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قرطبةقرطبة‎ (Hashemite Arabic)
Khalifat al-Hāšimiyyah (trans.)

Hashemite Caliphate
Timeline: Principia Moderni II (Map Game)

OTL equivalent: Muslim World
FlagFatmids 3 Hashemite Caliphate CoA attempt 1
Flag (temporary) Coat of Arms of the Caliphate (temporary)
Map of the Caliphate in 1575, just before its collapse after the death of the Mahdi and Isa

لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله (Arabic)Motto
ā ʾilāha ʾillà l-Lāh, Muḥammadur rasūlu l-Lāh (Arabic)

Capital Mecca
Largest city Baghdad
Other cities Medina, Jiddah, Aden, Muscat, Jerusalem, Sur, Alexandria, Cairo, Luxor, Antioch, Beirut, Fars, Mosul
  others Farsi, Aramaic/Syriac, Copt, Hebrew, Turkish, many others
Sunni Islam
  others Shi'a Islam, other variants of Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism
Demonym Islamic
Area ?? pixels (?? sq km) km²
Population ?? 
Independence from Mamluk Sultanate
Oman Aq Qoyunlu and many others
Annexation to Mahdinate (UNDER CONSTRUCTION)
Currency Dinar


Marwan III (ruled 1470-1505) was the first ruler of the Caliphate. Originating in the Hashemite clan and being born around 1440, he was raised in a rich and powerful family. He gained a lot of influence throughout his younger years due to his charismatic self and was able to seize control of the Hijaz in 1462. By 1465 all of the Asian portion of the Mamluk Sultanate fell in a civil war and eventually caused his rise to power within the Sultanate. From this strong centre of government, he was able to spread into most of the Muslim world. The Hashemite Caliphate became the first nation since the Abassids to control most of said religion.

However, some of his more peripheral dominions changed and either expanded or contracted throughout Marwan's reign. Algiers was lost soon after Caliphal union, as was, for a short while, the Crimea. This redirected the Caliph's focus towards expansion. Georgia was invaded and conquered, and Trebizond and the Anatolian soon became vassals or were integrated in the Caliphate. Crimea, and the Cossack Hetmanate, were conquered and annexed (something that would prove a starting point of tension with the Christian world, especially Russia. The west also started brawling against the Caliphate with the building of forts by the Byzantine Empire in the border on Thrace.

War grew between Christianity and Islam, and in the year of 1491, the Caliph declared war on Byzantium. This war spread for over ten years and was very catastrophic for both sides, especially for the Maghrebi province; eventually, the war ended in a very marginal Caliphal victory, with some territories (mostly enclaves, with most enclave territories but Cape Alfons being annexed by the Caliph). A brief recurrence in which an independent Byzantine Empire attempted to regain Constantinople ended in a finalising truce within the year, in which very little land was exchanged, and a 20-year vigent non-aggression treaty was signed.

  • Starting the Caliphate
  • War for Georgia
  • Gujurat led invasion of Sind
  • Cossack Invasion
  • Putting down the Crimean Revolt
  • The First Great Holy War

Muhammad I (or Muhammad ibn Marwan) reigned from 1509 to 1537 after Marwan III's death due to a sickness.

After Muhammad I's death, Muhammad II (or Muhammad ibn Muhammad), aged just nine, was crowned as Caliph, although while Muhammad grew and gained an education, the nation was actually ruled by a regency. The regency rulers though were corrupt and greedily indulged themselves on the riches of the Caliphate.

In 1549 Muhammad ibn Muhammad declared himself to be Caliph after completing military school and now being old enough to rule himself. However the regency leader Vizier Abu ad-Din Yahya-Mustansir has Caliph Muhammad arrested and he declares himself to be Caliph. Caliph Abu ad-Din Yahya-Muhammad, first Caliph of the Mustansir dynasty, tries to impose his rule over the Caliphate but the supporters of Caliph Muhammad break him out of jail and a civil war starts between the two Caliphs.

The Caliphate civil war (1549-) followed mainly the battle between Caliph Muhammad and Caliph Abu, but in the northern province of Circassia, the religious tensions between Christians and Muslims boils over into riots and an extreme Islamic group called the Salafi Jihadis emerges as they declare both of the Caliphs to be corrupt and not truly Islamic, so their leader declares himself to be the true Caliph. Caliph Sunnah ibn Anas manages to build himself a sizeable empire, killing many Christians and non-Muslims, bringing massive destruction to the northern Caliphate provinces.

The civil war also saw a rebellion by the Bedouin tribes against the Caliphate's rule over them, though this was quickly defeated by Caliph Muhammad after Caliph Abu was defeated in 1551. With the Bedouin rebels and Caliph Abu defeated, Caliph Muhammad's armies turned to face the Salafi Jihadis of Caliph Sunnah. After another year of fighting, Caliph Sunnah surrenders in 1552 and is executed.

However in 1551 a new threat, in the form of a revolt in India emerges as the powerful General Ranchood starts a coup to take over the Caliphate's Indian provinces in the hope of establishing a new powerful Indian Sultanate - the Sultanate of Bharat. Caliph Muhammad's army arrived in India in 1553 to help loyal Indian Caliphate forces defeat General Ranchood's army, and in 1554, General Ranchood was defeated.

  • Adal-Ethiopia war intervention
  • Timurid invasion
  • The Mahdi
  • The rise of Mahdi Islam
  • Mahdi's first invasion - Byzantium
  • The invasion of Russia
  • The invasion of Adal
  •  The invasion of Funj
  •  The invasion of Morocco
  • The invasion of Venice/Sicily  
  •  The invasion of the Balkans (Serbia, Transylvania, Bosnia, etc.)
  • The invasion of Germany  
  • Collapse of the Caliphate

The Caliph

The Caliph is the head of state for the Caliphate and he is the Divine ruler of this land, the Shadow of God on Earth, has the power to make all laws, provided they do not contradict the word of God. A list of Caliph's of the Hashemite Caliphate is listed below:

  • Caliph Marwan III 1466 - 1509
  • Caliph Muhammad ibn Marwan 1509 - 1537
  • Caliph Muhammad ibn Muhammad 1537 - 1575
    • Regency period of Caliph Muhammad ibn Muhammad's reign: 1537-1549
    • The during the Caliphate civil war as one of the 3 Caliphs: 1549-1522
    • As Mahdi: 1566-1575

The Caliph's full title

His Imperial Majesty,

Sultan of Sultans,

The Shadow of God on Earth,

Shah of Shah,

Caliph of the Muslim World, and

Protector of the 3 cities of Jerusalem, Medina and Mecca. King of Circassia, Anatolia, Rumelia, Dulkadir, Ramazan, Karaman, Candar, Dimurats, and India. Ruler of Baghdad, Cairo, Tunis, Algiers, Constantinople, Edirne, Moscow, Novogorod and Warsaw. The Caesar of Wallachia, Russia and Poland. The Emir of Alodia, Trebizond. Khan of Crimea, Bukhara, Mangyastau, Turkistan, Xwarezm, Aqmola, Siberia, Kazan and Nogai. Shah of Qoyunlu. Sultan of Oman, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Hejaz, Tripolitania, Tunisia, Yemen, Hadramut, Afghanistan and Balochistan.



Map of the Caliphate's provinces

Several territories were made out of the nations that joined to make the Caliphate. As the original nations grew stronger, the Caliphate expanded by invasion, vassalization, alliances and annexation of allied states.

Formerly Qoyunluu territories

  • East Qoyunlu
  • West Qoyunlu
  • Mesopotamia
  • Persia

Formerly Mamluk territories

  • Egypt
  • Syria
  • Palestine
  • Hijaz
  • Holy City of Mecca
  • Holy City of Medina
  • Hadramaut
  • Yemen

Formerly Omani Territories

  • Oman
  • Shaybah

Former Ottoman Territories

  • Anatolia
  • Rumelia
  • Wallachia

Other Territories

  • Tunis
  • Tripolitania
  • Nejd
  • Gidyd Makkah (New Mecca, colony on Nahr al-Hashem or River of Hashem)

Provinces in the Hashemite Caliphate

The Holy cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are administered directly by the Caliph himself. These three cities are not provinces but rather special administrative areas.


The provinces of the Mahdiate at its greatest extent just before it broke up

​#56 Provinces

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