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Hungary (Twilight of a New Era)

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Hungary
Magyarország (állam)
— State Austria-Hungary
Timeline: Twilight of a New Era
Flag of Hungary Coat of arms of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957; oak and olive branches)
Civil State Flag The "Kossuth" Coat of Arms of 1935 (with oak and olive branches)
Location Hungary A-H (TNE)
Location Hungary

Motto
Cum Deo pro Patria et Libertate! (-1935), Egyenlőség, szabadság, testvériség (1935 to date) (Latin)
("With the help of God for Homeland and Freedom! (-1935), Equality, liberty, fraternity (1935 to date)")

Anthem "Himnusz (State Anthem)"
Capital
(and largest city)
Budapest
Other cities Szeged, Debrecen, Gyor, Pécs and Uzhhorod
Language
  official
 
Hungarian
  others German (co-official), Croatian, Romanian, Romani and Slovak
Religion
  main
 
Secular state
  others Roman Catholic, Protestants, Judaism
Ethnic groups
  main
 
Hungarian
  others German, Croatian, Romanian, Romani (Gypsies) and Slovaks
Demonym Hungarian
Government Parliamentary State
  legislature Parliament
Representative King-Emperor Kormányzó
State government Minister-President (Miniszterelnök) and State Council
Established 1920
Currency korona
Time zone Central European Time (UTC+01:00)
  summer Central European Summer Time (UTC+02:00)

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország, German: Ungarn, Latin: Hungaria, Esperanto: Hungario) is a federal state of Austria-Hungary. It is bordered by the states of German Austria, Slovakia, East Galicia, Transylvania, Illyria and Slovenia.

History

The Hungarian National Council (Magyar Nemzeti Tanács) called for the immediate termination of the civil war, comprehensive autonomy of Hungarian affairs from Vienna, the recognition of minority rights in the "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" a comprehensive agrarian reform, freedom of assembly, association and expression and universal, equal and secret ballot, including women's full suffrage.

Most of the program was accomplished by the elected Constituent Assembly, whose liberal and social democrat majority approved a new constitution and made Hungary part of the federal State of Austria-Hungary. One of its most radical measures was abolition of franchise based upon property, taxation, profession or official position, and ancestral privileges. All men and women 21 years or older have full political and social rights.

Coat of Arms of Hungary

Former Coat of Arms of Hungary (1920-1935)

Government

The Constitution guarantees and provides education at all levels, separates Church from State, establishes a civil service based on merit and exams, abolishes all legal differences of minorities, recognizes several social rights, and promotes local government.

The Constitution recognized the relations of brotherhood, friendship and common cultural heritage of the people of Szeklerland. it provides for its future incorporation to Hungary if approved by referendum.

Hungary is parliamentary representative democratic state, with a Minister-President (Miniszterelnök) as the head of government, and a State Governor (Kormányzó). According to the Constitution the State is organized as follows:

  • The State Governor (Kormányzó), who is the head of the state and imperial representative, is appointed for a six year term by the Emperor-King, on advice and consultation of the Minister-President. The Governor promulgates all laws approved by National Assembly before they can come into effect; can veto or ask for reconsideration of a bill (a veto can be overrun by two thirds majority vote of the National Assembly), promulgating laws by decree, which are proposed by the government alone, can dissolve and call for immediate elections of the National Assembly on a proposal of the Minister-President, appoints all high functionaries, judges and chiefs of police force, as stated by law, and grants pardons and commutations.
  • The State Government consists of the Minister-President (Miniszterelnök) and the State Council (Államtanács). The Minister-President is appointed by the State Governor, from the leader of the party or coalition with majority in the National Assembly. The rest of the State Council is appointed by the Governor on recommendation of the Minister-President.
  • The unicameral National Assembly or Diet (Országgyűlés; Country Assembly) is the supreme legislative and constituent body of the State. Its 200 deputies are elected by universal suffrage using a proportional representation system for a five-year term, unless previously dissolved by the Governor. as any parliamentary state National Assembly can censure and remove the Minister-President and State Council.
  • The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme State Court and Constitutional Court are nominated by the State Governor, on a list proposed by the National Assembly.

Politics

Political right

  • Christian National Union Party (Keresztény Nemzeti Egyesülés Pártja, KNEP) social christian conservative party
  • National Smallholders and Agricultural Labourers Party (Keresztény-Keresztyén Földmíves-, Kisgazda- és Polgári Párt, KFKP) conservative agrarian nationalist party

Political center parties

  • National Civic Radical Party (Országos Polgári Radikális Párt, OPRP) reformist liberal and socio-liberal party. After the election of 1925 it split in several groups (PSP, .PDP and MRP)
  • National Peasant Party (Nemzeti Parasztpárt, NPP) a reformist agrarian party
  • Civic Freedom Party (Polgári Szabadságpárt, PSP) liberal party that has its main constituency in the rural vote
  • National Democratic Party (Nemzeti Demokrata Párt) liberal party
  • Civic Democratic Party (Polgári Demokrata Párt, PDP) socio liberal party
  • Hungarian Radical Party (Magyar Radikális Párt, MRP) socio liberal party

Political left

  • Hungarian Social Democratic Party (Magyarországi Szociáldemokrata Párt, MSZDP) social democrat
  • Party of Communists in Hungary (Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja, KMP) Communist
  • Democratic People’s Party (Demokrata Néppárt, DNP) left wing social christian party

Administrative division

Hungary is subdivided administratively into 30 counties (megyék, singular: megye) and the capital city (főváros) of Budapest. These are further subdivided into districts (szolgabíró) and municipalities, with Budapest comprising its own district. The elected bodies of local self government are the General Assembly of the County (közgyűlés), that elects a president from its members by secret vote, and municipalities.

The 30 counties and capital city are:

  1. Abaúj-Torna (Szikszó)
  2. Bács-Bodrog (Szabadka)
  3. Bacs-Kiskun (Kecskemét)
  4. Baranya (Pécs)
  5. Békés (Gyula)
  6. Bereg (Beregszász)
  7. Bihar (Nagyvárad)
  8. Borsod (Miskolc)
  9. Budapest (capital city)
  10. Csanád (Makó)
  11. Csongrád (Szentes)
  12. Esztergom (Esztergom)
  13. Fejér (Székesfehérvár)
  14. Gömör-Kishont (Rimaszombat)
  15. Győr (Győr)
  16. Hajdú (Debrecen)
  17. Heves (Heves)
  18. Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Szolnok)
  19. Komárom (Komárom)
  20. Moson-Pozsony (Pozsony)
  21. Nográd-Hont (Balassagyarmat)
  22. Pest (Budapest)
  23. Somogy (Kaposvár)
  24. Sopron (Kapuvár)
  25. Szabolcs (Nyíregyháza)
  26. Szatmár (revise)
  27. Tolna (Szekszárd)
  28. Vas (Szombathely)
  29. Veszprém (Veszprém)
  30. Zala (Zalaegerszeg)
  31. Zemplén (Sátoraljaújhely)

Note: Some border countries gained or lost territory due to the new frontiers with bordering states.

Economy

Transport and communications

Hungary's railroad system both for cargo and passenger in its territory is manged by Hungarian State Railways (MÁV). Air transport is serviced by various private companies and the state owned AMalert (Magyar Legiforgalmi).

There is an extensive highways and road system, these are federal (Reichsstrassen, and Reichsautobahn) and State (Landesstrassen and Gemeindestrassen).


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