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Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 12 May, 1551) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death on the 12th of May, 1542. He was also Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) and King of France after the War of 1537 (1537-41). Henry was the second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Henry VIII was a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy, having achieved the long sought out goal of conquering France. He is also known for his separation and issues with Rome. This eventually led to his establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England and denying Papal authority over himself and England. His heir, Edward VI, furthered religious reforms and united the British Isles.
War of 1537 and birth of an heir
After the execution of Anne Boleyn, Henry VII married Jane Seymour, who he had been showing favor to for a while prior to their marriage. They were married 10 days later. In 1537, Jane gave birth to a son, Prince Edward, the future Edward VI. The birth was difficult, but the Queen recovered after a brief period of illness. Meanwhile, Henry, having re-established relations with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, had come to an agreement with the Emperor that their combined efforts would be used to conquer France and its territories. The agreement was that Henry would receive control of France upon victory and would be declared its King while Charles would receive all other French territories, including the Kingdom of Burgundy and France's possessions and claims in the New World. After two years of war, the provisional Capital of France in Toulouse (as Paris had fallen a year prior) was captured and the King of France, Francis I, was forced to abdicate and designate Henry as his successor as King of France and Charles King of Burgundy and all other possessions. Francis was executed publicly the next day alongside what remained of his captured family.
Solidification of the Dynasty and Death
After his conquest of France, Henry returned his focus to the production of additional children to ensure the Tudor Dynasty would last. Up until Jane Seymour's death in 1547 when giving birth to their last child, Jane and Henry had produced five additional children (Prince Henry, Princess Margaret, Princess Jane, Prince Thomas and Prince William). After Jane's death, Henry was left in sorrow and by the final year of his life, had slipped into madness, leaving Thomas Cromwell, Baron Cromwell and 4th Duke of Norfolk (Following the execution of Thomas Howard) as his Regent until he too died, leaving the regency to his son, Gregory Cromwell. Finally, after many months of madness and struggles to survive, Henry passed away on May 12th 1551. He was buried next to his "true" wife, Jane Seymour. After his death, Prince Edward was crowned Edward VI of England and Ireland, and Edward I of France with Gregory Cromwell, 5th Duke of Norfolk (Following the execution of Thomas Howard) as his Lord Protector.