.[17] The storm's remnants, combined with recent heavy rains from Tropical Storm Alma, triggered flash flooding and caused rivers in southern and northern Belize to overflow. Between the two systems, around 10 in (250 mm) of rain fell over the region. The flooding damaged one bridge and one highway, and several other bridges were under water. One village was evacuated, and shelters in Corozal and Orange Walk were opened. In rural areas the electricity was cut off due to safety issues.[18] Dozens were stranded on their roof due to high water, and work to repair an important highway was halted when flood waters washed away the repaired section. Papaya plantations, shrimp farms and rice crops were also affected by the unsettled weather.[19] In all, about 100,000 people were affected by the flooding,[18] and nine fatalities were reported; five of which were directly attributed to Arthur.[2] British helicopters helped rescue stranded people following the storm, and Mexico provided a helicopter to help carry supplies to areas affected by the flooding. Prime Minister Dean Barrow declared a disaster area in southern Belize's Stann Creek Valley. Additionally, the government rushed food, water and clothing to around 13,000 people.[19] Damages from Arthur in Belize are estimated at $78 million (USD).[2]

Tropical storm Cristobal, Jul 15-22. Affects Darien.

Hurricane Dolly was a tropical cyclone that made landfall in extreme southern Texas in July 2008. Dolly was the fourth tropical cyclone and second hurricane to form during the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. It was the first U.S. landfalling hurricane of the 2008 season. Dolly developed on July 20 from an area of disturbed weather in association with a strong tropical wave. It was named Dolly at the same time it formed—skipping the tropical depression phase entirely as the precursor wave already had tropical storm-force winds. This marked the earliest time a fourth named cyclone has formed since the 2005 season, which holds the record.[1]

The tropical storm made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula near Cancún early on July 21, leaving at least 17 people dead in Guatemala,[2][3] and one person in the Yucatán. It moved into the Gulf of Mexico and strengthened to become a Category 2 hurricane, before weakening some and making landfall as a Category 1 storm on July 23 in South Padre Island, Texas, with 85 mph (140 km/h) winds.[4] The storm caused 212,000 customers to lose power in Texas as well as 125,000 in Tamaulipas, and dropped estimated amounts of over 16 inches (410 mm) of rain in isolated areas .[5] Rip currents throughout the entire Gulf Coast resulted in one person drowning off the Florida Panhandle. There were no deaths as a result of Hurricane Dolly in Texas; it did, however, cause an estimated $1.05 billion dollars in damage.[4] The remnants of the storm caused two deaths in New Mexico.

Tropical Storm Edouard was a tropical storm that organized in the Gulf of Mexico. A shear line stalled in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico in early August as troughing aloft dug into the northeast Gulf of Mexico. This energy aloft help to organize a surface low along the shear line early on August 2,[1] which slowly organized over the following day. It strengthened into Tropical Depression Five before gaining intensity and being named Tropical Storm Edouard on August 3, the fifth named storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. The tropical storm moved westward to the south of the central Gulf coast on August 4. It made landfall on August 5 on the upper Texas coast about 40 miles southwest of Port Arthur and moved west-northwest into the interior of Texas. Edouard weakened quickly over land and was downgraded to a tropical depression late on August 5. The depression turned to the northwest, dropping heavy rains on central Texas on August 6. Damage after Edouard was fairly minor, totaling to $250,000.

Tropical Storm Fay was a tropical storm and the sixth named storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. Fay formed from a vigorous tropical wave on August 15 over the Dominican Republic. It passed over the island of Hispaniola, into the Gulf of Gonâve, across the island of Cuba, and made landfall on the Florida Keys late in the afternoon of August 18 before veering into the Gulf of Mexico. It again made landfall near Naples, Florida, in the early hours of August 19 and progressed northeast through the Florida peninsula, emerging into the Atlantic Ocean near Melbourne on August 20. Extensive flooding took place in parts of Florida as a result of its slow movement. On August 21, it made landfall again near New Smyrna Beach, Florida, moving due west across the Panhandle, crossing Gainesville and Panama City, Florida. As it zigzagged from water to land, it became the first storm in recorded history to make landfall in Florida four times.[1] Thirty-six deaths were blamed on Fay.[2] Eleven tornadoes were spawned within the United States due to Fay. Damage from Fay was heavy, estimated at $560 million.[3]

On August 15, the weather disturbance that would become Fay made landfall on Hispaniola. The system developed into a tropical storm while producing heavy rains on the island, prompting a major flash flood threat. The storm caused minor damage in Dominican Republic including falling trees and flooding, this caused most of the flights into and out of the country to be canceled.[34] At least four people were killed after being swept away by flood waters in the Dominican Republic.[35]

In Haiti, Fay's winds and rainfall damaged the agricultural sector, including rice fields and banana crops. One person died after being swept away by flood-waters while trying to cross a swollen river.[36] Two infants were killed when a bus flipped in Haiti.[37] In total, ten deaths were blamed on Fay in Haiti.[38]

In Jamaica, one person was killed as a result of a vehicle being swept away in flood waters.[35] In total, 15 people died in the Caribbean.[2] [edit] Florida Tropical Storm Fay approaching Florida

During seven days in Florida, August 18–24, 2008, eleven people died and thousands of homes plus roads were damaged, from 60 mph (97 km/h) winds and rain waters up to 5 feet (1.5 m) deep,[citation needed] with flooded rivers or tornadoes, as Fay traveled through the entire state. Making initial landfall in the Florida Keys and coming ashore again in the Naples area, Fay then crossed the state and exited near New Smyrna Beach, coming onshore again near St. Augustine and Jacksonville, crossing the Panhandle and finally leaving the Pensacola area into Alabama, early on August 24. Returning from Mississippi towards Tennessee, Fay continued to dump heavy rains around Pensacola, Tallahassee, and Panama City, Florida even during August 25. Flooding in east-central Florida

While Fay was moving across South-Central Florida, a tornado, rated EF2 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale,[39] took place after landfall in Wellington, Florida, where significant damage was reported including doors and windows blown off houses, many trees knocked down and reports of a weak building destroyed.[40] Another tornado damaged 51 homes with nine of them rendered uninhabitable in Barefoot Bay.[41] According to the St. Lucie County Public Safety Department, about 8,000 homes were damaged from flooding.[42] The city of Melbourne shattered a 50-year-old rainfall record after receiving 11 inches (28 cm) of rain in a 24 hour period.[43] About 80 neighborhoods in Melbourne were flooded, and a "couple hundred" homes in southeast Melbourne were filled with three to four feet of water, according to a press statement.[44] One neighborhood was particularly hard hit: Lamplighter Village along John Rodes Boulevard in Melbourne, FL. The flooding was so extensive that Governor Charlie Crist personally visited the neighborhood to assess the damage. A tornado touched down in Stuart on U.S. 1 at Monroe Street, flipping a truck and damaging a gas station.[45] A 28-year-old kite surfer was critically injured in Fort Lauderdale when winds associated with a Tropical Storm Fay feeder band slammed him face-first into the ground and then dragged him through streets until he hit a building, which was filmed by a WFOR camera crew.[46] Flooding on Merritt Island, Florida during Tropical Storm Fay

Areas of the state received up to 25 inches (64 cm) of rain, causing serious flooding. Native wildlife, including alligators, were seen in flooded neighborhoods after high water forced them from their habitat. Hundreds of homes were flooded in Brevard and St. Lucie counties; some locations were inundated with up to 5 feet (1.5 m) of standing water.[47] Early estimates from Brevard county show $10 to $12 million in damages to homes and infrastructure.[44] Tropical Storm Fay resulted in the drowning of one person swimming off Neptune Beach and another swimmer in Duval County. Meanwhile, another 3 were killed in traffic accidents.[48] On August 21, President George W. Bush declared the entire state of Florida a Federal Disaster Area.[49] Seminole County also got hard hit by floods. Seminole County Public Schools were closed due to many roads being impassable. Many rivers in the county such as the St. Johns River, the Econlockhatchee River, and the Little Econlockhatchee River jumped their banks. Riverside Park in Oviedo is under four feet of flood water due to the Little Econlockhatchee River. On the evening of August 22, a tornado damaged four homes and a bridge in Lake Wales.[50]

After moving into the Florida Panhandle, five more people were killed as a result of Fay in Florida (all indirect),[51] including an electrocution which happened to an electrical worker doing repairs in Gadsden County.[52] [edit] Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi

Heavy rain was also reported in parts of Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. A young boy was killed in Grady County, Georgia when he was swept away in a drainage ditch by floodwaters.[53] Another drowning death took place in Elmore County, Alabama as a result of the weakening Fay.[54] On August 22, 2008, radio station WNUZ, located in Alabama, "suffered direct lightning strikes" during Fay which resulted in "the complete destruction of the station's transmitter" and caused unspecified damage to other electrical broadcast equipment at the station.[55] The station applied to the FCC for authority to stay silent while their engineers repaired or replaced the damaged gear and evaluated the station's other equipment. On December 24, 2008, WNUZ was granted permission to remain off the air until no later than June 22, 2009.[55][56]

Fay persisted as a tropical storm from its first landfall until weakening to a tropical depression on August 23. It eventually weakened to a remnant low over Alabama on August 26, from which 8 tornadoes were spawned in Alabama and 6 in Georgia, injuring two in Commerce, Georgia.[57][58]

High winds damaged the water tower in Midway, Alabama, compounding problems the town was experiencing with its water wells. A loan from the National Rural Water Association and assistance from Alabama Rural Water Association allowed Midway to make repairs and maintain the water supply.[59] The heavy and persistent rains associated with Fay, however, helped to temporarily alleviate extreme drought conditions over northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and eastern Tennessee.[60] [edit] Elsewhere

Heavy rains in Tennessee triggered flash flooding throughout eastern portions of the state.[61] In Shelby County, flooding covered several cars, trapping several people. In all, Fay caused $20,000 in damages in Tennessee.[62] Rains in South Carolina caused a bridge York County to collapse, leaving $100,000 in damages.[63] Severe flooding in North Carolina, particularly in Mecklenburg County damaged numerous homes. Near Charlotte, 148 buildings sustained major damage from floodwaters and numerous roads were shut down due to high waters. Damage in Mecklenburg alone amounted to $8.5 million.[64] In Cabarrus County, 14 swift water rescues were undertaken due to cars stranded in flooded roads. About 70 homes were damaged in the county, leaving $1 million in damages.[65] Damages to roads in county were estimated at $5.5 million.[66] In all, caused roughly $15 million in North Carolina.[64][65][66]

[Affects New Montgomery, Selma, Toccoa, Blue Ridge, Piedmont]

Hurricane Gustav (pronounced /ˈgʊstɑːv/) was the second most destructive hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm was the seventh tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season. Gustav caused serious damage and casualties in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Cuba and the United States. Gustav caused at least $6.6 billion (2008 USD) in damages.[1] Gustav triggered the largest evacuation in United States history. More than 3 million people fled the oncoming hurricane.[2]

It formed on the morning of August 25, 2008, about 260 miles (420 km) southeast of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and rapidly strengthened into a tropical storm that afternoon and into a hurricane early on August 26. Later that day it made landfall near the Haitian town of Jacmel. It inundated Jamaica and ravaged Western Cuba and then steadily moved across the Gulf of Mexico.[3][4]

Once into the Gulf, Gustav gradually weakened because of increased wind shear and dry air. It weakened to a Category 2 hurricane late on August 31, and remained at that intensity until landfall on the morning of September 1 near Cocodrie, Louisiana.[5] Weakening continued, and Gustav weakened to a tropical storm that evening and to a tropical depression the next day as it meandered around the south-central US. The weak system became extratropical on September 4 and was absorbed by another low on September 5.[5]

In total, an estimated 153 deaths had been attributed to Gustav in the U.S. and Caribbean. Damage in the U.S. totaled to $4.3 billion (2008 USD)[6] with additional damage of $2.1 billion in Cuba[7] and $210 million in damage in Jamaica.[8]

Hispaniola

In the Dominican Republic, a landslide in a rural area killed eight people.[92] Two persons were injured. Government authorities said that some 67,255 persons were evacuated and more than 1,239 homes were damaged with 12 destroyed. 50 communities were isolated by the flooding.[93]

Gustav made landfall in Haiti at approximately 1 p.m. EDT on August 26, about 10 miles (16 km) west of the city of Jacmel.[94] While inland, Gustav's rains triggered a landslide in the community of Benet which killed one person.[95] Two more were killed in southwestern Haiti when their house collapsed. Another two deaths were caused by an explosion inside a house, thought to be possibly related to Hurricane Gustav.[96] The southern town of Jacmel, where the hurricane made landfall, was bisected by floodwaters.[52]

According to Haiti's National Director of Civil Protection, 77 people died as a result of the hurricane.[5] Some 2,100 houses were destroyed and another 8,150 damaged, causing an estimated 7,200 people to live in temporary shelters, including churches, community centers and schools.[97] At least some 3,500 other families, 20,000 people, are affected, but when information becomes available it is thought that the actual number may be 25,000–30,000 families.[93] [edit] Jamaica

In Jamaica, 15 deaths were reported after Gustav swept through the area as a tropical storm.[5] Flash flooding was also reported on the island as a result of Gustav's heavy rains.[98] The banana sector in the parishes of St. Thomas, St. Mary and Portland suffered significant damage.[99] The Hope River Bridge linking the capital Kingston with the eastern reaches of the city including Harbour View and St. Thomas collapsed and the Georgia bridge in Portland was destroyed. Jamaica's government ministry initially estimated US$41.8 million in damage to the road infrastructure in the country.[100] Total damage in Jamaica was estimated at $210 million.[5] [edit] Cayman Islands

In the Cayman Islands, Gustav's heavy rains and storm surge flooded the streets of Cayman Brac and Little Cayman, the smaller easternmost "Sister Islands" in the chain. More than 1,100 people spent the night in government shelters in the three islands as high waves and heavy winds battered the chain, the National Emergency Operations Center said in a statement. Most people waited out the storm in private homes or hotels.[101] [edit] Cuba Waters churned up by Hurricane Gustav off the coast of Northern Cuba

On Saturday August 30, 2008, Gustav made landfall on mainland Cuba near the community of Los Palacios in Pinar del Río—a region that produces much of the tobacco used to make the nation's famed cigars. In Los Palacios some 7,000 homes were roofless and many with their walls collapsed. The rice and banana farms sustained much damage.[102]

At least 300,000 people were evacuated from Gustav's path as 140 mph (220 km/h) winds toppled telephone poles and fruit trees, shattered windows and tore off the tin rooves of homes. Cuban authorities declared that Gustav is the worst hurricane to hit the country in 50 years. Authorities called the storm damage the worst since 1956. The 211 mph (341 km/h) wind gusts registered in the city of Paso Real de San Diego were the highest in Cuba's history, according to the provincial newspaper, the Guerrillero. Winds were so strong that the weather station instruments broke.[103] Gustav is considered Cuba's worst hurricane in 45 years, the last hurricane that was worse than Gustav for Cuba was Hurricane Flora in 1963, which was the deadliest Cuban storm since the 1932 Cuba Hurricane.

Cuban Civil defense authorities initially stated that there were "many people injured" on Isla de la Juventud, an island of 87,000 people south of the mainland. Nearly all the island's roads were washed out and some regions were heavily flooded. No fatalities have been reported in Cuba, despite the extreme damage.[5][29]

By September 3, Cuba's President Raul Castro said that 20,000 of the 25,000 houses on Isla de la Juventud were damaged. More than 90,000 homes were damaged in the western province of Pinar del Río according to government news agency AIN. 3,306 tobacco houses were destroyed, with 906 tons of tobacco leaves wet. More than 32,000 acres (130 km2) of crops were ruined, including 7,239 acres (29.30 km2) of grain and nearly 1,500 of fruit. 42,000 cans of coffee were destroyed, and 3,100 tons of grapefruit lost. 930,000 chickens had to be euthanized.[104]

According to Pinar del Río civil defense authorities, 86,000 homes were damaged, 80 electric towers and 600 electric posts fell. Cuba's electric company, indicated that a total of 136 electric towers toppled over and that the electrical grid on Isla de la Juventud was 100% damaged.[105] In all, damage from Hurricane Gustav totaled $2.1 billion in Cuba.[7] [edit] United States Total rainfall from Gustav in the United States Tipped and flooded home, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana.

Although the storm was still in its formative stages on August 26,[16] fears that Hurricane Gustav might eventually disrupt oil production in the Gulf of Mexico caused oil prices to rise.[37][94][106] On August 27, U.S. oil and natural-gas companies began evacuating personnel from their oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico amid continued forecasts that Gustav would strengthen and move into the gulf.[107] By August 30, 76.77% of oil production and 37.16% of natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico had been shut in.[108] By mid-day August 31, 96% of oil production had stopped.[109] Out at sea, one death was reported.[5] [edit] Louisiana

In the state of Louisiana, 34 parishes were declared as disaster areas.[110] Hurricane Gustav reached the Louisiana coast on the morning of September 1, making landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana (see rainfall map); however, at 9 a.m. wind speed at Grand Isle had been 115 mph (185 km/h),[111] the highest eyewall speed, indicating the eyewall had traveled over 4 hours along the coast. The center of the storm continued northwest across the state, so damage and deaths were widespread in many areas.

48 deaths in the state of Louisiana were blamed on Hurricane Gustav. Five were due to falling trees, two due to a tornado and the rest were indirect deaths.[5]

After Gustav weakened to a tropical depression, several tornadoes were spawned including one (rated EF2) that killed two near Mamou during the early hours of September 3. The tornado also injured two others.[112] Hurricane Gustav just after U.S. landfall.

In Baton Rouge, wind damage from Gustav was the worst of any storm in memory. The damage was severe enough to effectively shut the city down for several days. Most businesses remained closed through September 5, five days after landfall. Power lines along Baton Rouge's tree-lined streets were easily brought down as thousands of trees were uprooted and snapped in half by Gustav's fierce winds. Entire sections of the city were cut off by the mountains of debris. Few homes escaped roof damage as the storm passed over the capital city. Many signs were blown down, including a large portion of the Interstate 10 Highland Road/Nicholson Drive exit sign, which blew off of the Bridge and into the Mississippi River. It would be two weeks before power was restored to all residents. Debris cleanup was still ongoing at the end of 2008, four months after the storm had passed.

Around 1.5 million people were without power in Louisiana on September 1.[113] The state reported about 100,000 people remained on the coast, after evacuation.[66] Nearly 2 million people had evacuated from south Louisiana in the days before Gustav's arrival.[66]

The city of New Orleans had the official reopening date on Thursday (Sept. 4),[114] after crews had restored most electric power and other services.[114] Damage assessments came as residents returned to inspect their properties. Damage included numerous trees down in various locations, such as around some Marriott hotels,[115] and large tree limbs were broken from oak trees along St. Charles Avenue.[66] Millions of smaller branches were scattered throughout neighborhoods, blown by the strong winds. Area hotels planned to reopen the week of September 8, some by Saturday, September 6 (such as the InterContinental & 16 area Marriotts, which already had electricity restored).[115] The Associated Press[66] reported on the floodwall along the Industrial Canal (the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal), which connects Lake Pontchartrain to the Mississippi River, and is susceptible to surges via the Gulf Outlet. High water splashed over the floodwalls onto new splash guards (designed to prevent foundation erosion), but the walls were not breached.[66] Minor street flooding began in the upper Ninth Ward of New Orleans.


The community of Houma, Louisiana and the surrounding area in south-central Louisiana sustained extensive wind damage. The winds blew off many rooves, blew windows out of houses and knocked down many trees and left much of the region without power.[111] Shingles and awnings were scattered throughout downtown Houma.[111] At Ellender High in Houma, the school's new gym was heavily damaged, with a rear wall collapsed.[111] The roof of the Houma-Terrebonne Chamber of Commerce was also blown away. Overall, the area was considered to have dodged a bullet. Had the storm come ashore farther west, the Intracoastal Waterway would have been a highway for storm surge to penetrate into the heart of Houma.[111] However, flooding was relatively minor in the region.[111] Flooding in front of a sign in New Iberia, Louisiana.

Central Louisiana was also hard hit. Many trees and power lines were knocked down in that region as well, and many houses sustained damage from the winds and localized flooding. Part of the roof at the Alexandria Mall collapsed. Two people died in the region — one was electrocuted and one had a tree crush her trailer.[116] The area's water supply was also hampered as power was knocked out to most of the water wells in the Alexandria and Pineville areas.[117]

Damage and significant power outages were reported as far north as northern Louisiana, in the Interstate 20 corridor.[118] Highest rainfall totals received thus far across the state include 16.37 inches (416 mm) near Bunkie, Louisiana,[119] and 19.17 inches (487 mm) at Barataria Bay Pass.[120][121][122]

President Bush declared 34 Louisiana parishes as disaster areas and visited the area on September 3.[110]

On Wednesday, September 3, field staff and emergency supplies from the Arkansas Rural Water Association departed to assist the Louisiana Rural Water Association restore water and wastewater service to impacted communities.[123] Staff and supplies from other state associations, including Alabama, Mississippi and Florida went on stand-by the same day. By Friday, September 5, response teams from Arkansas, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi were assisting efforts to restore water and wastewater service. There was little structural damage to the water infrastructure, with power loss the primary difficulty.[124] Rural water teams provided 771 on-site technical assistance visits to 370 affected water and wastewater systems. Later, the LRWA efforts received applause from the Louisiana Joint Select Committee on Homeland Security.[125]

The LSU football team postponed their game, scheduled for September 6, against Troy University and rescheduled it for November 15 after damage was caused to Tiger Stadium. The swirling wind in the stadium tore awnings, threw team benches from the sidelines of the playing field into the stands and littered the stadium with debris.[126] [edit] Mississippi and Alabama Waves crash against a stop sign in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, as Hurricane Gustav hits the Gulf Coast. Wind damage to the landmark Eola Hotel in Natchez, Mississippi.

The National Weather Service reported 14 confirmed tornadoes spun by Gustav from Biloxi to Mobile. All during September 1, numerous tornado warnings (more than 100) were issued from Mobile all the way to Natchez, Mississippi, based on radar-rotation patterns that indicated strong circulating winds.[citation needed]

In Mississippi, damage from Gustav was far less severe than that caused by Hurricane Katrina, with its 2005 storm surge of 27 ft (7 m); however, Gustav's storm surge was high as 15 feet (4.5 m) in places on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Sections of U.S. Route 90 (including Gulfport and Biloxi) were flooded and some houses were flooded.[127] Two people from Metairie, Louisiana died near Vicksburg in an automobile accident while evacuating from the storm.[128]

In Alabama, scattered damage already reached multi-million dollar levels, with the destruction of the Dauphin Island berm (sand dune barrier) by storm surge waves,[129] flood damage to island roads & homes,[129] and extensive flooding around Bayou La Batre. The manmade sand berm took about two years to complete, and there is no official plan yet to construct another berm for Dauphin Island,[129] which acts as a barrier island for the western Alabama coastline at Mobile Bay.[129] A fuller assessment of damage can be expected when more residents return to the coastal areas and further insurance claims are filed. [edit] Florida

The state of Florida was affected by both the Cuba landfall, with Gustav traveling past the Florida Keys, and the Louisiana landfall (September 1), affecting the Florida panhandle, with storm surge and outer band tornadoes and thunderstorms. Several tornado warnings were issued around the Pensacola area. Panhandle beaches had rip currents,[130] and officials in Pensacola Beach had been passing out pamphlets warning of deadly rip currents that could continue for days.[130] Four people died in rip currents on Florida beaches.[5]

The USS Oriskany, now an artificial reef off the coast of Pensacola, shifted 10 feet deeper leaving the flight deck at 145 feet (44 m) following Gustav.[131]

Four people died in a car accident on Interstate 20 near Carrollton, Georgia while evacuating from Louisiana. Two other people in the car were alive and airlifted to nearby hospitals.[132] [edit] Arkansas

Because of Gustav's slow motion across northwest Louisiana and Arkansas on September 2 and September 3, significant rainfall accumulation was seen statewide. The maximum amount in Arkansas was at Hamburg, where 11.25 inches (286 mm) had fallen,[133] making Gustav the third wettest tropical cyclone to affect the state since 1972.[134] [edit] Texas

Especially affected was the small southeast Texas coastal town of Bridge City where nearly the entire town received heavy water damage.

[Affects La, Ar, Ms, Mo]

Hurricane Hanna was the deadliest storm of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season.[1] The storm was the eighth tropical cyclone and fourth hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. It formed east-northeast of the northern Leeward Islands on August 28. The cyclone struck Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, before moving up the Eastern Seaboard to become an extratropical cyclone as it moved by New England into Atlantic Canada early on September 7. The system raced across the North Atlantic, sweeping west of Great Britain on September 10 before turning north and becoming absorbed by a stronger extratropical cyclone between Iceland and Greenland late on September 12. At least 537 deaths were reported (the final death toll will likely never be known), mostly due to flooding in the northern part of Haiti, making it the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin since Hurricane Stan in 2005. Hanna also caused $160 million in damages to the U.S, but damage in Haiti is unknown.

Hispaniola Storm total rainfall from Hanna in the United States and Canada

Haiti, already rain-saturated by Fay and Gustav, was hit hard by flooding and mudslides from several days of heavy rainfall, particularly in the city of Gonaïves which also suffered catastrophic damage in 2004 from Hurricane Jeanne. Nearly the entire city was flooded with water as high as two meters (6.6 feet) deep, and some people had to be rescued on their rooves.[23] In Les Cayes, a hospital had to be evacuated as it was swamped by flood water. At least 5,000 people there were moved to public shelters due to the flooding.[24] The United Nations have ordered relief convoys to the hard-hit region, including rafts to help rescue victims.[25] As of late on September 4, Haiti's government said the death toll from Tropical Storm Hanna had increased to at least 529, with most of the deaths coming in the flooded port city of Gonaïves, where the destruction was described as "catastrophic" and 495 bodies were discovered as of late on September 5.[26][27] Haitian authorities said the tally could grow once officials are able to make their way through Gonaïves. "The assessment is only partial, because it is impossible to enter the city for the moment", Gonaïves Mayor Stephen Moise said.[22] In the aftermath of Hanna at least 48,000 from the Gonaïves areas went to shelters. Some people slept on the rooves of their house to protect them from looters. The catastrophe has left many homeless begging for food and clothes. Others had left for the mountains hoping to wait out the next storms on the horizon.[28] People are starting to get frustrated with the assistance that has come. Very little aid has come from international organizations. Bridges north and south of Gonaïves collapsed and the roads are swampy lakes and it is extremely difficult to get to the city by road.[28]

[Affects Georgetown, Delmarva, Vermont, Maine]

Hurricane Ike (pronounced /ˈaɪk/) was the largest hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin[1] and the third most destructive hurricane to ever make landfall in the United States. It was the ninth named storm, fifth hurricane and third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season.[2][3] It was a Cape Verde-type hurricane, as it started as a tropical disturbance near Africa at the end of August. On September 1, 2008, it became a tropical storm west of the Cape Verde islands.[4][5] By the early morning hours of September 4, Ike was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a pressure of 935 mbar (27.61 inHg).[6] That made it the most intense Atlantic storm of 2008. Ike passed over the Turks and Caicos Islands as Category 4, with winds 135 mph (217 km/h) on September 7. Moving west along Cuba, it made 2 landfalls as a Category 4 hurricane on September 7 and a Category 1 hurricane on September 9. Ike made its final landfall over Galveston, Texas as a strong Category 2 hurricane, with Category 5 equivalent storm surge, on September 13, 2008 at 2:10 a.m. CDT. Hurricane-force winds extended 120 miles (193 km) from the center.[inconsistent]

Ike was blamed for at least 195 deaths. Of these, 74 were in Haiti, which was already trying to recover from the impact of three storms earlier that year: Fay, Gustav, and Hanna. In the United States, 112 people were killed, and over 300 are still missing.[3][7] Due to its immense size, Ike caused devastation from the Louisiana coastline all the way to the Kenedy County, Texas region near Corpus Christi, Texas.[8] In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippi coastline and the Florida Panhandle[9] Damages from Ike in US coastal and inland areas are estimated at $24 billion (2008 USD), with additional damage of $7.3 billion in Cuba, $200 million in the Bahamas, and $500 million in the Turks and Caicos, amounting to a total of $32 billion in damages. Ike was the third costliest Atlantic hurricane of all time, behind Hurricane Andrew of 1992 and Hurricane Katrina of 2005.[3] The hurricane also resulted in the largest evacuation of Texans in that state's history. It also became the largest search and rescue operation in U.S. history.[10]

Impact Fatalities by country Country Deaths Missing Haiti 74 ??? Dominican Republic 2 ??? Cuba 7 ??? United States 112 34 Total 195 34 [edit] Turks and Caicos Islands Numerous hurricane-damaged houses, buildings, and structures were still to be found in early January 2009 on Grand Turk.[60] Grand Turk damage

Power was lost throughout Grand Turk Island,[61] 95% of the houses were damaged, one-fifth of which was significant damage. There was also significant structural damage to rooves and buildings containing health services resulting in the disruption of most health services. Pharmacy stores, and supplies facilities received major damage or total destruction. Water and electricity were also disrupted but now has been restored. There was some damage to the clinic on Salt Cay. In North Caicos and Middle Caicos, there was either no damage or minimal damage to the clinic. Meanwhile in South Caicos, 95% of the houses were also damaged, with over one-third significantly damaged or destroyed. Damage also occurred on other islands, pockets of which were significant, but in general, damage was minor.[62] After the eye of the storm passed over, it continued west at 15 mph (24 km/h) headed directly for eastern Cuba.[63][64] Buildings on the islands have been severely weakened and 750 people have lost their homes.[65] Due to the extent and magnitude of damage and affected population, the Government of the Turks and Caicos declared Grand Turk and South Caicos Islands disaster areas.[66] Total damages in the Turks and Caicos Islands were estimated at $500 million. [edit] Hispaniola

The outer bands of Ike caused additional flooding in Haiti, which was already devastated by Hanna and also hit hard by Fay and Gustav. The last bridge still standing into the city of Gonaïves was washed away, slowing relief in the community considerably and creating a deeper humanitarian and food crisis in the hard-hit region. 74 deaths were reported in Haiti from Ike,[67] of which most were in the coastal community of Cabaret which was swept away by floodwaters and mudslides.[68] Haitian Prime Minister Michèle Pierre-Louis called for help at the end of the week, saying that four storms in three weeks have left over 550 dead and as many as one million homeless.[69] She also said that parts of Gonaïves were so severely damaged that the city may have to be rebuilt elsewhere.[69] [edit] Cuba Costliest Cuban hurricanes Cost refers to total estimated property damage. Rank Hurricane Season Cost (2008 USD) 1 Ike 2008 $7.3 billion[70] 2 Michelle 2001 $2.2 billion[71] 3 Flora 1963 $2.1 billion [72] Gustav 2008 $2.1 billion[70] 5 Dennis 2005 $1.5 billion[73]


Search Wikinews Wikinews has related news: Hurricane Ike makes landfall on Cuba

Just over one million Cubans had been evacuated on Sunday, officials said.[citation needed] In Baracoa, 200 homes were reported to be destroyed and waves were running 23 ft (7 m) high and peaked at 40 ft (12 m) in different areas of Cuba. The Category 3 hurricane made landfall on September 8 on the north coast of eastern Cuba in the province of Holguin near Puerto de Sama, with sustained winds of about 120 mph (193 km/h),[74][75] causing widespread flooding and damage to the eastern provinces.[citation needed] It passed across the central provinces of Holguin, Las Tunas, and Camagüey, emerging over the sea to the south of Cuba during September 8. Ike had dropped to a Category One by the time it crossed the island.[76] It then followed the southern coast of Cuba and crossed the western end of the island in Pinar del Rio Province, close to the path taken by Hurricane Gustav ten days previously. Another 1.6 million people had evacuated in advance of its second landfall. The western areas of Cuba, already devastated by Hurricane Gustav just 10 days before Ike hit, suffered additional major flooding from the rain and storm surge.[77] The sugar cane crop was devastated, with over 3400 sq km (1,300 sq mi) destroyed. Alongside Gustav, they were described as the "worst ever" storms by Cuban officials.[78]

In total, seven people were killed in Cuba from Ike.[77] The combined damage estimate from Ike and Gustav, and succeeding Paloma is about $9.7 billion (USD), with $7.3 billion of that from Ike, making Ike the most destructive hurricane in Cuban history.[70] [edit] United States Radar animation of Ike at landfall Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes Cost refers to total estimated property damage. Rank Hurricane Season Cost (2008 USD) 1 Katrina 2005 $89.6 billion 2 Andrew 1992 $40.7 billion 3 Ike 2008 $24.0 billion 4 Wilma 2005 $22.7 billion 5 Charley 2004 $18.6 billion Main article: List of costliest Atlantic hurricanes

Due to the intensity of the storm, Texas closed many of its chemical plants and oil refineries. Because much of the United States oil refining capacity is located in Texas, the closings caused a temporary increase in the prices of gasoline, home heating oil, and natural gas.[79] Increases were particularly high in North Carolina, especially in the mountains, where average prices were as much as 60 cents higher than the national average.[80] The closing of refineries so soon after Hurricane Gustav, and the time required to restart production, also resulted in shortages of gasoline in such places as the Carolinas and Tennessee, partly as a result of panic buying.[81] Preliminary post-storm damage estimates in the US were placed at 18 billion US dollars (2008) as stated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.[82] Eighty-two deaths have been reported in the US, including forty-eight in Texas, eight in Louisiana, one in Arkansas, two in Tennessee, one in Kentucky, seven in Indiana, four in Missouri, two in Illinois, two in Michigan, seven in Ohio and one in Pennsylvania,[83] although there are 202 missing.[84][85][86][87][88][89] On September 15, 2008 the United States Congress held a moment of silence for those who died in the hurricane. [edit] MV Antalina

On September 11, the 584-foot (178 m) cargo ship, the MV Antalina, was among the ships that left Port Arthur to avoid the hurricane. The ship had a crew of 22 and carried a cargo of petroleum coke. However, on September 12, the ship's engine failed and the ship was adrift 90 nautical miles (170 km) from the shore. The crew first attempted to repair the engine but was unable to do so. The crew requested to be evacuated by the Coast Guard, but the rescue mission was aborted because weather conditions were not within the safety parameters. The crew was forced to ride out the storm, but kept in contact with the Coast Guard.[90][91] The ship successfully rode out the storm and all 22 crew members were uninjured. On September 13, a tugboat was dispatched to return the vessel to port.[92] [edit] Louisiana A Coast Guard helicopter flying over New Iberia, Louisiana

The storm surge ahead of Ike blew onshore onto the coast of Louisiana well ahead of Ike's predicted landfall in Texas on September 13. Areas in coastal south-central and southwestern Louisiana, some of which were flooded by Gustav, were re-flooded as a result of Ike.[93] Some areas which had not yet recovered from Gustav power outages received additional outages,[94] to the tune of 200,000.[95] The hardest-hit areas were in and around Cameron Parish, which also sustained catastrophic damage in 2005 from Hurricane Rita and in 1957 from Hurricane Audrey. Nearly every sq in of the coastline in that area was flooded heavily once again, with floodwaters reaching as far north as Lake Charles. Hundreds of people had to be rescued,[96] including 363 people who were rescued by Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Search and Rescue teams in conjunction with the Louisiana National Guard and the U.S. Coast Guard.[97]

One person was killed in a flooded bayou in Terrebonne Parish,[98] and a wind-related death was reported near Houma.[99] Two other deaths took place in a car crash in the evacuation phase in Iberville Parish,[100] and two other storm related deaths in Jefferson Davis Parish were caused by natural causes.[99] While doing repairs, two energy-company contractors from Oklahoma were electrocuted.[101] [edit] Texas Main article: Effects of Hurricane Ike in Texas Damage from Ike in Gilchrist, which was largely destroyed by the hurricane

On the morning of September 13, 2008, the eye of Hurricane Ike approached the upper Texas coast, making landfall at 2:10 a.m. CDT over the east end of Galveston Island, with a high storm surge, and travelled north up Galveston Bay, along the east side of Houston [102] (see storm-path image). People in low-lying areas who had not heeded evacuation orders, in single-family one- or two-story homes, were warned by the weather service that they may "face certain death" from the overnight storm surge,[55] a statement that turned out to be true for some unable to evacuate.[103]

In regional Texas towns, electrical power began failing on September 12 before 8 p.m. CDT,[55] leaving millions without power (estimates range from 2.8 million[104] to 4.5 million [105] customers). Grocery store shelves in the Houston area were left empty for weeks in the aftermath of the storm.[106] Flood waters begin to rise in a neighborhood of Bayou Vista, Texas.

In Galveston, by 4 p.m. CDT (2100 UTC) on September 12, the rising storm surge began overtopping the 17-ft (5.2 m) Galveston Seawall, which faces the Gulf of Mexico;[55] waves had been crashing along the seawall earlier, from 9 a.m. CDT.[107] Although Seawall Boulevard is elevated above the shoreline, many areas of town slope down behind the seawall to the lower elevation of Galveston Island.

Even though there were advance evacuation plans, Mary Jo Naschke, spokesperson for the city of Galveston, estimated that (as of Friday morning) a quarter of the city's residents paid no attention to calls for them to evacuate, despite predictions that most of Galveston Island would suffer heavy flooding storm tide.[107] By 6 p.m. Friday night, estimates varied as to how many of the 58,000 residents remained, but the figures of remaining residents were in the thousands.[108] Widespread flooding included downtown Galveston:[102] six ft (2 m) deep inside the Galveston County Courthouse, and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston was flooded.[102] Tourist attractions on the island suffered various degrees of damage. The Lone Star Flight Museum suffered massive damage, as the storm surge washed through the airport and hangars with about 8 feet of water,[109] and the recently completed Schlitterbahn Water Park was still closed in November 2008;[110] however, Moody Gardens was built with storms in mind and was able to withstand the worst of the storm.[111] Flooding in Galveston, Texas

In Houston, windows also broke in downtown buildings, such as the 75-story JP Morgan Chase Tower,[102] and Reliant Stadium was damaged. Also as a result of the high wind and eye wall that passed directly through the city, power outages were a major problem, as some residents were without electricity for over a month after landfall. Some parts of Houston were not expected to have power until November 1. Luckily, since the storm system moved rapidly and did not linger over Houston, flooding wasn't a major problem for most of the city, as it normally is as a result of the geography.[102] Due to the damage to the stadium, the Houston Texans' game with the Baltimore Ravens, originally scheduled for September 14, was pushed back to November 9.[112] Hurricane Ike affected the Houston Astros' late dash for Major League Baseball's playoffs, postponing Friday, Saturday, and Sunday's games against the Chicago Cubs. [113] Two of the games were moved to Milwaukee's Miller Park and were played Sunday September 14 and Monday September 15.[114] In the September 14 game, Cubs pitcher Carlos Zambrano threw a no-hitter.[115]The final game was tentatively scheduled for Monday September 29 in Houston. The Astros were eliminated from playoff contention on September 26, and the game was officially canceled as it would not affect post-season standings.[116] Windows were broken throughout the JPMorgan Chase Tower.

On Bolivar Peninsula, Texas dozens of people were rescued as flood waters exceeded 12 feet (3.7 m) above sea level in advance of the hurricane. The peninsula bore the brunt of Ike's right-front quadrant, historically the worst part of a hurricane, and experienced catastrophic damage with the worst being between Rollover Pass and Gilchrist, Texas - west of High Island.[117] Media estimates of lost homes exceeded 80% and could top 95%.[118] A large number of people who did not evacuate in advance of the storm remain unaccounted for.

The Southeast Texas communities of Bridge City on Sabine Lake and large areas of nearby Orange (80 miles from the center of landfall) were inundated by the storm surge. Bridge City mayor Kirk Roccaforte estimated that only about 14 (later updated to around two dozen) homes in the city were unaffected by the surge.[119]

Waterfront areas of Clear Lake were flooded, with floating debris battering homes and blocking some streets, such as in the Kemah area.

NASA's Johnson Space Center suffered minor roof damage to Mission Control and minor cosmetic damage to some of its other buildings. NASA's operations at Ellington Field also sustained roof and awning damage,[120] and one hangar was severely damaged.

University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), the primary hospital in Galveston county, was dealt significant damage due to Hurricane Ike. (http://www.aamc.org/newsroom/reporter/march09/ike.htm) Wide scale flooding caused failures to all facilities systems and allowed mold to invade all the buildings. All students at the UTMB medical center were transferred to other Texas medical schools immediately after the storm while determinations were made about the future of the hospital and medical school. November 12, 2008 saw thirty percent of the employees terminated in a reduction in force. (http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/front/6109613.html) As of March 2009 only 1200 employees were currently employed and being paid. Another 1200 employees are on unpaid administrative leave. All emergency facilities were moved to the Houston medical center. It wasn't until August 1, 2009 that UTMB's emergency room was reopened.

As a historical comparison, on September 8, 1900 the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 landed along a path similar to Ike's, bringing with it a storm surge that inundated most of Galveston Island, which was Texas' largest city and a major U.S. port. As a result, much of the city was destroyed, and at least 6,000 people were killed in a few hours. Engineers subsequently increased the average elevation of the island by 4 ft (1.2 m) and constructed a 17-foot (5.2-m) seawall to block incoming waves.

[Affected East Texas, Missouri]

Hurricane Paloma was the seventeenth tropical cyclone, sixteenth tropical storm, eighth hurricane and fifth major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. It was a late season hurricane, setting several records for its intensity and formation. Paloma was the second most powerful November hurricane on record in the Atlantic Basin, behind only 1999's Lenny. It also marked the first time that at least 1 major hurricane formed in every month of the hurricane season from July to November, with only June not having a major hurricane this season.

Paloma developed out of a strong tropical disturbance off the eastern coast of Nicaragua and northern coast of Honduras on November 5. The disturbance had slowly developed into a tropical depression while hugging the coastline. The depression strengthened into a tropical storm early on November 6, then a hurricane later that day. The next day, Paloma intensified into a Category 2 hurricane then soon a Category 3. Early on November 8, Paloma continued to intensify and reached Category 4 intensity, and then weakened rapidly into a Category 2 before making landfall in Santa Cruz del Sur, Cuba.[1] Paloma weakened into a tropical storm on November 9 while moving over Cuba, where it stalled out. It dissipated later that evening. Hurricane Paloma caused heavy damage in both the Cayman Islands and Cuba. Damages in the Caymans amounted to $15 million (USD),[2] and damages in Cuba totaled to $300 million (USD), and $100,000 in damage to Jamaica, for a total of $315 million (USD), with 1 fatality.[3][4]

Impact [edit] Honduras and Nicaragua

As Paloma strengthened into a hurricane, outer bands of the storm produced heavy rains over parts of coastal Honduras and Nicaragua.[14] TRMM satellites estimated that Paloma dropped upwards of 8 inches (200 mm) of rain along the coastline.[15] The rains in Honduras left several thousand people homeless, with at least 70,000 people left homeless after other storms during the year.[16] [edit] Cayman Islands A home destroyed by Paloma on Cayman Brac

Damage in Grand Cayman, for the most part, was not severe. There were reports of downed trees and power lines and some flooding was reported, however, all the main roads were passable. The electrical system was damaged on part of the island.[8] Cayman Brac, to the east of Grand Cayman, experienced hurricane force winds that blew rooves off some buildings, although there were no reports of casualties, according to the Hazard Management Committee. A sustained wind report of 151 mph (242 km/h) was reported on that island.[1] Residents of Cayman Brac sought refuge in an emergency shelter where the roof partially collapsed.[17] Torrential rains from Paloma peaked at 17.77 inches (451 mm) on Cayman Brac with a storm surge up to 8 feet (2.4 m).[1] The District Commissioner of Cayman Brac said that 90 percent of the buildings were damaged and that about 500 people have taken refuge in shelters. The government is working on a plan to provide temporary accommodations for residents of the island.[18] The total cost of the damages amounted to $15 million (2008 USD) in the Cayman Islands.[1] [edit] Jamaica

Flooding was reported in parts of Jamaica as a result of the outer bands of Paloma. One person drowned in Clarendon Parish while crossing a flooded river.[19][20] Severe flooding also destroyed crops in 100 farms, causing over $100,000 in damages.[21] In St. Catherine, several inches of rain caused flooding in Bog Walk Gorge which inundated several homes and stranded at least 15 people. Numerous vehicles were washed away in the floods.[22] [edit] Cuba Radar loop of Hurricane Paloma from peak intensity to landfall in Cuba

Cuban utility officials say Paloma's effect on the power grid was not as bad as the destruction caused by Gustav and Ike earlier in the season.[23] Paloma did, however knock down power and telephone lines, as well as a major communications tower. The hurricane brought with it a 14 foot (4 meter) storm surge which moved the coastline inland by almost a mile (about 1.5 km) in Santa Cruz del Sur, doing extensive damage. [24]

In Santa Cruz del Sur where Paloma came ashore, 435 homes were torn to shreds. The sea swept more than a mile inland. The wind and waves left wooden houses in splinters, topped with seaweed. Two of the two-story concrete walls of a factory crumbled into piles of rubble, smashing 57 wooden fishing boats stored inside for safekeeping.[25] An estimated 328 hectares of crops were destroyed by the storm, most of which were in the process of recovery following Hurricane Ike. A total of 8,000 homes in Santa Cruz were damaged and another 670 in Camaguey and Las Tunas. About 7,000 farmers and 4,700 residences were isolated by floodwaters.[26] Overall damages in Cuba totaled to $300 million.[4] The government has reported no Paloma-related deaths, but a dissident group has informed that one person died in the storm.[27] [edit] Florida Weather radar image of the remnants of Paloma making landfall on the Florida Panhandle

After tracking through the Gulf of Mexico, the remnants of Paloma reached the Florida Panhandle on November 14.[1] Shortly before crossing the coastline, convection suddenly and explosively developed, contributing to a swath of heavy rains. The highest amount was recorded in Bloxham at 9.25 inches (235 mm) which contributed to flash flooding. Unofficial radar observations indicated rainfall totals up to 14 inches (360 mm). The torrential rains marked the highest rainfall for November 14 in the state of Florida. After weakening, the energy from Paloma continued inland, possibly contributing to a deadly tornado outbreak in the Carolinas.[28] Flood waters south of Tallahassee reached 2 feet (0.61 m) in places, stranding vehicles. One person was trapped by floodwaters but was rescued without injury.[29]

2009

Hurricane Bill Category 4 hurricane (SSHS) Duration August 15 – August 24 Intensity 135 mph (215 km/h) (1-min), 943 mbar (hPa) Main article: Hurricane Bill (2009)

Late on August 12, a strong tropical wave associated with an area of low pressure moved off the African coast with deep layers of moisture observed.[11] Later that day, the wave became better organized with a low level circulation forming, but without any significant convection. That night, the area of convection became more concentrated, but wind shear increased since the previous advisory. On August 14, the disturbance strengthened more and its convective bands became stronger with better circulation, indicating that the disturbance would soon become a tropical depression. Later, on August 15, even though some of its deep convection dissipated, it was officially named Bill, the second named storm of the 2009 season. Early on August 17, an eye appeared on visible and infrared loops and Bill strengthened into a hurricane, the first of the 2009 season. Bill then briefly underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, as the eye had contracted to a half its original size. However, strengthening continued and, on the evening of August 18, Bill rapidly strengthened into a major hurricane. Bill was one of three tropical storms active on August 16.

Bill slowly fell apart over next several days. It lost tropical characteristics after making landfall on Newfoundland as a weakening tropical storm on August 24. The extratropical storm then raced eastward in the Atlantic, in open waters of the North Atlantic, later affecting the United Kingdom.

Waves up the East Coast killed two people, coming close enough to warrant tropical cyclone watches and warnings in both the US and Canada. Bill was one of three tropical storms active on August 16. Large, life-threatening swells produced by the storm impacted north-facing coastlines of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola as Hurricane Bill approached Bermuda. [12] On Long Island, beach damage was severe; in some areas the damage was the worst since Hurricane Gloria in 1985. Along the coasts of North Carolina, waves averaging 10 ft (3.0 m) in height impacted beaches. [13]

Hurricane Ida is the ninth tropical storm and third hurricane of the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season. Ida rapidly strengthened from when it formed to its landfall. Hurricane Ida developed shortly after noon (EDT) on November 4 as a tropical depression. The next day, Ida made landfall near Tasbapauni, Nicaragua, on November 6, as a minimal hurricane. Quickly weakening over land, Ida returned to tropical depression status as it moved towards Honduras, and survived the land crossing, emerging off the Honduran coast on the afternoon of November 6 as a tropical depression. The cyclone restrengthened, regaining tropical storm status early on November 7, and then hurricane status late on November 7. On November 9, Ida weakened in the Gulf, to a tropical storm, and became extratropical just before landfall on November 10.

[Affects Harrisburg, New Montgomery, Selma, Darien, Toccoa, Blue Ridge, Piedmont, Anderson, Elizabeth City, Outer Banks, Delmarva]

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