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History of North America (1775-1807) (Canadian Independence)

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Revolution in America

The Quebec Act of 1774 had not been passed, which meant that colonial expansion into the west was possible. Despite this, amniosity still existed in the east. Shots had been fired in Lexington and Concord, starting the American War of Independence. The western states, however, was still on the side of the British, effectively making them netural. The war in the east continued, but the Americans managed to begin a drive into Quebec. Quebec and its French culture had been suppressed by Virginia, and Quebec rebels led by James Livingston helped the Americans take control of much of Quebec.

Spread into Canada

The result of this was heavier taxation on the rest of Canada. Canadian homes near the war front were soon occupied by British soldiers, putting a strain on the colonial residents. The regions bordering Quebec were up in revolt as well. American drives into southern Quebec and the eastern territories also had an effect, bringing all of Canada into revolution. The Canadians fought bravely against the British, and took over the territories the Americans took as they left to settle matters in their own country.

The Canadians were short in one area though, which was naval. The British controlled shipping routes in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, causing economic strain as farmers could not ship their crops to cities in southern Ontario. Several diplomats were sent to France along with Bejamin Franklin, such as Robinson Elsdale. They managed to get France into the war, which gave them their naval power. After winning several battles in southern Ontario, the capture of Thunder Bay finally made the British surrender their control in southern Ontario. Several mores battles were fought along the St. Lawrence River, giving Canada control of the River. The British finally surrendered to Canada, giving Canada its independence.

Independence in the West

Indian War

Settlers and Confederation warriors fighting

British land in the west, such as Ohio, were loyal to Great Britain because the colonies were allowed to expand. The settlers met resistance from the many Native American tribes there, resulting in several Indian Wars. Many tribes were allied with Great Britain, so Britain was split between its colonies and Native allies. But once Canada took the St. Lawrence River, Britain effectively was cut off from the west, meaning that Ohio had de facto independence. Ohio attempting to expand, but met heavy resistance from the Great Lakes Confederation of tribes, which unified several tribes against the settlers. Ohio and the Confederation fought several wars, but the Confederation had the upper hand.

When the United States won its independence, it offered to allow Ohio into it. After a month of debate, Ohio agreed, citing its removal from Great Britain and hoping for help against the Confederation. Ohio became soon the became the most western state in the US. When the colonies became states, Ohio applied for one, and was carved out of territory around the Great Lakes.

Establishing the New Nations

Canada's Government

Canadian Founding

The original Canadian council

Following Canada's independence, several influence colonial patriots and diplomats met in Toronto to discuss the new nation. The American government heavily influenced this, such as the creation of the Canadian Council, similar America's congress. Also discussed were provincial boundaries, which resulted in the separation of French Quebec and British Ontario. Several regions in the east were also split. Finally, Southern Ontario was made into its own province, and was the most powerful of the provinces. This resulted in a crisis where other provinces argued over power. It was decided that the Lower Council would contain 1 representative from each province, while the Higher Council would contain an amount of representatives based on each province's population. It was also decided that the Lower and Higher Councils would be equal in the government.

James Livingston

President James Livingston

At the top of the Council was the president. James Livingston, the first leader of the original 1st Canadian Regiment and hero of the Revolutionary War, was to be elected President. He was innagurated in 1792. Other posistions were created, such as Foreign Relations, which was taken by Robinson Elsdale. It was a worry that many people from Southern Ontario would be asked to be a member, thus representatives from eastern provinces such as Nova Scotia were asked. It was also attempted to equal the amount of Frenchmans and English in the government, however the scale was slightly tipped on the English side.

Relations Between Nations

The first president of the United States, George Washington, recognized the importance of relations with Canada, as having a friendly neighbor in the north could help them in economy and overall power. Washington sent Benjamin Franklin over to Canada to discuss a meeting. Franklin and Elsdale talked out a possible meeting date, which was finally set to happen on April 1, 1793 in New York City. On that day Livingston and Elsdale met
Colonial Trade

Trading in Toledo

with Washington in New York City. It was decided the trade would be allowed with only minor tariffs. The borders used would be the ones that Great Britain had set before, and in the west it would the Great Lakes. Canada and the United States also created an alliance, providing security for the new nations. The meeting would take place again next year, and would also take place into the modern day.

Trade soon exploded along the St. Lawrence River. Farmers, loggers, merchants, and fur trappers all met in marketplaces and traded. The Thousand Islands soon became occupied with merchants selling different merchandise, and the islands became one of the most common places to trade. Trade was also common in the west, and trading posts would evolve into large cities, such as Toledo in the US. Logging and farming also further developed land, speeding up the process of moving west. Native Americans sometimes took place in trade, but those who were members of the Confederation did not participate in it. The trading created a strong, tightly-knit economy between Canada and the United States, and trade allowed the two economic to boom.

Land of the Loyalists

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