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Historical Timeline (Richard's England)

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Timeline of European history. This timeline is completely Eurocentric, and the rest of the world is only to be mentioned in relation to Europe.

Late Twelfth Century

  • 1189: The Third Crusade begins. Mere months before, Prince John falls to his death while hunting in the swampy region known as the Wash. Richard the Lionhearted, King of England, is forced to stay behind as he is heirless.
  • 1190: Crusaders recapture Acre.
  • 1191: Saladin is defeated by the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller at the Battle of Arsuf, winning Robert de Sable fame in Europe. However, the pressure of the harassment before the battle leads the two orders to split into two campaigns.
  • 1192: Conrad I ascends to the throne in the newly re-declared Kingdom of Jerusalem.. Saladin goes on to win the Battle of Jaffa against the Knights Hospitaller.
  • 1193: The Knights Templar complete their campaign, giving Tripoli, Antioch, Cilicia, and Tyre a common border. Saladin retakes Acre from the Knights Hospitaller.
  • 1194: Treaty of Jaffa signed. All current crusader-held land is kept, and Saladin allows Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem, albeit taxed.
  • 1195: Battle of Shamqori is fought. Abu Baqar's army is annihilated by Georgian forces.
  • 1197: Tripoli swears fealty to Conrad I of Tyre, becoming the Kingdom of Tyre.
  • 1198: The Teutonic Knights is officially formed in Tyre.
  • 1199: Pope Innocent III attempts to unite the Bulgarian church and the Roman Catholic church.

Thirteenth Century

  • 1204: A Fourth Crusade is initiated by Venice in an attempt to take Zara. Constantinople is sacked.
  • 1212: The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa sparks rapid advances of the Christian Iberian kingdoms against the Moors. Richard I of England is forced to transfer all of his Spanish territory to Aragon.
  • 1213: France is defeated by the Kingdom of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.
  • 1217: The Fifth Crusade captures the Egyptian port of Damietta.
  • 1221: Crusaders withdraw from Damietta. Venice signs a trade treaty with the Mongol Empire.
  • 1222: Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull, affirming the privileges of the Hungarian Nobility.
  • 1223: The Mongol Empire defeats various Russian principalities in the Battle of the Khalka River.
  • 1228: The Sixth Crusade briefly recaptures Jerusalem. However, due to infighting between the Kingdom of Tyre and the Crusaders, it is lost. Conrad I is excommunicated.
  • 1237: Russia is conquered by the Mongols.
  • 1241: The Mongols simultaneously defeat Hungarian and Polish forces, and ravage both countries. The Teutonic Knights begin fighting a campaign in Hungary.
  • 1250: During a clash between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy that turned into open warfare, Brandenburg and Saxony gain independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
  • 1251: The Spanish Reconquest is halted at Grenada. Castile and Aragon arrange Dynastic Union.
  • 1254: The Malemuks overthrow the Ayyubid dynasty.
  • 1268: Antioch falls to the Malmuks.
  • 1285: A second Mongol invasion of Hungary occurs.
  • 1289: Tripoli falls to the Malmuks.
  • 1291: Tyre falls to the Malmuks, ending the Kingdom of Tyre. The Swiss Confederation is formed.

Fourteenth Century

  • 1303: Pope Boniface VIII issues the Unam Sanctum papal decree, intending to give the Church more power over kings. King Philip IV of France, fearing that the decree will result in his excommunication, sends men to seize the Pope in one of his palaces. Boniface is rescued but shaken. He dies soon afterwards. Meanwhile, England, under Edward I, invades and conquers Scotland.
  • 1304: A new Pope, Benedict X, has enemies in Rome. He dies, supposedly after eating poisoned figs.
  • 1305: French influence in the college of cardinals ensures Frenchman Pope Clement V is elected. Rome, angered by a French Pope, riot. A rebellion in Scotland is put down by the English.
  • 1306: King Philip IV of France confiscated the majority of Jewish property in France and expels them from his borders. Pope Clement V is assassinated by persons unknown.
  • 1307: The Muslims completely drive all Crusaders from the Holy Land. The Knights Templar arrive in France. King Philip IV, in need of money, accuses the order of Heresy, Sodomy and being in league with the Muslims as a pretext to seize their assets. The new Pope excommunicates him for this and past transgressions. The Knights Templar flee to England, where they become a nominal part of the English government.
  • 1311: The Knights of Saint John conquered the Island of Rhodes, and engage in several campaigns against the Muslims in turkey.
  • 1315: A climate change occurs, causing continuous rains in Europe. Crops are ruined and famine emerges. Most believe this is gods wrath, similar to the Biblical floods described in Genesis, and many become Flagellants. The first dissection is performed in Italy.
  • 1318: Four Franciscans are burned at the stake for maintaining absolute poverty.
  • 1320: Paper is invented in Germany.
  • 1322: The Pope declares the Franciscans heretical for their opinion that Christ and his Apostles held no property. This is seen by historians as further evidence that the Catholic church is corrupt.
  • 1325: A man called Ivan, his history unknown, becomes Lord of Moscow, and founds a dynasty of Russian Kings.
  • The Ottoman Turks expand in Asia Minor, conquering the City of Burs only fifty miles south of Constantinople. Ottoman warriors occasionally raid Thrace, opposed by the Knights of Saint John.
  • 1328: Robert the Bruce is killed in Scotland. Scotland is now an official part of the Kingdom of England, which is re-organized into the Kingdom of Britain.
  • 1333: King Phillip VI ascends to the French throne.
  • 1338: The Holy Roman Empire declares that its Emperor may be chosen without the consent of the Pope. Philip VI intervenes in a dispute in Flanders involving English property, where English influence has been growing over the years. Edward I responds by declaring himself King of France, by right of birth and family connections. The Thirty Years war begins. It will be the first war featuring crude gunpowder cannons.
  • 1340: First recorded cases of the Black Plague in Genoa.
  • 1348: The Plague has spread to Britain, France, Denmark and Norway. The local populations had already been weakened by two generations of malnutrition. Around one third of people in these areas die.
  • 1350: Europe is in chaos due to the plague. Some blame the Jews, the rich, or the corruption in the Catholic church. Some, believing the end of the world is near, engage in frenzied bachanals and orgies. The Flagellant movement is revived, as is belief in witchcraft. The Church, ever watchful for creative and heretical theology, condemns the flagellants.
  • 1351: Milan and Florence war, resulting in Florence paying tribute to Milan for the next 50 years. This causes Milan to become richer then Florence. The Plague reaches Russia. Tennis is invented in England.
  • 1355: The French support a rebellion in Scotland. The English put it down with startling ease.
  • 1356: The English capture the French king and many French nobles in the battle of Poiters, and hold them for ransom. The age of armored Knights and Lances in warfare is nearing its end, and bows become more powerful.
  • 1358: Rebellions in France due to oppressive taxation occur.
  • 1360: The Thirty Years war ends with a tentative truce between France and Britain. The Black death reappears and ravages Europe yet again.
  • 1378: After a confusing election, two Popes are elected. The French and Spanish support the French Pope, Clement VII. The English, Italians and the Holy Roman Empire support the Roman Pope, Urban VI.
  • 1382: The first Protestant, John Wycliffe, is banished from England for his criticism of the Catholic Church. He is the first to translate the bible into English, allowing the commoners to read the word of god directly. He will heavily influence later protestant movements.
  • 1397: The Medici Bank is formed in Florence. The Kalmar Union is formed in Scandinavia under Erik of Pomerania.

Fifteenth Century

  • 1406: Ptolemy's model of the Universe, including the planets rotating around the Earth, arrives in Europe.
  • 1409: Prelates meet at Pisa in an attempt to replace the two errant Popes. Both refuse to resign.
  • 1410: The Teutonic Knights, allied with the King of Bohemia, attempt to conquer Poland. They are defeated by the Pagans. Poland-Lithuania manages to avoid becoming a German colony.
  • 1413: In England, followers of John Wycliffe march on London, demanding a return to the simple days of early Christianity. The English King suppressed the movement.
  • 1415: John Hus, a Bohemian Protestant, travels to Rome to plea with the Church to reform. He is burned at the stake. The Wycliffe movement adopts him as another of their founders.
  • 1419: Portugal has established several colonies in Africa, taking them from the Moors.
  • 1421: Florence grants the first patent. Jews are imprisoned and beaten in Austria.
  • 1428: The Pope orders John Wycliffe's bones dug up and burned.
  • 1431: Provence enters a dynastic union with Savoy. The inquisition burns Joan of Arc, a Protestant leader. She becomes another founder of the Protestant movement.
  • 1434: The Medici family begins to dominate Florence.
  • 1439: The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic church unify. The Russian Orthodox Church abstains.
  • 1441: Portugal begins using African slaves. The Protestant movement condemns this. The Roman Catholic Church ignores it.
  • 1450: Milan successfully fights off a mercenary invasion from Venice.
  • 1453: The Ottomans, using gunpowder artillery, take Constantinople.
  • 1455: The first printing press is built in Bohemia.
  • 1461: Genoa voluntarily unites with Milan. A brief civil war in England ends, with the York branch of the English Royal family becoming the new Monarchs. First postal service in France.
  • 1463: The Ottomans invade Bosnia. The Bosnians resist extraordinarily well, even gaining in territory. The Byzantines, aided by the Knights of Saint John, retake their land opposite of Constantinople.
  • 1468: The Bosnians take Albania back from the Ottomans. A dynastic union occurs between the two royal families of these countries, creating Greater Bosnia.
  • 1469: Dynastic union between Aragon-Castille and Portugal forms the United Kingdom of Iberia.
  • 1472: The walled city of Benin, in Africa, begins trading slaves to Portugal. Protestant missionaries arrive there and convert most of the local populace, putting a stop to it. Benin will be one of the few local nations to escape European colonialism.
  • 1478: The Medici's are expelled from Venice by a Papal States plot. The Papal States form an alliance with the Kingdom of Naples, which enters a Dynastic union with Sicily.
  • 1479: The Venetians lose their empire on the Adriatic sea. Bosnia reclaims it from the Ottomans.
  • 1480: Leonardo da Vinci invents the Parachute. Ivan III of Muscovy feels strong enough to refuse to pay tribute to the Mongols. The Spanish Inquisition is heavily resisted by local protestants, although both unite to harass local Jews.
  • 1482: Bosnia retakes Herzegovina from the Ottomans. For this, Bosnia is declared defender of the Faith by the Roman Catholic church. The rest of Europe continues to ignore their plight.
  • 1483: Florence is conquered by Milan. Richard III ascends to the throne in England. Pope Innocent VIII issues a statement condemning the spread of Witchcraft and paganism in Germany and declaring that the cats of witches will be burned alongside their masters. Bohemia follows his declaration with a passion.
  • 1485: Richard III narrowly defeats Henry Tudor in the War of the Roses.
  • 1491: Iberia annexes Grenada and persecutes the local Muslims.
  • 1497: In areas of Scotland, children are required by law to go to school.
  • 1498: Venice rejoins the war against the Ottomans. Jews are expelled from Bavaria.
  • 1499: Savoy is conquered by Milan. An explorer from Brandenburg employed by the Kalmar Union, Orik von Herzegovina, leaves to attempt to re-establish contact with the colony of Greenland and find "Vinland". He also has his own, hidden agenda; find a route to Asia.

Sixteenth Century

  • 1502: Orik von Herzingovia returns from his voyage. He reports Greenland deserted, but reports success on the mission to find Vinland. Secretly, he contacts the Kingdom of Britain, selling them the same knowledge and claiming that Vinland is in fact Asia.

Seventeenth Century

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