Henry IX
Henry IX
Timeline: Caesar of Rome

King Henry VIII from NPG (3)
Portrait of Henry IX

King of England
King of Ireland

1547 – 1561

Predecessor Henry VIII
Successor Anne I
Born 1 January 1511
Flag of England London, England
Died 22 February 1561
Flag of England London, England
Spouse Princess Maria of Portugal

Henry IX (1 January 1511 – 22 February 1561) was King of England from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was King of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VIII.

Henry IX was a devout Catholic, and is a controversial monarch for the fact that he sent armies to attack Reformist (specifically Calvinist) towns to help stop the spread of the religion in England. These attacks were one of the contributing factors to the Seventy Years' War (also known as the European Wars of Religion) that engulfed Europe and caused conflict across the globe.

Early life

Henry was the first and only son born to Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Henry was extremely pleased to have a male heir to continue his family name and rule the Kingdom. Despite a scare in his early months, most likely due to a bacterial infection, Henry survived to be a healthy individual. He also grew fond of his faith, Catholicism, learning much from his personal tutor (who also happened to be a bishop). His devotion to his faith would be an important factor in his future as King.

On 12 April 1531, 20-year-old Prince Henry was betrothed to 12-year-old Infanta Maria of Portugal, daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and brother of the future King John III. It is believed that Henry's and Maria's father established the marriage in order to keep good relations between the two nations in the midst of a colonial race in the New World. Several years later, in 1540, the two conceived their eldest child, Anne, who would become Queen decades later. Maria also gave birth to a daughter, Princess Isabella, and a stillbirth boy named Robert. Despite Henry VIII's demands for his son's and Maria's divorce in order for Henry to produce a male heir with another woman, Henry IX would not go through with it, citing his faith and love for his wife.

Preceded by:
Henry VIII
King of England
1547 – 1561
Succeeded by:
Anne I