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Henry Martin Jackson (May 31, 1912 - September 1, 1983) was an American Socialist politician who served as President of the United States from 1977-1981, and was a four-term Senator for Washington State before then. Jackson, an economic moderate and foreign-policy hawk, was elected in the 1976 election after a primary upset over Vice President Ed Muskie over the conservative Democrat Ronald Reagan on a law-and-order campaign. Despite a notable decline in inflation during his first year in office, the latter part of his term was marred by economic difficulty in the United States and escalating militancy by major American labor unions, leading to what became known as the "Winter of Discontent" in the winter of 1979-1980. The 1980 energy crisis and a primary campaign staged against him from the left resulted in a battered and unpopular Jackson losing in a landslide to moderate Democrat George Bush in that fall's election. Less than three years after leaving office, Jackson died of a stroke.