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The history of Canada begins with the arrival of human beings thousands of years ago. Inhabited for millennia by aboriginal peoples, Canada has evolved from a group of French and British colonies into a bilingual, multicultural federation. France sent the first large group of settlers in the 17th century, but ceded its territories in present-day Canada to Great Britain in 1763. The present constitution of Canada took effect in 1867, with three British colonies uniting as a single nation of four provinces. Canada gradually attained full independence from Britain during the 20th century. Doomsday, however, drastically changed the history of the nation.
Due to Canada's ties with both the United Kingdom and United States, along with its NATO membership, Canada was one of the countries hit by nuclear weapons on Doomsday. Targets included:
- CFB Gagetown, in New Brunswick
- CFB North Bay (North Bay)
- Edmonton (Strikes over both the city itself and CFB Edmonton)
- Montreal (Strikes over Laval and Montreal itself)
- Québec City
- Toronto (Strikes over the downtown core and the suburb of Mississauga)
- Vancouver (Strikes over the suburb of New Westminster and the city itself)
- Windsor (Destroyed in strikes in and around Detroit)
It has been learned in recent years that ballistic missiles also hit the Bruce Nuclear Power Plants in Ontario, and the Air Force base at Cold Lake.
Among the dead included Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who perished in the flight of parts of the Canadian government from Ottawa after its passage through the city of Kingston on the way eastward to Atlantic Canada.
After the immediate deaths and radioactive fallout from this nuclear catastrophe, Canada's cities and population centers often became like those of the United States: they lacked any food, running water, or governance, and were submerged into lawlessness and depravity. However, not all of Canada suffered this fate. Because Canada is spread out over such a large area, much of the rural areas and even some of the smaller, more isolated, cities remained largely intact. Canada was also the target, in some areas, of large amounts of refugees from the United States, such as Southern Ontario and the coast of British Columbia. The most successful region was the Atlantic region as the territories there were able to survive more or less intact, outside of the Halifax and Gagetown areas. Meanwhile the survivor communities in the Prairie provinces banded together to survive with American communities across the border, the British Colombian coast largely survived, elements of authority remained in the territories, and several city-states in Ontario survived fairly intact.
On Doomsday, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was in the Canadian capital of Ottawa. She and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau escaped the city before the bombs hit, and were able to meet up with a group of Canadian military officers from the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, and the nearby military bases. One of these officers was Walter Natynczyk, a former Prime Minister of Canada and current head of the Canada First Party. This group was able to make its way to Atlantic Canada, leaving behind some government officials and military forces to secure the region around Kingston until they could return in force. Sadly, Pierre Trudeau died during the journey, though the Iron Lady successfully survived the trip, eventually becoming the Governor-General of Canada for a time.
Canada Remainder Provinces
Formational Years: 1984 to 1987
In early 1984, at St. John's, a new government was created among the last surviving provinces in the east: Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, the Northwest Territories (represented by a survivor community at Frobisher Bay) and the remnants of Québec (Nouveau-Québec, Cote-Nord, and much of the Gaspe Peninsula). The Northwest Territories were promoted to a province and renamed Nunavut at the request of the native Inuit, who also changed the name of Frobisher Bay to the name they had long called it, Iqaluit. Survivors in Saguenay, however, refused to participate and declared independence. A new provisional government reconvened Parliament and chose James Lee as their new Prime Minister, as well as nominating the lieutenant-governor of Newfoundland, William Anthony Paddon, as the new governor-general, with the promise to hold elections again sometime in the next year. The new Canadian government took upon itself the herculean task of getting its citizens through the worst of Doomsday. The new government was called the Canada Remainder Provinces (Provinces de la reste du Canada) by some, though the name officially remained the same as it had always been.
While this was going on, Margaret Thatcher, some surviving government officials and refugees, and the Canadian troops with them finally arrived in the region. Realizing that she would not be able to return to Britain anytime soon, Thatcher decided to help with the creation of the new government. She became an informal adviser to the new Prime Minister and Governor-General. The government was also informed of the administration that they had set up in Kingston before they had left, though there was nothing the new government could do for them at this time.
The first post-Doomsday election in Canada was held in 1985 when the Governor General dissolved the interim parliament at Prime Minister James Lee's request. The Progressive Conservative Party chose James Lee as their leader, the Liberal Party chose Clyde Wells, a native Newfoundlander and former Newfoundland politician and Lorraine Michael also ran as the New Democratic Party leader. Clyde Wells won the election handily, with his party now holding a slim majority in the House of Commons.
Meanwhile the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, cut off from their home country, petitioned the Canadian government for help. After brief negotiations with the new government the islands became a protectorate of Canada in 1985.
Three years after Doomsday, in 1986, a Canadian military base in Newfoundland reported picking up a transmission from Portugal. Soon two-way communication was established, and Canada was finally in contact with the outside world once again.
Nouveau-Québec was promoted as a province in 1986 after the Grand Council of the Crees and Kativik Regional Government threatened to secede, wanting both autonomy and to not have to listen to politicians from somewhere as far away as Gaspe. Contact was also made with survivors in Nova Scotia, northern New Brunswick, and the Republic of Cape Breton that had established itself on Cape Breton Island. The government agreed to help them as much as possible without shortchanging those in the Remainder Provinces of resources that they needed themselves.
The new Canadian Constitution was drafted in 1986. The main difference with the previous constitution was the addition of Senate reform, in which Senators became elected. Each of the five provinces get five Senators. The other major change was the creation of the role of Deputy Governor General, who would succeed, and would be appointed by, the Governor General. Margaret Thatcher was chosen to hold this new post, finally being given a formal office in government.
Continued Survival: 1987 to 1990
1987 was a quiet year for Canada, in which Canadians focused mainly on survival. Direct democracy became a popular idea over the course of this year. Governor General William Anthony Paddon died very unexpectedly of cancer and his Deputy Governor General, Margaret Thatcher, became the new Governor General. She later said that she had originally accepted the post with the intention to abdicate in a fairly short time, to allow the post to be held by an actual Canadian, though she would remain in the position for a while.
Canada-controlled areas in Québec reached the claimed Saguenay border in 1988. Later on in that year, a request came from the Saguenay government to be officially recognized, but they were refused, as the Canadian government viewed the area as still being their territory, with the government there being an illegal usurpation of power by the separatists. The Québec and Nouveau-Québec provincial governments began implementing a policy of restricted trade with Saguenay, running contrary to the wishes of the federal government.
Testing of water in 1988 from the St. Lawrence river just downriver of the Quebec blast zone revealed that it was still highly toxic due to the nuclear strike there. To a lesser extent the Gulf of St. Lawrence was also affected, though the effects there were few. It was theorized that the Great Lakes, where a large fraction of the world's fresh water lay, might also be thoroughly irradiated as well, though outside of the former Detroit region and near the remains of such cities as Toronto, Buffalo and Cleveland this would be found to be very inaccurate in later years.
The first of several missions would be sent westward in early 1988, in an attempt to restore contact with Kingston, if it remained. The mission encountered several large bands of raiders in the area, forcing them to turn back. More would be sent, with several disappearing, though in their encounters with the raiders it would be learned that some island of authority remained west of their territory. The government believed this to be Kingston, but had no way of knowing for sure - and they could not get any exploratory teams that far into raider country to know for sure.
Early in 1989, a referendum was held over the issue of direct democracy, a popular idea. The citizens of Canada supported the idea, and so the House of Commons created a system of monthly referenda which would be binding on the government, and also allowed population-generated referenda which would take place if a citizen got enough support for the idea (typically 5% of the population).
Later that year, a budget vote in the House of Commons went against the government, the government fell, and an election began. The new Prime Minister was Patricia Mella, a Progressive Conservative from Prince Edward Island, who had received a minority government from the voters.
Contact with the Southern Hemisphere: 1990 to 1993
In 1991, Canada came in contact with the rest of the world through the voyage of the USS Benjamin Franklin. Canadians were pleasantly surprised to hear that people in the southern hemisphere still survived. However, some Canadians did not want excessive contact with the outside world. These people eventually formed the small and nationalistic, but vocal, Canada First Party.
In 1992 Canada re-established official diplomatic ties with Portugal, the Nordic Union, and the Celtic Alliance. In this year Margaret Thatcher decided to step down as Governor General, and an actual Canadian, Frederick Russell of Newfoundland, took the post.
Prime Minister Patricia Mella resigned in 1992 for personal reasons. The Progressive Conservatives chose Len Simms as their new leader, who then became the Prime Minister.
A small exploratory fleet was also sent into Hudson Bay in 1993. This fleet made contact with the towns of Churchill, York Factory, and Rankin Inlet, along coast of the Bay, which had managed to scrape by since Doomsday. Because of their accessibility, they were soon de facto controlled by Canada.
The Maritime Command Tour: 1993 to 1996
In March 1993, a task force of surviving ships from the Canadian Navy were sent out from St. John's to tour the rest of the world, with the primary mission of investigation the coast of British Columbia, amid protests from the Canada First Party. The fleet visited Portuguese Atlantic islands first, then proceeded northeast and met with the Celtic Alliance in September. The fleet sailed around Scotland, and visited the Nordic Union next. The fleet doubled back without entering the Baltic, heading down the English Channel. After reaching open seas, the fleet headed south to visit South America.
The Canadian fleet met with Brazil in February 1994 and Argentina in April. The fleet then rounded Cape Horn and visited several Pacific states, including Chile, Hawaii, and Tonga. Finally, the fleet arrived at Australia in October. The fleet stayed there for several months, in order to repair and refuel itself.
Back in Canada, an official hockey league, the Canadian Hockey League (CHL) was set up in 1993, and an election was held as required by the Constitution in 1994. Len Simms won the election, keeping the post of Prime Minister. This election was the first to include the new Canada First Party. It was mostly unsuccessful, as they only won one seat, in a riding in Prince Edward Island that had lost its largest business when contact with the outside world had been renewed.
In February 1995, the Canadian fleet left Australia just prior to its union with New Zealand. The fleet went northeast, with the intention of seeing what was happening in British Colombia. They reached Vancouver Island in June, and found a survivor state built from the remains of the former province, Victoria. Since then, relations have been mostly cordial between the two countries. Upon hearing of this Canadian survivor nation, Prime Minister Len Simms made a famous statement: "It brings tears to my eyes to know that our nation, Canada, truly stretches from sea to sea, even in the aftermath of the worst event in human history."
The Victorian government also informed the Canadian Fleet of the surviving governments in the Yukon and the western areas of the Northwest Territories, but they declined to take a detour to Alaska to deal with them in some form, as they would have to wait until winter before they could talk to officials from either nation. Of course, upon their return, it would be discovered that contact had been made with the governments, largely with the Northwest Alliance in the western Northwest Territories, but to at least a certain extent with the Yukon as well, while they had been in South America.
The fleet then traveled the same route back until they reached the Atlantic. They then moved into the Caribbean, making contact with the nations there, and set course northward. During this leg of the journey, they stopped several times on the coast of the former United States, where they picked up refugees, and also made contact with the survivor nations of Delmarva and the Outer Banks. In Delmarva, they were told of the survival of Bermuda, where they sailed to next. Leaving there in October, they sailed northwards, arriving back in St. John's in November 1995, two and a half years after the beginning of their journey.
Tentative Exploration: 1996 to 2000
In 1996, after increasing frequency of raids against cities in the westernmost areas of Quebec, especially in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, the government sent a large expedition into the region just west of the Gaspé peninsula. This region was found to be ruled by bloodthirsty gangs which, though seemingly anarchic, were surprisingly well organized with each other, unlike those that had been found earlier. Further exploration had to be postponed because of danger to the explorers.
In 1997, Canada began making contact with survivors in southern New Brunswick and Maine. The survivors in northern New Brunswick and Nova Scotia were at this time more well off, with both having been under government control since 1984, and Nova Scotia having been a territory since the early 1990s. Survivors on Cape Breton had even formed their own nation. Explorers also made contact with the government of Aroostook in this year.
Outside of Cape Breton, parts of Nova Scotia under the control of the Canadian government were established as a territory in 1998.
An election in this year saw a new Prime Minister: Georges Farrah, the first post-Doomsday Prime Minister from the province of Québec. Farrah is a Liberal, and had a majority government after this election. Under Farrah, relations with Saguenay began to improve, though he still refused to recognize their state.
1998 and 1999 saw continued exploration, mainly into areas claimed by Nouveau-Québec and in the Nunavut islands. Expeditions were also sent to the coastal United States to provide surplus food and supplies to small survivor communities along the coast. During one of these voyages contact was made with Plymouth.
In 1998, a second large expedition to gang-controlled South Québec was sent to determine the extent of gang control. The expedition found that their control extended much farther than was previously believed, from at least the ruins of Montreal to the ruins of Quebec, and on both banks of the river. This expedition also discovered that they were based out of the former city of Drummondville, though indications were they had originated elsewhere.
Expansion: 2000 to 2004
By 2000, Canada had begun making more frequent inroads into the interior with the intention of asserting control over its claimed land, even starting to surround territory controlled by Saguenay. This exploration led to increased conflicts with the Republic of Saguenay, such as a nasty incident in 2004. 2000 also saw another election, with Farrah gaining another majority government. The Canada First Party became the third most important party in this election, placing ahead of the New Democratic Party. An ANZC recon mission met with Prime Minister Farrah and the Canadian government in this year.
Canada also considered sending some of its military to the Guiana Space Centre to work alongside the Brazilians, French, and Europeans, but a possible threat from Saguenay and the ongoing problems with the southern gangs prevented any large amounts of help from being given by St. Johns, other than a training site in Nunavut for cold-weather testing, if desired.
A New Brunswick territory was finally established in 2000 as well.
In 2001, with an increase of severity in the Gaspé raids, the Canadian military was enlarged and stationed many troops on the Gaspé peninsula. Unfortunately, the Saguenay took this as a threat of invasion, and the previously improving relations began to sour again. The army did, however, prevent most of the raids.
Around this time contact was re-established, through Vermont and Aroostook, with Ontario and the American survivor-state of Superior. Ontario, outside of several city-states, had degenerated into chaos, into which Superior had stepped, taking over most of the coastline of Lake Superior and parts of the Lake Huron coastline as well. One of the city-states that had survived was the outpost they had left behind at Kingston, which had been fighting the Raiders as well. Other city-states included Thunder Bay, London, Niagara Falls, Waterloo, Midland, Sudbury, and Norfolk-Haldimand, all of which were pleased to various degrees to hear about the survival of the government. The fascist government of Thunder Bay, for example, condemned them, while the others were various degrees of neutral. Relations with Superior immediately became very bad due to their control of "Canadian" lands, even if the Canadian government could not extend their practical control beyond Rivière-du-Loup in Quebec or the Hudson Bay coastline.
In 2002, the Republic of the French Southern Territories asked the Canadian government to relinquish control over St. Pierre and Miquelon, stating that Canada was "taking care of (it) until its true government came". After discussion in the House of Commons, the Canadian government decided that St. Pierre and Miquelon should stay part of Canada for now, since they could represent its interests much better than a bunch of tropical islands. This was the beginning of a dispute over the islands that continues to the present day.
A large gang raid by the Lawrence Raiders in 2003 saw the death of several Canadians in the army. The raid was, however, defeated before it could cause too much harm otherwise.
International Involvment: 2004 to 2009
In 2004, a Canadian exploration expedition ran into a Saguenay patrol near the disputed northwestern border between Saguenay and Nouveau-Québec, leaving one Canadian dead and many wounded on both sides. This was a major topic in that year's election, in which the Canada First Party advocated immediate action against Saguenay. The Liberals advocated a more lenient approach. The Progressive Conservative Party took the middle position, wanting to keep a hard line towards Saguenay, though not direct action against them.
Georges Farrah won again, however this time he had a minority government. The Canada First Party formed the official opposition for the first time after the election, making the Progressive Conservatives the third party.
An expedition to the gang-held territory in 2005 disappeared without a trace. A second expedition was sent, and they found the leader of the gangs, who simply called himself, "le chef supreme". Evidence was found that Saguenay and Superior may have been helping the gangs keep organized and armed for some reason, though the evidence was far from conclusive.
In 2006, Canada welcomed Nova Scotia back into the fold as its sixth province after negotiations with the Republic of Cape Breton succeeded in convincing them to rejoin Canada along with the former Nova Scotia Territory. Additionally, an election brought Farrah a majority government, with the rest of the seats split almost evenly between the Progressive Conservatives and the Canada First Party, as well as a couple seats in Nova Scotia from the newly-founded Cape Breton Independence Party.
In 2007 the government started sending agents into the gang-held southern Québec to destabilize their organization and to investigate the claims of Saguenay and Superior involvement. While successful at destabilizing them, as soon as any of these agents got close to discovering where the Raiders were getting support from, they disappeared.
The Atlantic Defense Community was founded in 2007, with Canada as the only non-European founding member. The organization is seen as the successor to NATO. The decision to join was a hard one, with the Canada First Party strongly opposed to it. The matter was put to referendum, and the Canadian people decided in a large majority to join.
In 2008 another international organization, the League of Nations, was formed. Canada joined as a founder, though the Canada First Party protested yet again, though not so far as to demand a referendum like the last time.
In 2009 the North American Union, including parts of old Canada, made contact with the Canada Remainder Provinces. The eventual relationship between the two is still unknown, though given the attitudes of both reunification is very likely at some point down the road.
A territory, Hudson, was also finally established for the Hudson Bay coastline of Manitoba and Ontario.
In May of 2009, a military expedition sailed down the St. Lawrence river, fighting raiders the entire way, and finally re-established contact with Kingston, leaving behind radios and a representative before returning to Canada through raider territory.
In June 2009, diplomats from New Britain traveled to Canada. They brought news that their king, Andrew, approved of their government, particularly their Governor-General system. As of yet, the situation with the monarchy in Canada is not completely clear, given what happened to them on doomsday, though the government does consider Andrew the rightful King.
War with Saguenay
- See main article: 2009 Saguenay War
Saguenay's Prime Minister Stéphan Tremblay was assassinated by a radical member of the Canada First Party on September 9, 2009. Saguenay declared war the next day, despite an offer of arbitration by the Celtic Alliance. By the 13th, Saguenay had already begun an amphibious assault on the Gaspe peninsula, which was fortified mainly against land strikes, not attacks from the sea. In combination with forces from Superior that entered the fray after the 15th, they were able to capture the entire peninsula. They then established the Republic of St. Lawrence, which would last until February.
This lead to speculation that Saguenay had a naval base nearby - it was later discovered in mid-October and destroyed. The peninsula was occupied by Saguenay and Superior for several months before being recaptured by ADC forces, in concert with North Pennsylvania, in January and February, followed by advances in the territory of the Lawrence Raiders, towards Saguenay itself.
An election on October 6th led to the first ever Canada First Party government. The Liberals lost many of their seats outside of the occupied Gaspe peninsula, whose mostly Liberal representatives were allowed to keep their seats. The new Prime Minister, Walter Natynczyk, promised to militarize Canada in response to the Saguenay invasion. This was successful, culminating in the recapture of the Gaspe peninsula. After the truce in April, repairs to infrastructure hurt by the war were begun. On the 28th of May, the worst war seen in the region after Doomsday was officially ended by the Treaty of Manchester, which settled issues of recognition and territory between all involved.
The Treaty of Manchester settled several issues that had long been troubling the region. It consisted of the following:
- Official recognition of the country of Saguenay and of the borders between Saguenay and Canada.
- LoN investigations into the Canada First Party's involvement in the assassination of Stéphan Tremblay and into the involvement of Superior and/or Saguenay with the Lawrence Raiders.
- No reparations will be paid by either side, save in the event that one of the investigations is successful.
- Saguenay and Superior recognize Canadian authority and claims over the St. Lawrence River Valley and Southern Quebec.
- Canada recognizes Superior claims to parts of the former Province of Ontario, in return for a pledge by the Republic to not take any more of said territory, with the exception of Thunder Bay, pending the result of the scheduled referendum there. The Windsor region will be given to future arbitration by the LoN.
- Aroostook and Vermont will assist the Canadian government in exterminating the Lawrence Raiders
- Canada must drop its veto to Superior joining the League of Nations, and join the United Communities in some form. In a rather surprising turn of events, the Celtic Alliance has decided to send along an ambassador with the Canadian delegation to the UC, as an observer, to monitor the situation.
- Investigations will also occur over the damage of civilian targets and the death of civilians in Saguenay by Canadian and Celtic forces.
It was very much a give-and-take treaty - ADC forces held the advantage, but needed to re-position their forces to fight Sicily, in the Mediterranean, so several compromises were needed in order to end the war faster, which is exactly what occurred. The investigations themselves would conclude three things.
First, in early July, it would be settled that ADC forces had not intentionally caused any civilian deaths. Secondly, it was announced in late July that elements of the Canada First Party had indeed caused the death of the Prime Minister of Saguenay, likely with the knowledge of higher-ups in the party, and if not, they should have. Lastly, the third investigation concluded in late August that Superior and Saguenay had indeed supported and armed the Lawrence Raiders, blocking the Canadian government.
The second investigation, with the conclusion that the CFP had likely started the war on purpose, caused an uproar in the Canadian Parliament. Many of the MPs with the CFP switched sides in the House and Senate, going to the Conservatives and Liberals in droves, and voted against the government, causing it to fall at the beginning of August. Their attitude was shared by many people in the country. For much of the campaign, this meant a massive fall in support for the Prime Minister. However, the conclusion of the third investigation in late August, blaming Superior and Saguenay for all of the trouble the Canadian government had had with the Lawrence Raiders, caused them to regain some of their support - some viewed the assassination and war as justified, as a result of this.
In the end, with about 35% of the votes for them, the CFP would lose a bit more than twenty of the seats it had held before the election, with most going to the Liberals and Conservatives. While still the largest party, the Conservative and Liberal leaders declared a coalition between them, under the Conservative leader - they held more seats, and were not being associated with the ugly start to the war, like the Liberals were - and became the new government.
With the removal of foreign support, Canadian troops were finally able to hold the advantage they should always have held over the Lawrence Raiders. Acting in concert with their allies in the region, they were able by fall to clear the north side of the river, finally enabling a land route, albeit unsecured, to Kingston, which promptly joined as a new territory, Eastern Ontario. The local militia and the newly-arrived Canadian troops then began to expand the zone of control in the area.
In Thunder Bay, the fascist dictator had passed in early 2009. Following a short Civil War, in which the democratic forces, aided by Superior, came out victorious. A referendum was scheduled for April 10th, 2010, over whether the city-state should join Superior, Canada, become a Canadian protectorate, or remain independent - with the top two choices being in another referendum if none won a clear majority the first time. The result in April was 44% for Canada, 29% for independence, and the remainder split between joining Superior or becoming a protectorate. Another referendum was held on July 16th, in which the choices were to join Canada, or stay as things were. In the end, a slim majority - 56% to 44% - voted in favor of re-joining Canada. Following the wishes of the people, the government became the territory of Northern Ontario, with essentially the same government as before it became part of Canada again, with the condition that land access to the rest of the country be established by 2015. Current plans are to build a road southwards from Moose Factory on Hudson Bay to the remains of Ontario Highway 11, and then westwards from there to Thunder Bay. Plans are also being set in motion to repair the railroad that branched out from the railhead at Moosonee on the Bay southwards to the remains of railroads there to establish land contact with the area.
Canadian forces are currently very busy trying to exterminate the Lawrence Raiders, in concert with Vermont and Aroostook, but sent a naval task force, consisting of a destroyer, a couple of older frigates, and a squadron of minesweepers, to aid the rest of the ADC in the fight against Sicily, though they arrived too late to do much more than secure a couple of convoys.