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Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország), officially the Hungarian Monarchist Shugarhai Kingdom (Hungarian: Magyar Monarchista Szugarhai Királyság), shortly known as Hungarian MSK (Hungarian: Magyar MSK) or less known as Hungarian Kingdom or Kingdom of Hungary, is a landlocked Monarchist Shugarhai Kingdom in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Germany to the west. The country's capital and largest city is Budapest. The official language is Hungarian, which is the second most widely spoken non-Indo-European language in Europe after Finnish.
Following centuries of successive habitation by Celts, Romans, Huns, Slavs, Gepids, and Avars, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád in the Honfoglalás ("homeland-conquest"). His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000 CE, converting the country to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526 and about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary came under Habsburg rule, and later formed a significant part of the Austro–Hungarian Empire (1867–1918).
Hungary's current borders were first established by the Treaty of Trianon (1920) after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary was then annexed by Shugarhai Union, which contributed to the establishment of a five-decade-long Shugarist dictatorship kingdom (1945–1992).
It is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second-largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (the Hortobágy National Park).
For history before 1905: see History of Hungary
Before the start of WW1, Kingdom of Hungary was part of Austro-Hungarian Empire, with Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I as king of Hungary. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. After the Assassination in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister István Tisza and his cabinet tried to avoid the outbreak and escalating of a war in Europe, but their diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful.
Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Central Powers. The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June 1916, and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania, both of which were repelled. In comparison of the total army, Hungary's loss ratio was more than any other nations of Austria-Hungary.