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The History of the Human race has been one of constant rise and fall as Human civilizations have spread out across Terra and have battled each other for dominance.
Homo Sapiens is generally thought to have evolved in what is now modern day Ethiopia. From there, they spread far and wide, crossing land bridges and reaching every continent. The new species came into contact with another Hominid species, the Neanderthals, who eventually went extinct.
The first civilization to emerge was that of Sumeria, whose cities first emerged around 4000 B.C. These cities initially were priest-led theocracies. This gradually changed to hereditary monarchies who warred with each other to unify the region.
The first city to unify the others was Akkad under Sargon, who established the first Empire in Human history. This empire lasted for several decades, before being succeeded by the cities of Ur, Susa, and then Babylon. After those cities, the nation of Assyria took over, and the era of city-state empires was replaced by nations, and Sumeria's influence was soon supplanted by that of others.
Sumeria is notable for inventing many things, from writing to the wheel. These inventions were crucial for Sumeria's early dominance, and remain vital elements of modern societies.
Egypt was a great power that started many things. It had a tumultuous history, but it still stands today. First founded around 3000 B.C., Egypt was soon unified under the Pharaoh Narmer, the founder of the First Dynasty of Egypt.
The Old Kingdom of Egypt occurred from 2686-2181 B.C., and it was in this time period that the most recognizable symbols of Egypt were created, such as the great pyramids and sphinx at Giza. Egyptian culture blossomed with an artistic writing system and a rich religion.
Despite this, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, lasting from 2134-1690 B.C., was invaded by the Semetic Hyksos people, who established a capital at Avaris. Egypt descended into a dark age, as pharaohs and nobles in the southern part of the country. The Hyksos were driven out Pharaoh Ahmose I, who founded the New Kingdom, which lasted from 1549-1069 B.C.
The New Kingdom represented the strongest period in Egypt's history, and Egypt regularly warred with its neighbors of Assyria and the Hittite Empire. Egypt once fell to the Assyrian Empire, but when that Empire fell, Egypt regained its independence.
Egypt then went through a series of weak rulers and general declines until 525 B.C., when the country was conquered by the Persians. The country regained its independence in 404 B.C. under the Pharaoh Amyrtaeus, but a general revolt had him replaced six years later.
The country regained some prominence under the Pharaoh Nectanebo II, who reformed the tax code and military to be more Hellenistic and efficient. Because of these reforms, Nectanebo II was able to defeat the Persians multiple times, and secure Egypt's independence for several decades until the coming of the Greeks under Alexander the Great. Egypt then entered the Classical Age.
Saatnar was founded on the banks of the Saatgar Vally river system, and became the largest of the four ancient civilizations. As with the others, many city-states emerged at first, but the largest and most influential were Harrapan and Mohenjo-Daro.
The states rarely fought each other compared to the other ancient civilizations, but they were unified by Vikramaditya of Harrapan when he married the daughter of Mohenjo-Daro's ruler. Centralization of authority began under his rule, and by the end of his reign most of the Saatnar cities answered to him, usually through vassalage with Vikramaditya helping to establish his nation as greater economic power in the region.
The greatest ruler of ancient Saatnar was, by far, Anjun the Priest-King, who ruled from 1303-1244 B.C. Under his reign the kingdom reached is pinnacle and expanded to control lands which the nation's merchants had never seen the sights off. However the kingdom was beset by a foreign invasion from Dwarka to the south. The Saatnar navy was able to comprehensively defeat the invaders at the mouth of the Indus River and this helped to showcase the strength of Saatnar to the rest of the region.
Following the death of Krishna of Dwarka, trade routes were established at Anjun's suggestion - with Dwarka having no other real alternative. This increased the prestige and the wealth of both nations, who used their wealth to build extravigant temples and citadels and build upon their peoples' support. The two nations would eventually end up becoming close partners in the region, before both collapsed.
Chinese civilization first emerged as the Xia dynasty, which lasted from 2070-1600 B.C. This dynasty started the political system of China, commonly referred to as the "Mandate of Heaven." The capital of the Xia dynasty was established at Yangcheng.
The Xia dynasty was succeeded by the Shang dynasty, which lasted from 1600-1046 B.C. The Shang dynasty introduced writing and bronzework to the far east, and this would influence Asian cultures for many centuries to come.
This dynasty was succeeded by the Zhou dynasty, which ruled central China from 1046 B.C.–256 B.C. The Zhou rulers made the first coinage, standardized the Chinese writing system for use outside of oracle bones, and presided over the rise of Confucian virtues. The Zhou rulers also introduced iron working into eastern Asia.
The Zhou dynasty fell the the Qin dynasty in 256 B.C., who led China on an imperial course for the dynasties to come.
The fifth and final civilization to emerge in the Ancient Era was that of Dwarka, which evolved on the continent of Dawara, south of India. Archaeological evidence suggests that the first people on the island got there in weak boats at a time when the seas were lower than what they are today and when the oceans were calmer. The first city-states formed around 1700 B.C., but they were first unified in 1300 B.C. by Krishna, the first historically known Dwarkan king.
Under Krishna's reign, the civilization expanded its legal structure and economy, which was dominated by fishing and farming. Driven by the lust of foreign conquest, a dedicated navy was constructed, and because of this, contact was also made with the Saatnar civilization. At first relations were hostile, but past Krishna's death dedicated trade routes were established. Krishna is also known for establishing the first written language on the islands, leading to his name becoming known to history.
Dwarka would eventually develop relations with Saatnar and become close with the nation - helping to increase the flow on money in both nations and lead to the expansion of both nations' power and prestige. However, both nations would eventually collapse under their own weight and the era of growth and co-operation would end.