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Greece, also known as Hellas and officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía, is a country in southeastern Europe. The republic is the successor state of the Kingdom of Greece after the Third Balkan War.
Greece has land borders with Serbia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of mainland Greece, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Greece features vast number of islands (approximately 1400, of which 227 are inhabited), including Cyprus (9251 sq km), Crete (8336 sq km), the Dodecanese (2714 sq km), the Cyclades (2572 sq km), and the Ionian Islands (2307 sq km) among others.
According to the national constitution, Hellenic Republic is follows:
- The executive power is in charge of a President of the Republic, Head of State, elected by the National Assembly for a five year term and eligible for reelection. He is also Commander in Chief of the Greek Armed Forces. He promulgates all laws and has suspensive veto. The government is in charge of President of the Council of Ministers and its Council. They are appointed by the National Assembly on proposal of the President.
- National Assembly, is the supreme legislative and constituent power of the Republic. It is organized in two chambers the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber is made up of 200-300 members elected for a four-year term by direct, secret and universal ballot. The Senate is composed of 120 members elected for a nine-year term, but is renewed every three years by 1/3. they are elected on the basis of regional representation.
- There are three categories of courts: civil courts, penal courts and administrative courts. The supreme court of the civil and penal justice is the Court of Causation, while the supreme court of the administrative justice is the Supreme Administrative Court.
Suffrage is given to all citizens over 21 years old, men and women, and can read and write. Non citizens are all the descent of the former royal household, who are also ineligible to any elected or governmental position.
Greece is divided in departments, prefectures, communities and municipalities. The prefectures (Greek: νομοί, sing. νομός) are the country's main administrative unit.
Mount Athos is an autonomous community. As stated in the Constitution "following ancient privilege", Mount Athos is "a self-governed part of the Greek State, whose sovereignty thereon shall remain intact".