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Greece (Cherry, Plum, and Chrysanthemum)

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Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Timeline: Cherry, Plum, and Chrysanthemum

OTL equivalent: Greece
Flag of Greece (1822-1978) Coat of arms of Greece (1924–1935)
Flag Emblem

Motto
Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος (Greek)
("Freedom or Death")

Anthem "Ýmnos is tin Eleftherían"
Capital
(and largest city)
Athens
Language Greek
Religion Orthodox Christianity; Islam
Demonym Greek; Hellenic
Government Unitary state; Parliamentary republic
  legislature Parliament of Greece
Established March 25, 1924
Independence from the Ottoman Empire
  declared January 1, 1822
  recognized February 3, 1830
Currency Greek drachma
Greece (Greek: Ελλάδα Elláda), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Ellīnikî Dīmokratía), is a country located in Southeastern Europe with population is slightly less than 11 million. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, its metropolitan area also including the municipality of Piraeus. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa and has land borders with Albania and Serbia to the north. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of mainland Greece, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

History

Greek War of Independence (1821–1832)

Naval Battle of Navarino by Garneray

Ottoman fleet set ablaze by the Great Powers vessels during the Battle of Navarino, October, 20 1827.

In the early months of 1821, the Greeks launched the revolution against the Ottoman Empire in the Danubian Principalities, the Peloponnese, Crete, Macedonia and Central Greece and declared the independence of Greece. However, tensions soon developed among different Greek factions due to the lack of a strong central leadership and guidance, leading to two consecutive civil wars. After the prolongation of the fight between the Greek factions, the Great Powers (the Russian Empire, the United Kingdom and France) decided to intervene in the conflict and each nation sent a navy to Greece.
Kapodistrias2

Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776–1831), the founder of the modern Greek state

In 1827, the Third Greek National Assembly at Troezen established the Hellenic State and elected the most illustrious Greek-born politician in Europe, the former foreign minister of Russia, Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, as the first head of state of Greece with the title of Governor or Kyvernetes. After his arrival in Greece in January 1828, Kapodistrias launched a major reform and modernization programs that covered all areas. He also tried to create a functional state and undermine the authority of the traditional clans, but was soon embroiled in conflict with powerful local magnates and chieftains.

Initially in 1828, the Great Powers proposed Greece to be an autonomous state within the Ottoman Empire's suzerainty. However, in 1830, Greece was agreed to become an independent state ruled by a monarch under the joint protection of Great Powers. Nevertheless, with the assassination of Kapodistrias by his political rivals in 1831 and the failure of Great Powers to find a candidate for the throne of Greece, the plan was only able to realize in 1832 when Prince Otto of Bavaria was selected as the new monarch of Greece. The modern Greek state was established in 1832 with the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople, which set the boundaries of Greece at the Arta–Volos line.

Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924)

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