|Regions with significant populations|
According to a 2016 estimate, out of the 176,000,000 people living in Han, 174,240,000 (99% of Han residents) are ethnic Han. This state of ethnic homogeneity can be attributed to strict immigration laws and has been a source of ethno-national pride.
Despite the fact that Han population growth hovered at 3% annually during the fifties, Han today has an ageing population thanks to a sub-replacement fertility rate, which just stands at an estimated average of between 1.4–1.6 births per woman. This is well below 2.1 births per woman needed to sustain the population. This rapid decline is attributed to a two-child policy implemented in the sixties, and increased education attainment levels. It is projected that within a little more than a decade, the Han population will level off and begin its decline.
Citizenship is determined through the jus sanguinis (right of blood) doctrine, in which children at birth automatically receive Han citizenship if at least one biological or adoptive parent is of partial or full Han ancestry, regardless of allegiance, culture, or place of birth. Due to nationalism, dual citizenship has only been recognised since the eighties. Those with dual citizenship are prevented from obtaining higher political posts or offices, unless they renounce their dual citizenship in favour of Han citizenship. All Han citizens have the right to renounce their citizenship in favour of another, but may not re-obtain Han citizenship within less than a year of the change.
The Han government has been criticised for its strict immigration laws, which has deterred immigration and allowed it to keep its ethnic homogeneity. Those of full foreign ancestry, without any Han ancestry, could not receive Han citizenship. However, recently, there has been proposals to allow people of foreign ancestry to receive Han citizenship under very specific terms and conditions as well as undergoing the required process of naturalisation.
Han is the official language of Hani, with nearly all of its population having the ability to speak it fluently. It is widely considered to have three highly distinct dialects, though some sources consider the dialects as distinct languages. The official global regulatory body of the Han language is the Commission on the Han language, which governs the proper usage of the Han language. There is a total 194 million speakers of the Han language worldwide.
While the homeland of the Han, Hani, is a secular state with the separation of church and state and the freedom of religion doctrines being incorporated into the constitution; this has not prevented Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism leaving a heavy influence on Han culture as it stems primarily from concepts centred on things such as things such as Confucian values and work ethic.
The most practiced religion by Han is Buddhism, which was introduced by Chinese and Japanese missionaries. The most common branch is Mahayana Buddhism, with the most practiced sect of it being amidism. Other practiced branches are Theravada Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Christianity is the second largest religion, a legacy from its time as an American protectorate. Catholicism and Protestanism make up the largest churches in Hani. The Catholic branch is dominated by the Roman Catholic denomination, while the Protestant branch is dominated by the Presbyterian denomination, followed by Evangelicalism and the Baptist tradition.
The plurality of Han has described themselves as being either spiritual but not religious, irreligious, agnostic, and/or atheist, a percentage declining as a result of a revival in Buddhism and Christian missionary efforts.