Henry X (9 September 1565 - 2 April 1624) was King of England and Ireland. Henry X was the first monarch of the Habsburg dynasty in England, son of Philip II of Spain, and succeeded his mother, Queen Anne I, who was killed in a bomb plot known as the Massacre at Westminster. His reign ended the decades-long reign of the House of Tudor.
Henry faced a succession crisis in England during a time of civil unrest and continent-wide war, as his aunt Isabella Tudor claimed the throne through the support of many Calvinist citizens. Through the help of Catholic English noblemen and Spanish support through his brother Philip, Henry successfully overthrew his aunt. In order to keep the peace in his country, Henry declared that Calvinism would be a recognized religion in England, and granted several rights to Reformist citizens. As well, under his reign, he saw the creation of new colonies in the New World settled by Calvinists.
After the death of his mother, Henry was awoken and declared the new king of England. Through prior agreements, it was decided that England would inherit the Lower Countries from Spain upon the death of both his mother Anne and father Philip, however by 1581 the northern area united and declared independence as the Republic of the United Netherlands. However, after his father's death of cancer in 1598, England was given the southern portion, the English Netherlands. At this point, England effectively gained land in Europe other than their city of Calais.
Upon the death of his mother, Henry was faced with a major challenge: the Reformists of England supported Henry's aunt, Isabella Tudor, as the rightful monarch of England. Isabella converted to Calvinism in her 20s, and the Reformists would rather have her reigning than another Catholic who would likely continue to threaten their lives. As such, Henry and Isabella's armies and supporters fought each other for victory in the nation that would be the determining factor for England's status of religion.
|King of England, Ireland,|
and the Netherlands
1586 - 1624