Hiram Johnson
Timeline: Cherry, Plum, and Chrysanthemum

Portrait of Hiram Johnson

29th President of the United States
March 4, 1933 – March 4, 1941

Predecessor Herbert Hoover
Successor Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
Vice-President Frank Knox

27th Vice-President of the United States
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1917

Predecessor James S. Sherman
Successor Henry Cabot Lodge
President Theodore Roosevelt

23rd Governor of California
January 3, 1911 – March 4, 1913

Predecessor James Gillett
Successor William Stephens
Born September 2, 1866
Sacramento, California, United States of America
Died August 6, 1945 (aged 78)
Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Political Party Progressive (1912-45)
Republican (1910-12)
Religion Episcopal
Profession Politician
Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866 – August 6, 1945) was the 29th President of the United States (1933–1941). Elected in 1910 as the Governor of California (1911–1913) from the Republican Party, Johnson later co-founded the Progressive Party and was elected as the 27th Vice President of the United States (1913–1917) in 1912.

An isolationist, Johnson relationship with then-President Theodore Roosevelt was severely deteriorated prior to World War I over the foreign issue due to the latter's pro-war stance. Together with Wisconsin Senator, Robert M. La Follette, Johnson was the leading figure of "Peace Progressives", the isolationist wing of Progressive Party who opposed the U.S. entry to World War I. Following Theodore Roosevelt's death in March 1929, Johnson became the natural leader of the Progressive Party.

After lost in a landslide to Republican Herbert Hoover in 1928, Johnson was elected as the 29th President of the United States in the 1932 presidential election, at the depth of the Great Depression. During his administration, Johnson spearheaded major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the "New Deal" that designed to produce jobs for the unemployed, restore the economy to normal condition, and balance the interests of farmers, business and labor.

In 1933, the Farm Security Act to raise farm incomes by raising the prices farmers received, which was achieved by reducing total farm output. The Social Security Act was passed in 1935, established a permanent system of universal retirement pensions. The Act itself was the framework for the later U.S. welfare system. Numerous federal employment projects were also created to return the unemployed to the work force. The U.S. economy improved rapidly from 1933 to 1937, but then relapsed into a deep recession.

In 1937, after some of his New Deal legislation ruled as unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court, Johnson successfully expanded the size of the court through the Judicial Procedures Reform Act. His effort for packing the court resulted to the formation of Conservative Coalition between the Republicans and the Liberals against Johnson and the Progressives, that would gained power after World War II. On other hand, Johnson also built a powerful New Deal Coalition that united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, and African Americans, and dominated American politics for about 40 years.