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Holy Roman Empire (Ninety-Five Theses Map Game)

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Holy Roman Empire
Heiliges Römisches Reich
Imperium Romanum Sacrum
Timeline: Ninety-Five Theses (Map Game)
OTL equivalent: Holy Roman Empire
. 962 - Present
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806).svg Coat of Arms of John von Wettin.png
Holy Roman Empire in 1517.png
Holy Roman Empire (Purple) in 1517
CapitalWittenburg (Imperial Seat) Magdeburg (Judicial Seat) Dresden (Consultative Seat)
Largest city Prague
Other cities Leipzig, Munich, Nuremburg, Frankfurt
Official languages Latin, German, Italian
Regional Languages Czech, Dutch, Frisian, French, Slovene, Sorbian
Government Elective Monarchy
 -  Royal House House of Wettin
Legislature Imperial Diet
Establishment
 -  Otto I is crowned Emperor of the Romans 962 
 -  Golden Bull 1356 
Population
 -  1500 estimate 20,000,000 
Currency Thaler

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Romanum Sacrum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero) is a  feudal federation of multi-ethnic territories in central Europe, including the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Bohemia, and several other territories.

History

Created from the nation of East Francia, a primary division of the Frankish Empire, the Holy Roman Empire arose on Christmas Day 800, when Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe after more than three centuries. The title passed in a disorganized manner during the decline and fragmentation of the Carolingian dynasty following Charlemagne's death in 814, eventually by 924 falling into complete disuse. In 962 the title would be officially revived with Otto I being crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire to the present day.

MORE DETAILS

1521 - Big reforms

Government

The Holy Roman Empire has a unique government system. It has three branches of government, the imperial branch under the Emperor, the consultative branch under the Diet, and the judicial branch under the Imperial Chamber Court.

The Imperial branch is typically regarded to be the most powerful branch of the Empire's government. The Emperor acts as the executive and can largely make edicts by decree with limited power. The primary check upon his power is the electoral nature of the office; despite life-terms for the Emperors, their successors must be elected by a majority vote of the Electoral College. The Electors also serve within the Imperial branch, serving official functions, such as Arch-Steward and Arch-Treasurer of the Empire.

Diet of the Holy Roman Empire (95T)

Diet of the Holy Roman Empire (Dresden)

The judicial branch is to be consolidated from the Reichskammergericht and Reichshoftrat to simply the Reichskammergericht, which will be located in Magdeburg. The consultative branch is to be comprised of a standing Diet, to be established in Dresden. The Diet will be made up of eleven members, one from each Imperial Circle.

Imperial Diet

The Imperial Diet convenes here to discuss matters and propose resolutions to provide their opinion to the Emperor as a consultative body.

Each issue shall be added here as a sub-heading and then debated with a final text approved.

List of Emperors

For a list of Emperors pre-1517, please see: List of Holy Roman Emperors

Holy Roman Emperors
Habsburg Dynasty
# Image Name Began Ended Notes
19 Ambrogio de Predis - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian 1486 1519 Son of Emperor Frederick III;
Archduke of Austria
Wettin Dynasty
20 Frederick III, by Lucas Cranach Frederick IV 1520 1526 Prince-Elector of Saxony from 1486
21 Lucas Cranach the Elder - Portrait of Johann the Steadfast 1509 John 1526 1532 Brother of Emperor Frederick IV; Prince-Elector of Saxony from 1526
Habsburg Dynasty
22 Hans Bocksberger (I) - Emperor Ferdinand I - WGA02326 Ferdinand 1532 Present Grandson of Maximilian I;
Archduke of Austria

Members

Electors

1356 - 1522

  • Coat of arms of the Archbishopric of Mainz (1250) Archbishop of Mainz - Arch-Chancellor of Italy
  • Trier Arms Archbishop of Trier - Arch-Chancellor of Burgundy
  • COA Kurkoeln Archbishop of Cologne - Arch-Chancellor of Germany
  • Blason Boheme Kingdom of Bohemia - Arch-Cupbearer
  • Arms of the Palatinate (Bavaria-Palatinate) County Palatine of the Rhine - Arch-Steward
  • Coat of arms of Saxony Electorate of Saxony - Arch-Marshall
  • Armoiries électeur Brandebourg Margraviate of Brandenburg - Arch-Chamberlain

1522 - 1533

  • Coat of arms of the Archbishopric of Mainz (1250) Archbishop of Mainz - Arch-Chancellor of Italy
  • Trier Arms Archbishop of Trier - Arch-Chancellor of Burgundy
  • COA Kurkoeln Archbishop of Cologne - Arch-Chancellor of Germany
  • Blason Boheme Kingdom of Bohemia - Arch-Cupbearer
  • Arms of the Palatinate (Bavaria-Palatinate) County Palatine of the Rhine - Arch-Steward
  • Coat of arms of Saxony Electorate of Saxony - Arch-Marshall
  • Armoiries électeur Brandebourg Margraviate of Brandenburg - Arch-Chamberlain
  • Armoiries duché de Wurtemberg 1733 Electorate of Württemberg - Arch-Treasurer

1533 - Present

  • Coat of arms of the Archbishopric of Mainz (1250) Archbishop of Mainz - Arch-Chancellor of Italy
  • Trier Arms Archbishop of Trier - Arch-Chancellor of Burgundy
  • COA Kurkoeln Archbishop of Cologne - Arch-Chancellor of Germany
  • Blason Boheme Kingdom of Bohemia - Arch-Cupbearer
  • Arms of the Palatinate (Bavaria-Palatinate) County Palatine of the Rhine - Arch-Steward
  • Coat of arms of Saxony Electorate of Saxony - Arch-Marshall
  • Armoiries électeur Brandebourg Margraviate of Brandenburg - Arch-Chamberlain
  • FlorenceCoA Electorate-Republic of Florence - Arch-Treasurer

Other Members

Holy Roman Empire Circles in 1517
  • Burgundian Circle
    • Flanders
    • Cambrai
    • Hainaut
    • Liege
    • Namur
    • Brabant
    • Breda
    • Holland
    • Utrecht
    • Limburg
    • Geldern
  • Westphalian Circle
  • Upper Rhenish Circle
  • Electoral Rhenish Circle
  • Lower Saxon Circle
  • Upper Saxon Circle
  • Bohemian Circle
  • Franconian Circle
  • Austrian Circle
  • Swabian Circle
  • Italian Circle

Imperial Elections

Electors

  • Archbishop of Mainz
  • Archbishop of Trier
  • Archbishop of Cologne
  • Kingdom of Bohemia
  • County Palatine of the Rhine
  • Electorate of Saxony
  • Margraviate of Brandenburg
  • Electorate of Württemberg

1519

Following the death of Maximilian, the Electoral College met in Frankfurt to elect the next Emperor. Frederick III von Wettin, Elector of Saxony, suggested himself as a ruler, after the succession crisis in Spain and Austria  threatened to destabilize the Empire. Frederick also proposed greater power for the Electors in imperial affairs and a reinstitution of the Reichsregiment, which Maximilian had abandoned.

Votes

  • Mainz: Frederick III von Wettin
  • Trier: Charles I of Spain
  • Cologne: Louis the Jagiellonian
  • Bohemia: Louis the Jagiellonian
  • Palatine: Frederick III von Wettin
  • Saxony: Frederick III von Wettin
  • Brandenburg: Frederick III von Wettin

All mod responses (italicized) decided by RNG, between 4 candidates; Charles I of Spain, Frederick III, Louis the Jagellonian, and Ferdinand von Habsburg. (1-2 was Charles, 3-4 was Frederick, 5-6 was Louis, and 6-7 was Ferdinand von Habsburg).

After earning the support of Mainz, the Palatine, and Brandenburg, Frederick III von Wettin won the throne of the Holy Roman Empire. He was crowned Emperor in Rome by Pope Leo X in early 1520.

1526

The 1526 Imperial election took place in Dresden, which was to be the site of the standing Imperial Diet created by Emperor Frederick IV. Frederick's younger brother and heir to Saxony, John von Wettin stood for election on a platform of continuing his brother's popular reforms and protecting the religious liberties of individual landowners.

  • Mainz: Louis
  • Trier: Ferdinand
  • Cologne: John von Wettin
  • Bohemia:
  • Palatinate: Ferdinand
  • Saxony: John von Wettin
  • Brandenburg: John von Wettin
  • Württemberg: John von Wettin

All mod responses (italicized) decided by RNG, between 3 candidates; John von Wettin, Louis the Jagellonian, and Ferdinand von Habsburg. (1-3 was John von Wettin, 4-6 was Ferdinand, 7-9 was Louis)

1532

The 1532 Imperial elections took place at a tension-ridden period in the Empire's history. Strife between Catholics and Evangelicals had been brought to a peak when, in 1530, Emperor John von Wettin announced a separation between the Papacy and the Empire. His death two years later left the seat of the Emperor open to the Electoral College, which was half Evangelical (Bohemia, Saxony, Brandenburg, and Württemberg) and half Catholic (Mainz, Trier, Cologne, and the Palatinate).

After the initial Electors pledged their votes, with Saxony and Württemberg both agreeing upon a moderate, Joachim of Brandenburg, the Pope declared Ferdinand I, the Archduke of Austria, to be the next Holy Roman Empire.

  • Mainz: Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria
  • Trier: Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria
  • Cologne: Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria
  • Bohemia: Vote Not Cast
  • Palatinate: Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria
  • Saxony: Joachim, Margrave of Brandenburg
  • Brandenburg: Vote Not Cast
  • Württemberg: Joachim, Margrave of Brandenburg

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