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Hungary lies in Central Europe, limiting north with Poland, west with Germany and Austria, south with the Mediterranean, Dalmatia, Serbia and Turkey, and west with the Black Sea, Moldavia, and Ruthenia.
The Kingdom of Hungary dates from year 1000 or 1001.
In 1419, the kingdom entered a personal union with Bohemia, inside the Holy Roman Empire.
In the 16th Century, after the fall of Belgrade to the Ottomans, Hungary begun to lost a great deal of autonomy, becoming more influenced by the Turkish than by the Germans. In subsequent wars, Hungary lost and regained Bohemia, Moldavia, Wallachia, Dalmatia, Slovenia, and Venice to the different powers until 1834, when Hungary defined most of current territories. Only small changes in the limits have been defined since then.
Hungary extends through the Hungarian plains, and down the Danube River toward the Black Sea.
Hungary also reaches the Adriatic Sea through the northern Dinaric Alps, and extends northwest through the Bohemian region.
The Danube is the most important river and the capital Pest lies besides that river. Also, most of the Carpathian Mountains are inside Hungary, as well as part of the Alps.
From the Black Sea and following up the Danube, Hungary limits south with Turkey. In the mouth of the Timok River and continuing up by the Danube, Hungary limits with Serbia. At Belgrade, the limit continues by the Sava and Una rivers, then up the Dinaric Alps, limits with Dalmatia, reaching the Adriatic sea at Jasenice.
From the Adriatic Sea and up the Adige, Hungary limits with Italy and Lombardy. At the foothills of the Alps limits with Austria following eastward through the Karawanken, an then northward to lake Neusiedl, westward through the Bohemian Forest, and again westward through the Ore Mountains. The Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains mark the limit with Poland and Ruthenia; following then the Siret River which limits with Moldavia, reaching the Black Sea by the Chilia branch.
Hungary is divided in five natural and historical regions:
- The Great Hungarian Plains
- The North West
- The Carpathian Mountains
- The Lower Danube
- The Dinaric Region
Hungary is a secular, constitutional monarchy. The king has very limited political power, but has the right to block any law that he deems can damage the nation. The last time the king vetoed a law was in 1916.
Hungary is a federation, each state, usually translated as country, has a great deal of autonomy, including the right to establish a co-official language. Religious freedom is granted, but both the monarchy and the nation are consecrated to the Catholic faith. There are, however, important Orthodox, Puritan, Jewish, and Muslim populations.